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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507134

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intensive screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers aims to improve breast cancer (BC) prognosis. Our aim is to clarify the prognostic impact of tumor size in BRCA mutation carriers with a pT1 BC, which is currently unclear. We are especially interested in differences between pT1a, pT1b, and pT1c regarding the prognosis of node-negative breast cancer, the effect of chemotherapy, and the prevalence of lymph node involvement. METHODS: For this study, BRCA1/2-associated BC patients were selected from a nationwide cohort. Primary outcomes were 10-year overall survival (OS) per pT1a-b-c group and the effect of chemotherapy on prognosis of node-negative BC, using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. Finally, we evaluated lymph node involvement per pT1a-b-c group. RESULTS: 963 women with pT1 BRCA1/2-associated BC diagnosed between 1990 and 2017 were included, of which 679 had pN0 BC. After a median follow-up of 10.5 years, 10-year OS in patients without chemotherapy was 77.1% in pT1cN0 and lower than for pT1aN0 (91.4%, p = 0.119) and pT1bN0 (90.8%, p = 0.024). OS was better with than without chemotherapy for pT1cN0 (91.6% vs. 77.1%, p = 0.001; hazard ratio (HR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-1.48). Lymph node involvement was 24.9% in pT1c, 18.8% in pT1b, and 8.6% in pT1a. CONCLUSION: Smaller tumor size is associated with better OS and less lymph node involvement in pT1 BRCA1/2-associated BC patients. The results suggest that early detection in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers of pT1a/b BC may reduce mortality and the need for systemic therapy.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(4)2022 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-genetic healthcare professionals can provide pre-test counseling and order germline genetic tests themselves, which is called mainstream genetic testing. In this systematic review, we determined whether mainstream genetic testing was feasible in daily practice while maintaining quality of genetic care. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsychINFO were searched for articles describing mainstream genetic testing initiatives in cancer care. RESULTS: Seventeen articles, reporting on 15 studies, met the inclusion criteria. Non-genetic healthcare professionals concluded that mainstream genetic testing was possible within the timeframe of a routine consultation. In 14 studies, non-genetic healthcare professionals completed some form of training about genetics. When referral was coordinated by a genetics team, the majority of patients carrying a pathogenic variant were seen for post-test counseling by genetic healthcare professionals. The number of days between cancer diagnosis and test result disclosure was always lower in the mainstream genetic testing pathway than in the standard genetic testing pathway (e.g., pre-test counseling at genetics department). CONCLUSIONS: Mainstream genetic testing seems feasible in daily practice with no insurmountable barriers. A structured pathway with a training procedure is desirable, as well as a close collaboration between genetics and other clinical departments.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 162(3): 772-785.e4, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: To successfully implement imaging-based pancreatic cancer (PC) surveillance, understanding the timeline and morphologic features of neoplastic progression is key. We aimed to investigate the progression to neoplasia from serial prediagnostic pancreatic imaging tests in high-risk individuals and identify factors associated with successful early detection. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the development of pancreatic abnormalities in high-risk individuals who were diagnosed with PC or underwent pancreatic surgery, or both, in 16 international surveillance programs. RESULTS: Of 2552 high-risk individuals under surveillance, 28 (1%) developed neoplastic progression to PC or high-grade dysplasia during a median follow-up of 29 months after baseline (interquartile range [IQR], 40 months). Of these, 13 of 28 (46%) presented with a new lesion (median size, 15 mm; range 7-57 mm), a median of 11 months (IQR, 8; range 3-17 months) after a prior examination, by which time 10 of 13 (77%) had progressed beyond the pancreas. The remaining 15 of 28 (54%) had neoplastic progression in a previously detected lesion (12 originally cystic, 2 indeterminate, 1 solid), and 11 (73%) had PC progressed beyond the pancreas. The 12 patients with cysts had been monitored for 21 months (IQR, 15 months) and had a median growth of 5 mm/y (IQR, 8 mm/y). Successful early detection (as high-grade dysplasia or PC confined to the pancreas) was associated with resection of cystic lesions (vs solid or indeterminate lesions (odds ratio, 5.388; 95% confidence interval, 1.525-19.029) and small lesions (odds ratio, 0.890/mm; 95% confidence interval 0.812-0.976/mm). CONCLUSIONS: In nearly half of high-risk individuals developing high-grade dysplasia or PC, no prior lesions are detected by imaging, yet they present at an advanced stage. Progression can occur before the next scheduled annual examination. More sensitive diagnostic tools or a different management strategy for rapidly growing cysts are needed.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Conduta Expectante , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Endossonografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Pâncreas/patologia , Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisto Pancreático/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Carga Tumoral
4.
Gynecol Oncol ; 164(1): 221-230, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histology restricted genetic predisposition testing of ovarian carcinoma patients is a topic of debate as the prevalence of BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants (PVs) in various histological subtypes is ambiguous. Our primary aim was to investigate the proportion of germline BRCA1/2 PVs per histological subtype. Additionally, we evaluated (i) proportion of somatic BRCA1/2 PVs and (ii) proportion of germline PVs in other ovarian carcinoma risk genes. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were systematically searched and we included all studies reporting germline BRCA1/2 PVs per histological subtype. Pooled proportions were calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Subsets of studies were used for secondary analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies were identified. The overall estimated proportion of germline BRCA1/2 PVs was 16.8% (95% CI 14.6 to 19.2). Presence differed substantially among patients with varying histological subtypes of OC; proportions being highest in high-grade serous (22.2%, 95% CI 19.6 to 25.0) and lowest in clear cell (3.0%, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.6) and mucinous (2.5%, 95% CI 0.6 to 9.6) carcinomas. Somatic BRCA1/2 PVs were present with total estimated proportion of 6.0% (95% CI 5.0 to 7.3), based on a smaller subset of studies. Germline PVs in BRIP1, RAD51C, RAD51D, PALB2, and ATM were present in approximately 3%, based on a subset of nine studies. CONCLUSION: Germline BRCA1/2 PVs are most frequently identified in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma patients, but are also detected in patients having ovarian carcinomas of other histological subtypes. Limiting genetic predisposition testing to high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma patients will likely be insufficient to identify all patients with a germline PV.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos
5.
Breast ; 61: 98-107, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929424

RESUMO

AIM: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with primary breast cancer (PBC) are at high risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). In a nationwide cohort, we investigated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents given for PBC on CBC risk separately in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers with an invasive PBC diagnosis from 1990 to 2017 were selected from a Dutch cohort. We estimated cumulative CBC incidence using competing risks analysis. Hazard ratios (HR) for the effect of neo-adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and different chemotherapeutic agents on CBC risk were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: We included 1090 BRCA1 and 568 BRCA2 mutation carriers; median follow-up was 8.9 and 8.4 years, respectively. Ten-year cumulative CBC incidence for treatment with and without chemotherapy was 6.7% [95%CI: 5.1-8.6] and 16.7% [95%CI: 10.8-23.7] in BRCA1 and 4.8% [95%CI: 2.7-7.8] and 16.0% [95%CI: 9.3-24.4] in BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. Chemotherapy was associated with reduced CBC risk in BRCA1 (multivariable HR: 0.46, 95%CI: 0.29-0.74); a similar trend was observed in BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.29-1.39). In BRCA1, risk reduction was most pronounced in the first 5 years (HR: 0.32, 95%CI: 0.17-0.61). Anthracyclines and the combination of anthracyclines with taxanes were associated with substantial CBC risk reduction in BRCA1 carriers (HR: 0.34, 95%CI: 0.17-0.68 and HR: 0.22, 95%CI: 0.08-0.62, respectively). CONCLUSION: Risk-reducing effects of chemotherapy are substantial for at least 5 years and may be used in personalised CBC risk prediction in any case for BRCA1 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
6.
Fam Cancer ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617209

RESUMO

According to current guidelines, all women with epithelial ovarian cancer are eligible for genetic testing for BRCA germline pathogenic variants. Unfortunately, not all affected women are tested. We evaluated the acceptability and feasibility for non-genetic healthcare professionals to incorporate germline genetic testing into their daily practice. We developed and implemented a mainstreaming pathway, including a training module, in collaboration with various healthcare professionals and patient organizations. Healthcare professionals from 4 different hospitals were invited to participate. After completing the training module, gynecologic oncologists, gynecologists with a subspecialty training in oncology, and nurse specialists discussed and ordered genetic testing themselves. They received a questionnaire before completing the training module and 6 months after working according to the new pathway. We assessed healthcare professionals' attitudes, perceived knowledge, and self-efficacy, along with the feasibility of this new mainstream workflow in clinical practice, and evaluated the use and content of the training module. The participation rate for completing the training module was 90% (N = 19/21). At baseline and after 6 months, healthcare professionals had a positive attitude, high perceived knowledge and high self-efficacy toward discussing and ordering genetic testing. Knowledge had increased significantly after 6 months. The training module was rated with an average of 8.1 out of 10 and was considered useful. The majority of healthcare professionals (9/15) was able to discuss a genetic test in five to 10 min. After completion of a training module, non-genetic healthcare professionals feel motivated and competent to discuss and order genetic testing themselves.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069790

RESUMO

Adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is a rare ovarian cancer subtype, with a peak incidence around 50-55 years. Although AGCT can occur in specific syndromes, a genetic predisposition for AGCT has not been identified. The aim of this study is to identify a genetic variant in families with AGCT patients, potentially contributing to tumor evolution. We identified four families, each including two women diagnosed with AGCT. Whole-genome sequencing was performed to identify overlapping germline variants or affected genes. Familial relationship was evaluated using genealogy and genomic analyses. Patient characteristics, medical (family) history, and pedigrees were collected. Findings were compared to a reference group of 33 unrelated AGCT patients. Mean age at diagnosis was 38 years (range from 17 to 60) versus 51 years in the reference group, and seven of eight patients were premenopausal. In two families, three first degree relatives were diagnosed with breast cancer. Furthermore, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility was reported in three families. Predicted deleterious variants in PIK3C2G, BMP5, and LRP2 were identified. In conclusion, AGCTs occur in families and could potentially be hereditary. In these families, the age of AGCT diagnosis is lower and cases of breast cancer, PCOS, and subfertility are present. We could not identify an overlapping genetic variant or affected locus that may explain a genetic predisposition for AGCT.

8.
Breast ; 58: 80-87, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an underuse of genetic testing in breast cancer patients with a lower level of education, limited health literacy or a migrant background. We aimed to study the effect of a health literacy training program for surgical oncologists and specialized nurses on disparities in referral to genetic testing. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in a quasi-experimental pre-post (intervention) design. The intervention consisted of an online module and a group training for surgical oncologists and specialized nurses in three regions in the Netherlands. Six months pre- and 12 months post intervention, clinical geneticists completed a checklist with socio-demographic characteristics including the level of health literacy of each referred patient. We conducted univariate and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the training program on disparities in referral to genetic testing. RESULTS: In total, 3179 checklists were completed, of which 1695 were from hospital referrals. No significant differences were found in educational level, level of health literacy and migrant background of patients referred for genetic testing by healthcare professionals working in trained hospitals before (n = 795) and after (n = 409) the intervention. The mean age of patients referred by healthcare professionals from trained hospitals was significantly lower after the intervention (52.0 vs. 49.8, P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that the health literacy training program did not decrease disparities in referral to genetic testing. Future research in a more controlled design is needed to better understand how socio-demographic factors influence referral to breast cancer genetic testing and what other factors might contribute.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Letramento em Saúde , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Oncologistas , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
9.
Gut ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the long-term yield of pancreatic cancer surveillance in hereditary predisposed high-risk individuals. DESIGN: From 2006 to 2019, we prospectively enrolled asymptomatic individuals with an estimated 10% or greater lifetime risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) after obligatory evaluation by a clinical geneticist and genetic testing, and subjected them to annual surveillance with both endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and MRI/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) at each visit. RESULTS: 366 individuals (201 mutation-negative familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) kindreds and 165 PDAC susceptibility gene mutation carriers; mean age 54 years, SD 9.9) were followed for 63 months on average (SD 43.2). Ten individuals developed PDAC, of which four presented with a symptomatic interval carcinoma and six underwent resection. The cumulative PDAC incidence was 9.3% in the mutation carriers and 0% in the FPC kindreds (p<0.001). Median PDAC survival was 18 months (range 1-32). Surgery was performed in 17 individuals (4.6%), whose pathology revealed 6 PDACs (3 T1N0M0), 7 low-grade precursor lesions, 2 neuroendocrine tumours <2 cm, 1 autoimmune pancreatitis and in 1 individual no abnormality. There was no surgery-related mortality. EUS detected more solid lesions than MRI/MRCP (100% vs 22%, p<0.001), but less cystic lesions (42% vs 83%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic yield of PDAC was substantial in established high-risk mutation carriers, but non-existent in the mutation-negative proven FPC kindreds. Nevertheless, timely identification of resectable lesions proved challenging despite the concurrent use of two imaging modalities, with EUS outperforming MRI/MRCP. Overall, surveillance by imaging yields suboptimal results with a clear need for more sensitive diagnostic markers, including biomarkers.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(9): 1203-1211, 2021 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer (EC) risk in BReast CAncer gene 1/2 (BRCA1/2) mutation carriers is uncertain; therefore, we assessed this in a large Dutch nationwide cohort study. METHODS: We selected 5980 BRCA1/2 (3788 BRCA1, 2151 gBRCA2, 41 both BRCA1/BRCA2) and 8451 non-BRCA1/2 mutation carriers from the Hereditary Breast and Ovarian cancer study, the Netherlands cohort. Follow-up started at the date of the nationwide Dutch Pathology Registry coverage (January 1, 1989) or at the age of 25 years (whichever came last) and ended at date of EC diagnosis, last follow-up, or death (whichever came first). EC risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers was compared with 1) the general population, estimating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) based on Dutch population-based incidence rates; and 2) non-BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, using Cox-regression analyses, expressed as hazard ratio (HR). Statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Fifty-eight BRCA1/2 and 33 non-BRCA1/2 mutation carriers developed EC over 119 296 and 160 841 person-years, respectively (SIR = 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.18 to 3.65; and HR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.53 to 3.69, respectively). gBRCA1 mutation carriers showed increased risks for EC overall (SIR = 3.51, 95% CI = 2.61 to 4.72; HR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.83 to 4.66), serous-like EC (SIR = 12.64, 95% CI = 7.62 to 20.96; HR = 10.48, 95% CI = 2.95 to 37.20), endometrioid EC (SIR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.80 to 3.83; HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.18 to 3.45), and TP53-mutated EC (HR = 15.71, 95% CI = 4.62 to 53.40). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, overall (SIR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.01 to 2.87) and serous-like EC risks (SIR = 5.11, 95% CI = 1.92 to 13.63) were increased compared with the general population. Absolute risks by 75 years remained low (overall EC = 3.0%; serous-like EC = 1.1%). CONCLUSIONS: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have a two- to threefold increased risk for EC, with highest risk observed for the rare subgroups of serous-like and p53-abnormal EC in BRCA1 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Germinativas , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação
11.
Hered Cancer Clin Pract ; 19(1): 9, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CHEK2 has been recognized as a breast cancer risk gene with moderate effect. Women who have previously tested negative for a BRCA1/2 gene germline pathogenic variant may benefit from additional genetic testing for the CHEK2 c.1100del pathogenic variant. The aims of this study were: 1) to assess the uptake of an active approach by recontacting BRCA1/2-negative women for additional CHEK2 c.1100del testing on stored DNA-samples and 2) to explore patients' experiences with this approach. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2017, women who had been tested earlier negative for BRCA1/2 germline pathogenic variants, were recontacted for additional CHEK2 c.1100del testing on stored DNA-samples, free-of-charge. They received an information letter about the CHEK2 pathogenic variant and could return an informed consent form when they opted for additional genetic testing. Those in whom the CHEK2 pathogenic variant was absent, received a letter describing this result. Those who tested positive, were invited for a personal counseling at the department of genetics. On average 21 months (range 4-27) after the genetic test result, a questionnaire was sent to all identified carriers and a control group of women who tested negative for the pathogenic variant to explore patients' experiences with our approach. RESULTS: In total, 70% (N = 1666) of the N = 2377 women contacted opted for additional testing, and 66 (4%) of them proved to be carriers of the CHEK2 c.1100del pathogenic variant. Regardless of the outcome of the genetic test, women were generally satisfied with our approach and reported that the written information was sufficient to make an informed decision about the additional CHEK2 testing. CONCLUSIONS: The uptake (70%) of our approach was considered satisfactory. Patients considered the benefits more important than the psychosocial burden. Given the rapid developments in DNA-diagnostics, our findings may support future initiatives to recontact patients about additional genetic testing when they previously tested negative for a pathogenic variant in a breast cancer gene.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 428-439, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
13.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e24414, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are recommended to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) at 35 to 45 years of age. RRSO substantially decreases ovarian cancer risk, but at the cost of immediate menopause. Knowledge about the potential adverse effects of premenopausal RRSO, such as increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cognitive dysfunction, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL), is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO on cardiovascular disease, bone health, cognitive functioning, urological complaints, sexual functioning, and HRQoL in women with high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: We will conduct a multicenter cross-sectional study with prospective follow-up, nested in a nationwide cohort of women at high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. A total of 500 women who have undergone RRSO before 45 years of age, with a follow-up period of at least 10 years, will be compared with 250 women (frequency matched on current age) who have not undergone RRSO or who have undergone RRSO at over 55 years of age. Participants will complete an online questionnaire on lifestyle, medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, osteoporosis, cognitive function, urological complaints, and HRQoL. A full cardiovascular assessment and assessment of bone mineral density will be performed. Blood samples will be obtained for marker analysis. Cognitive functioning will be assessed objectively with an online neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: This study was approved by the institutional review board in July 2018. In February 2019, we included our first participant. As of November 2020, we had enrolled 364 participants in our study. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge from this study will contribute to counseling women with a high familial risk of breast/ovarian cancer about the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO. The results can also be used to offer health recommendations after RRSO. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03835793; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03835793. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24414.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 29(5): 789-799, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437034

RESUMO

Uncertainty is increasingly discussed during genetic counseling due to innovative techniques, e.g., multigene panel testing. Discussions about uncertainty may impact counselees variably, depending on counselors' communication styles. Ideally, the discussion of uncertainty enables counselees to cope with uncertainty and make well-informed decisions about testing. We examined the impact of how counselors convey uncertainty and address counselees' uncertainty, and explored the role of individual characteristics. Therefore, a randomized controlled experiment using videos was conducted. Former counselees (N = 224) viewed one video depicting a genetic consultation about multigene panel testing. The extent of counselors' communication of uncertainty (comprehensive vs. the essence) and their response to counselees' uncertainty expressions (providing information vs. providing space for emotions vs. normalizing and counterbalancing uncertainty) were systematically manipulated. Individual characteristics, e.g., uncertainty tolerance, were assessed, as well as outcome variables (primary outcomes: feelings of uncertainty and information recall). No effects were found on primary outcomes. Participants were most satisfied when the essence was communicated, combined with providing information or providing space responses (p = 0.002). Comprehensive information resulted in less perceived steering toward testing (p = 0.005). Participants with lower uncertainty tolerance or higher trait anxiety were less confident about their understanding when receiving comprehensive information (p = 0.025). Participants seeking information experienced less uncertainty (p = 0.003), and trusted their counselor more (p = 0.028), when the counselor used information providing responses. In sum, the impact of discussing uncertainty primarily depends on individual characteristics. Practical guidelines should address how to tailor the discussion of uncertainty.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Incerteza , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Satisfação do Paciente , Revelação da Verdade
15.
J Community Genet ; 12(1): 101-110, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880035

RESUMO

Individuals having a genetic predisposition to cancer and their partners face challenging decisions regarding their wish to have children. This study aimed to determine the effects of an online decision aid to support couples in making an informed decision regarding their reproductive options. A nationwide pretest-posttest study was conducted in the Netherlands among 131 participants between November 2016 and May 2018. Couples were eligible for participation if one partner had a pathogenic variant predisposing for an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome. Participants completed a questionnaire before use (T0), and at 3 months (T3) after use of the decision aid to assess the primary outcome measure informed decision-making, and the secondary outcome measures decisional conflict, knowledge, realistic expectations, level of deliberation, and decision self-efficacy. T0-T3 comparisons show an overall positive effect for all outcome measures (all ps < 0.05; knowledge (ES = - 1.05), decisional conflict (ES = 0.99), participants' decision self-efficacy (ES = -0.55), level of deliberation (ES = - 0.50), and realistic expectations (ES = - 0.44). Informed decision-making increased over time and 58.0% of the participants made an informed reproductive decision at T3. The online decision aid seems to be an appropriate tool to complement standard reproductive counseling to support our target group in making an informed reproductive decision. Use of the decision aid may lessen the negative psychological impact of decision-making on couples' daily life and wellbeing.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(3): 441-449, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082203

RESUMO

Women identified with an increased risk of breast cancer due to mutations in cancer susceptibility genes or a familial history of breast cancer undergo tailored screening with the goal of detecting tumors earlier, when potential curative interventions are still possible. Ideally, screening would identify signs of carcinogenesis even before a tumor is detectable by imaging. This could be achieved by timely signaling of altered biomarker levels for precancerous processes in liquid biopsies. Currently, the Nipple Aspirate Fluid (NAF) and the Trial Early Serum Test BREAST cancer (TESTBREAST), both ongoing, prospective, multicenter studies, are investigating biomarkers in liquid biopsies to improve breast cancer screening in high-risk women. The NAF study focuses on changes over time in miRNA expression levels both in blood and NAF samples, whereas the TESTBREAST study analyzes changes in protein levels in blood samples at sequential interval timepoints. These within-subject changes are studied in relation to later occurrence of breast cancer using a nested case-control design. These longitudinal studies face their own challenges in execution, such as hindrances in logistics and in sample processing that were difficult to anticipate. This article offers insight into those challenges and concurrently aims to provide useful strategies for the set-up of similar studies.See related commentary by Sauter, p. 429.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Community Genet ; 12(1): 91-99, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319336

RESUMO

Access to breast cancer genetic counseling is suboptimal for patients with limited health literacy or a migrant background due to ineffective communication and lack of healthcare professionals' recommendation. This study examines the effect of a blended training program (Erfo4all) for healthcare professionals on their awareness, knowledge, and self-efficacy towards communication about genetic counseling with patients with limited health literacy or a migrant background. In total, 59 breast surgeons and specialized nurses from 16 Dutch hospitals completed an online module and group training. Knowledge, self-assessed awareness, and self-efficacy were assessed before the training and 33 participants also completed a posttest questionnaire 6 months after the training program. We also assessed the perceived applicability and relevance of the training program from healthcare professionals' perspectives. We found a significant increase in self-assessed awareness of the prevalence and impact of limited health literacy and in healthcare professionals' self-efficacy to recognize limited health literacy and to communicate effectively with patients with limited health literacy or a migrant background. We did not find an increase in knowledge score. Almost all healthcare professionals reported that they use the techniques learned in the training, such as the teach-back method and plain language, and felt more confident discussing breast cancer genetic counseling. Our results suggest that a blended training program for healthcare professionals has potential to improve their ability to communicate effectively about breast cancer genetic counseling with patients with limited health literacy or a migrant background and offers a promising way to increase the referral rate for these groups of patients.

18.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(9): 1381-1389, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729887

RESUMO

Importance: For women with a 20% or more familial risk of breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 (BRCA1, OMIM 113705; and BRCA2, OMIM 114480) or TP53 (OMIM 151623) variant, screening guidelines vary substantially, and cost-effectiveness analyses are scarce. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening strategies for women with a 20% or more familial risk for breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 or TP53 variant. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this economic evaluation, conducted from February 1, 2019, to May 25, 2020, microsimulation modeling was used to estimate costs and effectiveness on a lifetime horizon from age 25 years until death of MRI screening among a cohort of 10 million Dutch women with a 20% or more familial risk for breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 or TP53 variant. A Dutch screening setting was modeled. Most data were obtained from the randomized Familial MRI Screening (FaMRIsc) trial, which included Dutch women aged 30 to 55 years. A health care payer perspective was applied. Interventions: Several screening protocols with varying ages and intervals including those of the randomized FaMRIsc trial, consisting of the mammography (Mx) protocol (annual mammography and clinical breast examination) and the MRI protocol (annual MRI and clinical breast examination plus biennial mammography). Main Outcomes and Measures: Costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and discounted by 3%. A threshold of €22 000 (US $24 795.87) per QALY was applied. Results: This economic evaluation modeling study estimated that, on a lifetime horizon per 1000 women with the Mx protocol of the FaMRIsc trial, 346 breast cancers would be detected, and 49 women were estimated to die from breast cancer, resulting in 22 885 QALYs and total costs of €7 084 767 (US $7 985 134.61). The MRI protocol resulted in 79 additional QALYs and additional €2 657 266 (US $2 994 964.65). Magnetic resonance imaging performed only every 18 months between the ages of 35 and 60 years followed by the national screening program was considered optimal, with an ICER of €21 380 (US $24 097.08) compared with the previous nondominated strategy in the ranking, when applying the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence threshold. Annual screening alternating MRI and mammography between the ages of 35 and 60 years, followed by the national screening program, gave similar outcomes. Higher thresholds would favor annual MRI screening. The ICER was most sensitive to the unit cost of MRI and the utility value for ductal carcinoma in situ and localized breast cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that MRI screening every 18 months between the ages of 35 and 60 years for women with a family history of breast cancer is cost-effective within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence threshold for all densities. Higher thresholds would favor annual MRI screening. These outcomes support a change of current screening guidelines for this specific risk group and support MRI screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/economia , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
19.
Fam Cancer ; 19(4): 281-290, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323055

RESUMO

There is a disproportionate underuse of genetic testing in breast cancer patients from lower education or migrant background. Within these groups, communication about referral to genetic counseling appears challenging due to limited health literacy and cultural barriers. Our aim was to develop and evaluate a training program for healthcare professionals (breast surgeons and specialized nurses), to increase effective communication. We systematically developed a blended training program based on patients' and healthcare professionals' needs and preferences. Prior to the training, we assessed awareness, knowledge and self-efficacy of healthcare professionals. Acceptability and usefulness of the training program were assessed directly after the training. Healthcare professionals (n = 65) from 17 hospitals showed moderate to high awareness and knowledge about the prevalence and impact of limited health literacy. They were aware of cultural factors that influence communication. However, they did not feel confident in recognizing limited health literacy and their self-efficacy to communicate effectively with these patients was low. The training program was rated as acceptable and useful. Healthcare professionals lack confidence to effectively communicate with patients with limited health literacy or migrant background. The training program offers opportunities to improve communication about referral to breast cancer genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Comunicação , Aconselhamento Genético , Letramento em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Barreiras de Comunicação , Características Culturais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Alfabetização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Países Baixos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Oncologistas/educação , Preferência do Paciente , Assistentes Médicos/educação , Projetos Piloto , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Cirurgiões/educação , Migrantes/educação
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