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1.
Med Care ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is important to be able to estimate the anticipated net population benefit if the performance of hospitals is improved to specific standards. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to show how G-computation can be used with random effects logistic regression models to estimate the absolute reduction in the number of adverse events if the performance of some hospitals within a region was improved to meet specific standards. RESEARCH DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study using health care administrative data. SUBJECTS: Patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction in the province of Ontario in 2015. RESULTS: Of 18,067 patients hospitalized at 97 hospitals, 1441 (8.0%) died within 30 days of hospital admission. If the performance of the 25% of hospitals with the worst performance had their performance changed to equal that of the 75th percentile of hospital performance, 3.5 deaths within 30 days would be avoided [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4-26.5]. If the performance of those hospitals whose performance was worse than that of an average hospital had their performance changed to that of an average hospital, 6.0 deaths would be avoided (95% CI: 0.7-47.0). If the performance of the 75% of hospitals with the worst performance had their performance changed to equal that of the 25th percentile of hospital performance, 11.0 deaths would be avoided (95% CI: 1.2-79.0). CONCLUSION: G-computation can be used to estimate the net population reduction in the number of adverse events if the performance of hospitals was improved to specific standards.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058542

RESUMO

AIMS: Experiencing an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a life-threatening event and use of statins can reduce the probability of recurrence and improve long term survival. However, the effectiveness of statins in the real-world setting may be lower than the reported efficacy in randomized clinical trials. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether low statin treatment adherence during the year following an AMI episode associated with increased second year mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed all 54,872 AMI patients aged ≥45 years, admitted to Swedish hospitals between 2010-2012, and who survive at least one year after the AMI episode. We defined low adherence as a medication possession ratio <50% or non-use of statins. Applying inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) we investigated the association between low adherence and all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD), and non-CVD mortality during the second year.Overall 20% of the patients had low adherence during the first year, and 8% died during the second. In the IPTW analysis, low adherence was associated with an increased risk of all-cause (Absolute risk difference (ARD) =0.048, Number Need to Harm (NNH) =21, Relative Risk (RR) =1.71), CVD (ARD=0.035, NNH=29, RR = 1.62) and non-CVD mortality (ARD=0.013, NNH=77, RR = 2.17). CONCLUSION: In the real-world setting, low statin adherence during the first year after an AMI episode is associated with increased mortality during the second year. Our results reaffirm the importance of achieving a high adherence to statin treatment after suffering from an AMI.

3.
Stat Med ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043653

RESUMO

Provider profiling entails comparing the performance of hospitals on indicators of quality of care. Many common indicators of healthcare quality are binary (eg, short-term mortality, use of appropriate medications). Typically, provider profiling examines the variation in each indicator in isolation across hospitals. We developed Bayesian multivariate response random effects logistic regression models that allow one to simultaneously examine variation and covariation in multiple binary indicators across hospitals. Use of this model allows for (i) determining the probability that a hospital has poor performance on a single indicator; (ii) determining the probability that a hospital has poor performance on multiple indicators simultaneously; (iii) determining, by using the Mahalanobis distance, how far the performance of a given hospital is from that of an average hospital. We illustrate the utility of the method by applying it to 10 881 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction at 102 hospitals. We considered six binary patient-level indicators of quality of care: use of reperfusion, assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction, measurement of cardiac troponins, use of acetylsalicylic acid within 6 hours of hospital arrival, use of beta-blockers within 12 hours of hospital arrival, and survival to 30 days after hospital admission. When considering the five measures evaluating processes of care, we found that there was a strong correlation between a hospital's performance on one indicator and its performance on a second indicator for five of the 10 possible comparisons. We compared inferences made using this approach with those obtained using a latent variable item response theory model.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare early and late outcomes between redo surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) and valve-in-valve (ViV) transcatheter AVR. BACKGROUND: Published studies to date comparing redo surgical AVR (RS) with ViV transcatheter AVR for failed biological prostheses have been small and limited to early outcomes. METHODS: Clinical and administrative databases for Ontario, Canada's most populous province, were linked to obtain patients undergoing ViV and RS for failed previous biological prostheses. Propensity score matching was performed to account for differences in baseline characteristics. Early outcomes were compared using the McNemar test. Late mortality was compared between the matched groups using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A total of 558 patients undergoing intervention for failed biological prostheses between March 31, 2008, and September 30, 2017, at 11 Ontario institutions (ViV, n = 214; RS, n = 344) were included. Patients who underwent ViV were older and had more comorbidities. Propensity matching on 27 variables yielded similar groups for comparison (n = 131 pairs). Mean time from initial AVR to RS or ViV was 8.6 ± 4.4 years and 11.3 ± 4.5 years, respectively. Thirty-day mortality was significantly lower with ViV compared with RS (absolute risk difference: -7.5%; 95% confidence interval: -12.6% to -2.3%). The rates of permanent pacemaker implantation and blood transfusions were also lower with ViV, as was length of stay. Survival at 5 years was higher with ViV (76.8% vs. 66.8%; hazard ratio: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.30 to 0.99; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: ViV TAVR was associated with lower early mortality, morbidity, and length of hospital stay and with increased survival compared with RS and may be the preferred approach for the treatment of failed biological prostheses.

5.
Can J Neurol Sci ; : 1-7, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are more likely to be admitted to nursing home after stroke than men. Differences in patient characteristics and outcomes by sex after institutionalization are less understood. We examined sex differences in the characteristics and care needs of patients admitted to nursing home following stroke and their subsequent survival. METHODS: We identified patients with stroke newly admitted to nursing home between April 2011 and March 2016 in Ontario, Canada, with follow-up until March 2018 using linked administrative data. We calculated prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the primary outcomes of dependence for activities of daily living, cognitive impairment, frailty, health instability, and symptoms of depression or pain, comparing women to men. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Among 4831 patients, 60.9% were women. Compared to men, women were older (median age [interquartile range, IQR]: 84 [78, 89] vs. 80 [71, 86]), more likely to be frail (prevalence ratio 1.14, 95% CI [1.08, 1.19]), have unstable health (1.45 [1.28, 1.66]), and experience symptoms of depression (1.25 [1.11, 1.40]) or pain (1.21 [1.13, 1.30]), and less likely to have aggressive behaviors (0.87 [0.80, 0.94]). Overall median survival was 2.9 years. In a propensity-score-matched cohort, women had lower mortality than men (hazard ratio 0.85, 95% CI [0.77, 0.94]), but in the age-stratified survival analysis, the survival advantage in women was limited to those aged 75 years and older. CONCLUSIONS: Despite lower subsequent mortality, women admitted to nursing home after stroke required more care than men. Pain and depression are two treatable symptoms that disproportionately affect women.

6.
Anesthesiology ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972656

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Low socioeconomic status likely impairs many aspects of health and health careDays alive and out of hospital is a new outcome measure that assesses duration of hospitalization and readmission WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: The investigators evaluated more than 700,000 patients who had 13 types of surgeryDays alive and out of hospital in the initial postoperative months was about a quarter of a day shorter in the lowest than the highest socioeconomic quintile, adjusted for potential confounding factorsConfounder-adjusted serious complications were also more common in the lowest quintile (5% vs. 3.9%), as was mortality (0.6% vs. 0.4%) BACKGROUND:: Socioeconomic status is an important but understudied determinant of preoperative health status and postoperative outcomes. Previous work has focused on the impact of socioeconomic status on mortality, hospital stay, or complications. However, individuals with low socioeconomic status are also likely to have fewer supports to facilitate them remaining at home after hospital discharge. Thus, such patients may be less likely to return home over the short and intermediate term after major surgery. The newly validated outcome, days alive and out of hospital, may be highly suited to evaluating the impact of socioeconomic status on this postdischarge period. The study aimed to determine the association of socioeconomic status with short and intermediate term postoperative recovery as measured by days alive and out of hospital. METHODS: The authors evaluated data from 724,459 adult patients who had one of 13 elective major noncardiac surgical procedures between 2006 and 2017. Socioeconomic status was measured by median neighborhood household income (categorized into quintiles). Primary outcome was days alive and out of hospital at 30 days, while secondary outcomes included days alive and out of hospital at 90 and 180 days, and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Compared to the highest income quintile, individuals in the lowest quintile had higher unadjusted risks of postoperative complications (6,049 of 121,099 [5%] vs. 6,216 of 160,495 [3.9%]) and 30-day mortality (731 of 121,099 [0.6%] vs. 701 of 160,495 [0.4%]) and longer mean postoperative length of stay (4.9 vs. 4.4 days). From lowest to highest income quintile, the mean adjusted days alive and out of hospital at 30 days after surgery varied between 24.5 to 24.9 days. CONCLUSIONS: Low socioeconomic status is associated with fewer days alive and out of hospital after surgery. Further research is needed to examine the underlying mechanisms and develop posthospital interventions to improve postoperative recovery in patients with fewer socioeconomic resources.

8.
J Clin Anesth ; 62: 109707, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a wide variation between hospitals with respect to rates of use of postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) after major noncardiac surgery. Whether ICU care improves patient-centered outcomes remains unknown. Days alive and out of hospital (DAH) is a novel patient-centered outcome that has been validated for surgical patients. We conducted a population-based cohort study to evaluate the association of hospital-level postoperative ICU use with DAH after select major elective noncardiac surgery. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Acute hospitals in Ontario, Canada. PATIENTS: Adults aged ≥40 years who underwent lower gastrointestinal, peripheral arterial disease and nephrectomy surgery between 2006 and 2016. INTERVENTION: The main exposure was admission to ICU within 24 h after surgery. MEASUREMENT: The primary outcome was DAH at 30 days (DAH30) and secondary outcomes were DAH at 90 and 180 days (DAH90 and DAH180). Hospitals were ranked into quartiles based on the hospital-specific proportion of patients admitted to ICU within 24 h post-surgery. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical multivariable quantile regression modeling were used to assess the unadjusted and adjusted association of hospital-level ICU use with the primary and secondary outcomes for each surgical procedure. MAIN RESULTS: The cohort included 91,950 patients. Median DAH30 was 23 days for lower gastrointestinal resection, 24 days for peripheral arterial disease and 26 days for nephrectomy. Higher hospital-specific use of ICU use after surgery was not associated with improved DAH30, DAH90 or DAH180 for any surgical group. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital-specific ICU admission practice showed no association with the patient-centered outcome of DAH in select elective major noncardiac surgical procedures.

9.
Am Heart J ; 221: 84-94, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays enhance detection of lower circulating troponin concentrations, but the impact on outcomes in clinical practice is unclear. Our objective was to compare outcomes of chest pain patients discharged from emergency departments (EDs) using hs-cTn and conventional troponin (cTn) assays. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of chest pain patients aged 40-105 years who presented to an ED from April 1, 2013, to March 31, 2017, and were discharged home. We compared 30-day and 1-year outcomes of EDs that used hs-cTn versus cTn assays. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or unstable angina. Comparisons were conducted with (1) no adjustment; (2) adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and hospital characteristics; and (3) full clinical adjustment. RESULTS: Among the 394,910 patients, 62,138 (15.7%) were evaluated at hs-cTn EDs and 332,772 (84.3%) were evaluated at cTn EDs. Patients discharged from hs-cTn EDs were less likely to have diabetes, hypertension, or prior heart disease. At 30 days, the unadjusted primary outcome rate was lower in hs-cTn EDs (0.9% vs 1.0%, P < .001). The 30-day hazard ratios for the primary outcome were 0.84 (95% CI 0.77-0.92) for no adjustment and 0.98 (95% CI 0.88-1.08) for full adjustment. Over 1 year, patients discharged from hs-cTn EDs had significantly fewer primary outcomes (3.7% vs 4.1%, P < .001) and lower hazard ratio (0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.98) even after full adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Hs-cTn testing was associated with a significantly lower adjusted hazard of myocardial infarction, angina, and all-cause hospitalization at 1 year but not 30 days.

10.
Eur Heart J ; 41(1): 86-94, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733058

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypertriglyceridaemia in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has been in focus following the REDUCE-IT trial showing benefit with icosapent ethyl. Among individuals with prevalent ASCVD, we sought to quantify the contemporary, real-world risk of ASCVD events associated with hypertriglyceridaemia, as well as estimate icosapent ethyl eligibility and compare trial participants with REDUCE-IT-like individuals in the population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined data from 2 424 865 adults with lipid panels in the Ontario population. Among those with prevalent ASCVD, we examined adjusted associations between triglyceride (TG) and ASCVD events (first occurrence of myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke or transient ischaemic attack, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death). The proportion of patients with ASCVD potentially eligible for icosapent ethyl was estimated as those with TG 135-499 mg/dL (1.52-5.63 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) 41-100 mg/dL (1.06-2.59 mmol/L), similar to the lipid cut-offs in REDUCE-IT, and their demographics and event rates examined. Among 196 717 individuals with ASCVD, median age was 69 years and 30% were female. A total of 24 097 composite ASCVD events occurred over a mean (standard deviation) 2.9 (0.5) years of follow-up. Increasing TG was associated with a graded, progressively higher hazard of ASCVD events. Twenty-five percent (49 886) of individuals with ASCVD had hypertriglyceridaemia and controlled LDLc; these patients were demographically similar to those in REDUCE-IT with comparable event rates. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with ASCVD, hypertriglyceridaemia is common, and is associated with higher ASCVD risk across a range of TG. It is possible that as many as one in four patients with ASCVD may be candidates for emerging therapies.

11.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 29(1): 41-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-hospital medication review has been linked to improved outcomes after discharge, yet there is little evidence to support the use of community pharmacy-based interventions as part of transitional care. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether receipt of a postdischarge community pharmacy-based medication reconciliation and adherence review is associated with a reduced risk of death or re-admission. DESIGN: Propensity score-matched cohort study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada PARTICIPANTS: Patients over age 66 years discharged home from an acute care hospital from 1 April 2007 to 16 September 2016. EXPOSURE: MedsCheck, a publicly funded medication reconciliation and adherence review provided by community pharmacists. MAIN OUTCOME: The primary outcome was time to death or re-admission (defined as an emergency department visit or urgent rehospitalisation) up to 30 days. Secondary outcomes were the 30-day count of outpatient physician visits and time to adverse drug event. RESULTS: MedsCheck recipients had a lower risk of 30-day death or re-admission (23.4% vs 23.9%, HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.00, p=0.02), driven by a decreased risk of death (1.7% vs 2.1%, HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.86) and rehospitalisation (11.0% vs 11.4%, HR 0.96, 95% 0.93-0.99). In a post hoc sensitivity analysis with pharmacy random effects added to the propensity score model, these results were substantially attenuated. There was no significant difference in 30-day return to the emergency department (22.5% vs 22.8%, HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.01) or adverse drug events (1.5% vs 1.5%, HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.12). MedsCheck recipients had more outpatient visits (mean 2.11 vs 2.09, RR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among older adults, receipt of a community pharmacy-based medication reconciliation and adherence review was associated with a small reduced risk of short-term death or re-admission. Due to the possibility of unmeasured confounding, experimental studies are needed to clarify the relationship between postdischarge community pharmacy-based medication review and patient outcomes.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(1): e013360, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870231

RESUMO

Background There is little understanding of whether a physician's tendency to order an inappropriate cardiac service is associated with the use of other cardiac services and clinical outcomes in their patients with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results We conducted a secondary analysis of 35 Ontario-based cardiologists who participated in the control arm of the Echo WISELY (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen Significantly) trial. Transthoracic echocardiograms, ordered during the trial, were classified as rarely appropriate (rA), appropriate, or maybe appropriate on the basis of the 2011 appropriate use criteria. Cardiologists were grouped into tertiles of rA transthoracic echocardiogram ordering frequency: low ordering (bottom tertile), n=11; moderate ordering, n=12; or high ordering (top tertile), n=12. The main outcomes were measures of cardiac service use, including cardiology-related physician visits, tests, and medications. Among 1677 patients with heart failure and an outpatient visit to 1 of 35 cardiologists, we found no significant association between rA transthoracic echocardiogram ordering frequency (by tertile) and cardiac testing use, although patients of cardiologists in the high ordering group had fewer physician visits, on average, than patients seen by low ordering cardiologists. In addition, patients of cardiologists in the highest rA ordering tertile had significantly lower odds of receiving potentially effective interventions, such as ß blockers (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.89), than the low ordering group. Conclusions Although patients of cardiologists who frequently order rA transthoracic echocardiograms do not appear more (or less) likely to have subsequent cardiac tests, these patients have fewer follow-up visits and lower odds of receiving evidence-based medications. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02038101.

13.
Stat Med ; 39(2): 103-113, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660633

RESUMO

In survival analysis, time-varying covariates are covariates whose value can change during follow-up. Outcomes in medical research are frequently subject to competing risks (events precluding the occurrence of the primary outcome). We review the types of time-varying covariates and highlight the effect of their inclusion in the subdistribution hazard model. External time-dependent covariates are external to the subject, can effect the failure process, but are not otherwise involved in the failure mechanism. Internal time-varying covariates are measured on the subject, can effect the failure process directly, and may also be impacted by the failure mechanism. In the absence of competing risks, a consequence of including internal time-dependent covariates in the Cox model is that one cannot estimate the survival function or the effect of covariates on the survival function. In the presence of competing risks, the inclusion of internal time-varying covariates in a subdistribution hazard model results in the loss of the ability to estimate the cumulative incidence function (CIF) or the effect of covariates on the CIF. Furthermore, the definition of the risk set for the subdistribution hazard function can make defining internal time-varying covariates difficult or impossible. We conducted a review of the use of time-varying covariates in subdistribution hazard models in articles published in the medical literature in 2015 and in the first 5 months of 2019. Seven percent of articles published included a time-varying covariate. Several inappropriately described a time-varying covariate as having an association with the risk of the outcome.

14.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(12): e006498, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, 11% of patients seen in the emergency department for atrial fibrillation die within 1 year of the visit. Our objective was to examine the association of rapid (within 3 days), early (7 days), and basic (30 days) outpatient physician follow-up with short- and long-term outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation discharged from an emergency department. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients discharged from one of the 163 emergency departments in Ontario, Canada with a primary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, 2007 to 2014. We used a landmark analysis with propensity score matching, and logistic regression, to assess all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations at 1 year and 90 days, 30-day return emergency visits, and 1-year oral anticoagulation prescription fills. RESULTS: In the 10 657 patients with rapid follow-up care who were propensity score matched to a patient with follow-up between days 4 and 7, the hazard of a return emergency visit was reduced by 11% (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.80-0.98]). It was not associated with mortality or hospitalization. In the 17 234 patients with early follow-up who were matched to a patient with care between days 8 and 30, the rate of 1-year mortality was 11% lower (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81-0.97]) and 1-year hospitalization was 6% lower (HR, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.89-1.00]). Relative to no 30-day care, basic follow-up care was associated with an increased hazard of 90-day hospitalization (HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.12-1.56]) but was no longer associated with mortality. In patients with early follow-up, the odds of filling an oral anticoagulation prescription a year later were 64% higher than those without it (OR, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.54-1.78]). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with follow-up care between days 8 and 30, follow-up within a week after discharge from an emergency department with atrial fibrillation was associated with a reduction in the rate of death and hospitalization within 1 year, an association that was not present with 30-day follow-up.

15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 16: 74-80, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832622

RESUMO

Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one the most common elective procedures in the world. Post-operative infection is one of its most devastating complications, often necessitating multiple additional surgeries. We aimed to describe the relationship between surgical duration and risk of deep infection following primary elective TKA. Methods: In this cohort study we analyses primary TKAs done between 2009 and 2016 in Ontario, Canada. We utilized restricted cubic splines to identify a threshold of surgical duration that was associated with an increased risk for infection requiring surgery. Patients with a 'short' duration of surgery were matched to those with a 'long' duration on patient age (±3 years), patient sex, severe obesity (BMI > 40), the primary surgeon, the hospital and the type of anesthetic. Findings: In 92,343 primary TKAs, the median surgical duration was 106 min. We identified a cut-point of 100 min that was associated with an increased risk for infection. Subsequently, 17,815 TKA recipients with a 'long' procedure length were matched to those with a 'short' procedure length. 'Long' procedures had a higher rate of deep infection (1.1% versus 0.6%, p < 0.0001). This was equal to a relative risk of 1.81 (p < 0.0001). Interpretation: In a cohort of TKA recipients, we found that procedure lengths longer than 100 min were associated with a significantly increased risk of deep infection requiring surgery. This time threshold serves a useful time-point to identify patients that require closer surveillance.

16.
CMAJ ; 191(49): E1345-E1354, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with atrial fibrillation frequently seek emergency care. Rates of guideline-concordant oral anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention are suboptimal in the community. We assessed the association between prescribing of oral anticoagulants in the emergency department (relative to referral to a longitudinal care provider for treatment initiation) and long-term use of oral anticoagulants. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study performed at 15 hospitals in Ontario, Canada, involved patients aged 65 years or older who visited the emergency department between 2009 and 2014, who had a primary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, were discharged home, and were eligible for and willing to take stroke-prevention therapy. We used inverse probability-of-treatment weighting based on the propensity score to compare patients who were and were not given a prescription for an oral anticoagulant. The primary outcome was a prescription fill for an oral anticoagulant 6 months later. Secondary outcomes included a prescription fill at 1 year, all-cause mortality, and strokes or bleeding events leading to hospital admission. RESULTS: Of 2132 eligible patients, 402 (18.9%) were given a prescription for an oral anticoagulant in the emergency department. After weighting, 67.8% of these patients had filled a prescription for an oral anticoagulant at 6 months versus 37.2% of those who did not receive a prescription in the emergency department (absolute risk increase [ARI] 30.6%, number needed to treat [NNT] 3). At 1 year, the ARI was 23.2% and the NNT was 4. Rates of death, stroke and bleeding events did not differ significantly. INTERPRETATION: In patients with atrial fibrillation who were eligible for stroke prevention, prescribing an oral anticoagulant in the emergency department was associated with substantially higher long-term use of oral anticoagulants compared with deferring to the longitudinal care provider to initiate this therapy. Physicians working in the emergency department should consider initiating oral anticoagulation in eligible patients who are being discharged to home.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the early and late outcomes of endovascular versus open thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. METHODS: We performed a multicenter population-based study across the province of Ontario, Canada, from 2006 to 2017. The primary end point was mortality. Secondary end points were time to first event of a composite of mortality, permanent spinal cord injury, permanent dialysis, and stroke, the individual end points of the composite, patient disposition at discharge, hospital length of stay, myocardial infarction, and secondary procedures at follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 664 adults undergoing surgical repair of a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (endovascular: n = 303 [45.5%] vs open: n = 361 [54.5%]) were identified using an algorithm of administrative codes validated against the operative records. Propensity score matching resulted in 241 patient pairs. Endovascular repairs increased during the study and currently comprise more than 50% of total repairs. In the matched sample, open repair was associated with a higher incidence of in-hospital death (17.4% vs 10.8%, P = .04), complications (26.1% vs 17.4%, P = .02), discharge to rehabilitation facilities (18.7% vs 10.0%, P = .02), and longer length of stay (12 [7-21] vs 6 [3-13] days, P < .01). Long-term mortality was not significantly different (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.50), nor were the other secondary end points, with the exception of secondary procedures, which were higher in the endovascular group (hazard ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-4.55). At 8 years, overall survival was 41.3% versus 44.6% after endovascular and open repair (P = .62). CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular repair was associated with improved early outcomes but higher rates of secondary procedures after discharge. Long-term survival after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair is poor and independent of repair technique.

18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 885, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When young adults transfer from pediatric to adult diabetes care they are at risk for deterioration of glycemic control, putting them at an increased risk of developing both acute and chronic complications. Despite increased awareness of these risks, there are gaps in care delivery during this vulnerable time and variability in the implementation of recommended transition practice. Audit and feedback (AF) interventions have a positive but variable effect on implementation of best practices. An expert group identified specific suggestions for optimizing the effectiveness of AF interventions. We aim to test an AF-based intervention incorporating these specific suggestions to improve transition practices and glycemic control in the first year after transfer from pediatric to adult diabetes care. METHODS: This is a pragmatic quasi-experimental study; a series of three cohort studies (pre-implementation, early-implementation, and post-implementation) to compare the baseline adjusted hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the 12 months after the final pediatric visit in five pediatric diabetes centres within the Ontario Pediatric Diabetes Network in Ontario, Canada. The intervention includes three components: 1) centre-level feedback reports compiling data from chart abstraction, linked provincial administrative datasets, and patient-reported experience measures; 2) webinars for facilitated conversations/coaching about the feedback; and 3) online repository of curated transition resources for providers. The primary outcome will be analyzed using a multivariable linear regression model. We will conduct a qualitative process evaluation to understand intervention fidelity and to provide insight into the mechanisms of action of our results. DISCUSSION: There is a need to develop an innovative system-level approach to improve outcomes and the quality of care for young adults with type 1 diabetes during the vulnerable time when they transfer to adult care. Our research team, a collaboration of health services, implementation science, and quality improvement researchers, are designing, implementing, and evaluating an AF-based intervention using recommendations about how to optimize effectiveness. This knowledge will be generalizable to other care networks that aim to deliver uniformly high-quality care in diverse care settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03781973. Registered 13 December 2018. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: June 1, 2019.

19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(11): e1915983, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755946

RESUMO

Importance: Although cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in most developed countries, little is known about current physicians' cardiovascular health and outcomes. Objective: To compare cardiac risk factor burden, health services use, and major cardiovascular event incidence between physicians and the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from practicing physicians and nonphysicians without cardiovascular disease aged 40 to 75 years in Ontario, Canada. Cohorts were assembled beginning January 1, 2008, and were followed up to December 31, 2015. Data analysis was performed between November 2017 and September 2019. Exposure: Being a practicing physician. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 8-year incidence of a major cardiovascular event (ie, cardiovascular death or hospitalization for myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, or coronary revascularization). Secondary outcomes included health services used, such as physician assessments and guideline-recommended tests. Results: The cohort comprised 17 071 physicians (mean [SD] age, 53.3 [8.8] years; 11 963 [70.1%] men) and 5 306 038 nonphysicians (mean [SD] age, 53.7 [9.5] years; 2 556 044 [48.2%] men). Physicians had significantly lower baseline rates of hypertension (16.9% vs 29.6%), diabetes (5.0% vs 11.3%), and smoking (13.1% vs 21.6%), while having better cholesterol profiles (total cholesterol levels >240 mg/dL, 13.3% vs 16.5%; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >130 mg/dL, 33.2% vs 36.8%); age- and sex-adjusted differences were even larger. Physicians also had lower rates of periodic health examinations (58.9% [95% CI, 57.5%-60.4%] vs 67.9% [95% CI, 67.8%-67.9%]), hyperlipidemia screening (76.3% [95% CI, 74.7%-78.0%] vs 83.8% [95% CI, 83.7%-83.9%]), and diabetes screening (79.0% [95% CI, 77.3%-80.8%] vs 85.3% [95% CI, 85.2%-85.4%]), but higher rates of cardiologist consultations (25.2% [95% CI, 24.2%-26.3%] vs 19.5% [95% CI, 19.4%-19.5%]). The 8-year age- and sex-standardized primary outcome incidence was 4.4 major cardiovascular events per 1000 person-years for physicians and 7.1 major cardiovascular events per 1000 person-years for the general population. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and cardiac risks and comorbidities, physicians had a 22% lower hazard (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.85) of experiencing the primary outcome compared with the general population. Conclusions and Relevance: Practicing physicians in Ontario had fewer cardiovascular risk factors, underwent less preventive testing, and were less likely to experience major adverse cardiovascular outcomes than the general population.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e013824, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684795

RESUMO

Background More than 4 million cardiac noninvasive diagnostic tests are performed annually in the United States. However, questions remain regarding their effectiveness in improving clinical outcomes. We sought to evaluate whether noninvasive diagnostic tests were associated with lower rates of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death when compared with no testing. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective, population-based cohort study of adults evaluated for chest pain and discharged home from an emergency department in Ontario, Canada. Propensity score matching was employed to reduce confounding between the testing and nontesting groups. There were 370 863 patients evaluated in our cohort. Rates of the composite outcome were low for both groups after propensity-score matching (0.29% and 0.78% for the nontesting group at 90 days and 1 year, respectively, and 0.34% and 0.68% for the noninvasive diagnostic test group at 90 days and 1 year respectively). Over 1 year, patients undergoing noninvasive diagnostic testing had a small but statistically significant lower hazard of developing the composite outcome of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.96 [P<0.01]), which appears to be driven by the high-risk subgroup (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.92 [P<0.01]). Conclusions We report a lower observed rate of the composite outcome of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction associated with noninvasive diagnostic testing following evaluation for chest pain in the emergency department. This lower rate was driven by the high-risk subgroup. These results suggest that risk-based testing should be considered for patients discharged from the emergency department for chest pain.

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