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1.
Cell ; 184(8): 2068-2083.e11, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861964

RESUMO

Understanding population health disparities is an essential component of equitable precision health efforts. Epidemiology research often relies on definitions of race and ethnicity, but these population labels may not adequately capture disease burdens and environmental factors impacting specific sub-populations. Here, we propose a framework for repurposing data from electronic health records (EHRs) in concert with genomic data to explore the demographic ties that can impact disease burdens. Using data from a diverse biobank in New York City, we identified 17 communities sharing recent genetic ancestry. We observed 1,177 health outcomes that were statistically associated with a specific group and demonstrated significant differences in the segregation of genetic variants contributing to Mendelian diseases. We also demonstrated that fine-scale population structure can impact the prediction of complex disease risk within groups. This work reinforces the utility of linking genomic data to EHRs and provides a framework toward fine-scale monitoring of population health.

2.
Nat Genet ; 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888907

RESUMO

COVID-19 presents with a wide range of severity, from asymptomatic in some individuals to fatal in others. Based on a study of 1,051,032 23andMe research participants, we report genetic and nongenetic associations with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, respiratory symptoms and hospitalization. Using trans-ancestry genome-wide association studies, we identified a strong association between blood type and COVID-19 diagnosis, as well as a gene-rich locus on chromosome 3p21.31 that is more strongly associated with outcome severity. Hospitalization risk factors include advancing age, male sex, obesity, lower socioeconomic status, non-European ancestry and preexisting cardiometabolic conditions. While non-European ancestry was a significant risk factor for hospitalization after adjusting for sociodemographics and preexisting health conditions, we did not find evidence that these two primary genetic associations explain risk differences between populations for severe COVID-19 outcomes.

3.
Nat Genet ; 53(5): 663-671, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888908

RESUMO

Genetic association results are often interpreted with the assumption that study participation does not affect downstream analyses. Understanding the genetic basis of participation bias is challenging since it requires the genotypes of unseen individuals. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate comparative biases by performing a genome-wide association study contrasting one subgroup versus another. For example, we showed that sex exhibits artifactual autosomal heritability in the presence of sex-differential participation bias. By performing a genome-wide association study of sex in approximately 3.3 million males and females, we identified over 158 autosomal loci spuriously associated with sex and highlighted complex traits underpinning differences in study participation between the sexes. For example, the body mass index-increasing allele at FTO was observed at higher frequency in males compared to females (odds ratio = 1.02, P = 4.4 × 10-36). Finally, we demonstrated how these biases can potentially lead to incorrect inferences in downstream analyses and propose a conceptual framework for addressing such biases. Our findings highlight a new challenge that genetic studies may face as sample sizes continue to grow.

4.
Science ; 371(6536)2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766859

RESUMO

Hamer et al argue that the variable "ever versus never had a same-sex partner" does not capture the complexity of human sexuality. We agree and said so in our paper. But Hamer et al neglect to mention that we also reported follow-up analyses showing substantial overlap of the genetic influences on our main variable and on more nuanced measures of sexual behavior, attraction, and identity.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1258, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627673

RESUMO

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is a heritable common cause of blindness world-wide. To identify risk loci, we conduct a large multi-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies on a total of 34,179 cases and 349,321 controls, identifying 44 previously unreported risk loci and confirming 83 loci that were previously known. The majority of loci have broadly consistent effects across European, Asian and African ancestries. Cross-ancestry data improve fine-mapping of causal variants for several loci. Integration of multiple lines of genetic evidence support the functional relevance of the identified POAG risk loci and highlight potential contributions of several genes to POAG pathogenesis, including SVEP1, RERE, VCAM1, ZNF638, CLIC5, SLC2A12, YAP1, MXRA5, and SMAD6. Several drug compounds targeting POAG risk genes may be potential glaucoma therapeutic candidates.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 160, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420020

RESUMO

We trained and validated risk prediction models for the three major types of skin cancer- basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma-on a cross-sectional and longitudinal dataset of 210,000 consented research participants who responded to an online survey covering personal and family history of skin cancer, skin susceptibility, and UV exposure. We developed a primary disease risk score (DRS) that combined all 32 identified genetic and non-genetic risk factors. Top percentile DRS was associated with an up to 13-fold increase (odds ratio per standard deviation increase >2.5) in the risk of developing skin cancer relative to the middle DRS percentile. To derive lifetime risk trajectories for the three skin cancers, we developed a second and age independent disease score, called DRSA. Using incident cases, we demonstrated that DRSA could be used in early detection programs for identifying high risk asymptotic individuals, and predicting when they are likely to develop skin cancer. High DRSA scores were not only associated with earlier disease diagnosis (by up to 14 years), but also with more severe and recurrent forms of skin cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Basocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Anamnese , Melanoma/etiologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
7.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(5): 2131-2151, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355662

RESUMO

Estimating the genomic location and length of identical-by-descent (IBD) segments among individuals is a crucial step in many genetic analyses. However, the exponential growth in the size of biobank and direct-to-consumer genetic data sets makes accurate IBD inference a significant computational challenge. Here we present the templated positional Burrows-Wheeler transform (TPBWT) to make fast IBD estimates robust to genotype and phasing errors. Using haplotype data simulated over pedigrees with realistic genotyping and phasing errors, we show that the TPBWT outperforms other state-of-the-art IBD inference algorithms in terms of speed and accuracy. For each phase-aware method, we explore the false positive and false negative rates of inferring IBD by segment length and characterize the types of error commonly found. Our results highlight the fragility of most phased IBD inference methods; the accuracy of IBD estimates can be highly sensitive to the quality of haplotype phasing. Additionally, we compare the performance of the TPBWT against a widely used phase-free IBD inference approach that is robust to phasing errors. We introduce both in-sample and out-of-sample TPBWT-based IBD inference algorithms and demonstrate their computational efficiency on massive-scale data sets with millions of samples. Furthermore, we describe the binary file format for TPBWT-compressed haplotypes that results in fast and efficient out-of-sample IBD computes against very large cohort panels. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the TPBWT in a brief empirical analysis, exploring geographic patterns of haplotype sharing within Mexico. Hierarchical clustering of IBD shared across regions within Mexico reveals geographically structured haplotype sharing and a strong signal of isolation by distance. Our software implementation of the TPBWT is freely available for noncommercial use in the code repository (https://github.com/23andMe/phasedibd, last accessed January 11, 2021).

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 612-621, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888428

RESUMO

Hypersensitivity reactions to drugs are often unpredictable and can be life threatening, underscoring a need for understanding their underlying mechanisms and risk factors. The extent to which germline genetic variation influences the risk of commonly reported drug allergies such as penicillin allergy remains largely unknown. We extracted data from the electronic health records of more than 600,000 participants from the UK, Estonian, and Vanderbilt University Medical Center's BioVU biobanks to study the role of genetic variation in the occurrence of self-reported penicillin hypersensitivity reactions. We used imputed SNP to HLA typing data from these cohorts to further fine map the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association and replicated our results in 23andMe's research cohort involving a total of 1.12 million individuals. Genome-wide meta-analysis of penicillin allergy revealed two loci, including one located in the HLA region on chromosome 6. This signal was further fine-mapped to the HLA-B∗55:01 allele (OR 1.41 95% CI 1.33-1.49, p value 2.04 × 10-31) and confirmed by independent replication in 23andMe's research cohort (OR 1.30 95% CI 1.25-1.34, p value 1.00 × 10-47). The lead SNP was also associated with lower lymphocyte counts and in silico follow-up suggests a potential effect on T-lymphocytes at HLA-B∗55:01. We also observed a significant hit in PTPN22 and the GWAS results correlated with the genetics of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. We present robust evidence for the role of an allele of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I gene HLA-B in the occurrence of penicillin allergy.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/genética , Psoríase/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/química , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/complicações , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígenos HLA-B/imunologia , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 22/imunologia , Psoríase/complicações , Psoríase/imunologia , Autorrelato , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Estados Unidos
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3519, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665587

RESUMO

Estimates from Mendelian randomization studies of unrelated individuals can be biased due to uncontrolled confounding from familial effects. Here we describe methods for within-family Mendelian randomization analyses and use simulation studies to show that family-based analyses can reduce such biases. We illustrate empirically how familial effects can affect estimates using data from 61,008 siblings from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study and UK Biobank and replicated our findings using 222,368 siblings from 23andMe. Both Mendelian randomization estimates using unrelated individuals and within family methods reproduced established effects of lower BMI reducing risk of diabetes and high blood pressure. However, while Mendelian randomization estimates from samples of unrelated individuals suggested that taller height and lower BMI increase educational attainment, these effects were strongly attenuated in within-family Mendelian randomization analyses. Our findings indicate the necessity of controlling for population structure and familial effects in Mendelian randomization studies.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1122, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111823

RESUMO

Heart failure is a major public health problem affecting over 23 million people worldwide. In this study, we present the results of a large scale meta-analysis of heart failure GWAS and replication in a comparable sized cohort to identify one known and two novel loci associated with heart failure. Heart failure sub-phenotyping shows that a new locus in chromosome 1 is associated with left ventricular adverse remodeling and clinical heart failure, in response to different initial cardiac muscle insults. Functional characterization and fine-mapping of that locus reveal a putative causal variant in a cardiac muscle specific regulatory region activated during cardiomyocyte differentiation that binds to the ACTN2 gene, a crucial structural protein inside the cardiac sarcolemma (Hi-C interaction p-value = 0.00002). Genome-editing in human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes confirms the influence of the identified regulatory region in the expression of ACTN2. Our findings extend our understanding of biological mechanisms underlying heart failure.


Assuntos
Actinina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/citologia , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
13.
Nature ; 575(7784): 652-657, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748747

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in circulating white blood cells is the most common form of clonal mosaicism1-5, yet our knowledge of the causes and consequences of this is limited. Here, using a computational approach, we estimate that 20% of the male population represented in the UK Biobank study (n = 205,011) has detectable LOY. We identify 156 autosomal genetic determinants of LOY, which we replicate in 757,114 men of European and Japanese ancestry. These loci highlight genes that are involved in cell-cycle regulation and cancer susceptibility, as well as somatic drivers of tumour growth and targets of cancer therapy. We demonstrate that genetic susceptibility to LOY is associated with non-haematological effects on health in both men and women, which supports the hypothesis that clonal haematopoiesis is a biomarker of genomic instability in other tissues. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies dysregulated expression of autosomal genes in leukocytes with LOY and provides insights into why clonal expansion of these cells may occur. Collectively, these data highlight the value of studying clonal mosaicism to uncover fundamental mechanisms that underlie cancer and other ageing-related diseases.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Leucócitos/patologia , Mosaicismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/genética , Reino Unido
14.
Commun Biol ; 2: 321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482140

RESUMO

Knee pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints that brings people to medical attention. Approximately 50% of individuals over the age of 50 report an experience of knee pain within the past 12 months. We sought to identify the genetic variants associated with knee pain in 171,516 subjects from the UK Biobank cohort and seek supporting evidence in cohorts from 23andMe, the Osteoarthritis Initiative, and the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. We identified two loci that reached genome-wide significance in the UK Biobank: rs143384, located in GDF5 (P = 1.32 × 10-12), a gene previously implicated in osteoarthritis; and rs2808772, located near COL27A1 (P = 1.49 × 10-8). These findings were supported in cohorts with self-reported osteoarthritis/radiographic knee osteoarthritis without pain information. In this report on genome-wide association of knee pain, we identified two loci in or near GDF5 and COL27A1 that are associated with knee pain.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Colágenos Fibrilares/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 5 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Dor/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reino Unido
15.
Science ; 365(6456)2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467194

RESUMO

Twin and family studies have shown that same-sex sexual behavior is partly genetically influenced, but previous searches for specific genes involved have been underpowered. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 477,522 individuals, revealing five loci significantly associated with same-sex sexual behavior. In aggregate, all tested genetic variants accounted for 8 to 25% of variation in same-sex sexual behavior, only partially overlapped between males and females, and do not allow meaningful prediction of an individual's sexual behavior. Comparing these GWAS results with those for the proportion of same-sex to total number of sexual partners among nonheterosexuals suggests that there is no single continuum from opposite-sex to same-sex sexual behavior. Overall, our findings provide insights into the genetics underlying same-sex sexual behavior and underscore the complexity of sexuality.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Feminina/genética , Homossexualidade Masculina/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reino Unido
16.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 245-257, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643258

RESUMO

Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated ([Formula: see text] ~ 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genética Comportamental/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
17.
Genome Res ; 28(7): 1039-1052, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773658

RESUMO

Current approaches to detect and characterize mosaic chromosomal aneuploidy are limited by sensitivity, efficiency, cost, or the need to culture cells. We describe the mosaic aneuploidy detection by massively parallel sequencing (MAD-seq) capture assay and the MADSEQ analytical approach that allow low (<10%) levels of mosaicism for chromosomal aneuploidy or regional loss of heterozygosity to be detected, assigned to a meiotic or mitotic origin, and quantified as a proportion of the cells in the sample. We show results from a multi-ethnic MAD-seq (meMAD-seq) capture design that works equally well in populations of diverse racial and ethnic origins and how the MADSEQ analytical approach can be applied to exome or whole-genome sequencing data, revealing previously unrecognized aneuploidy or copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity in samples studied by the 1000 Genomes Project, cell lines from public repositories, and one of the Illumina Platinum Genomes samples. We have made the meMAD-seq capture design and MADSEQ analytical software open for unrestricted use, with the goal that they can be applied in clinical samples to allow new insights into the unrecognized prevalence of mosaic chromosomal aneuploidy in humans and its phenotypic associations.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Aneuploidia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Software
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(11): 2025-2038, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659830

RESUMO

The ratio of the length of the index finger to that of the ring finger (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic and is commonly used as a non-invasive biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure. Most association studies of 2D:4D ratio with a diverse range of sex-specific traits have typically involved small sample sizes and have been difficult to replicate, raising questions around the utility and precise meaning of the measure. In the largest genome-wide association meta-analysis of 2D:4D ratio to date (N = 15 661, with replication N = 75 821), we identified 11 loci (9 novel) explaining 3.8% of the variance in mean 2D:4D ratio. We also found weak evidence for association (ß = 0.06; P = 0.02) between 2D:4D ratio and sensitivity to testosterone [length of the CAG microsatellite repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene] in females only. Furthermore, genetic variants associated with (adult) testosterone levels and/or sex hormone-binding globulin were not associated with 2D:4D ratio in our sample. Although we were unable to find strong evidence from our genetic study to support the hypothesis that 2D:4D ratio is a direct biomarker of prenatal exposure to androgens in healthy individuals, our findings do not explicitly exclude this possibility, and pathways involving testosterone may become apparent as the size of the discovery sample increases further. Our findings provide new insight into the underlying biology shaping 2D:4D variation in the general population.


Assuntos
Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Androgênios/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Dedos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Caracteres Sexuais , Testosterona/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 303, 2017 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827725

RESUMO

Heterozygous mutations within homozygous sequences descended from a recent common ancestor offer a way to ascertain de novo mutations across multiple generations. Using exome sequences from 3222 British-Pakistani individuals with high parental relatedness, we estimate a mutation rate of 1.45 ± 0.05 × 10-8 per base pair per generation in autosomal coding sequence, with a corresponding non-crossover gene conversion rate of 8.75 ± 0.05 × 10-6 per base pair per generation. This is at the lower end of exome mutation rates previously estimated in parent-offspring trios, suggesting that post-zygotic mutations contribute little to the human germ-line mutation rate. We find frequent recurrence of mutations at polymorphic CpG sites, and an increase in C to T mutations in a 5' CCG 3' to 5' CTG 3' context in the Pakistani population compared to Europeans, suggesting that mutational processes have evolved rapidly between human populations.Estimates of human mutation rates differ substantially based on the approach. Here, the authors present a multi-generational estimate from the autozygous segment in a non-European population that gives insight into the contribution of post-zygotic mutations and population-specific mutational processes.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Mutação , Exoma/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético
20.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14994, 2017 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28440270

RESUMO

In humans, males have lower recombination rates than females over the majority of the genome, but the opposite is usually true near the telomeres. These broad-scale differences have been known for decades, yet little is known about differences at the fine scale. By combining data sets, we have collected recombination events from over 100,000 meioses and have constructed sex-specific genetic maps at a previously unachievable resolution. Here we show that, although a substantial fraction of the genome shows some degree of sexually dimorphic recombination, the vast majority of hotspots are shared between the sexes, with only a small number of putative sex-specific hotspots. Wavelet analysis indicates that most of the differences can be attributed to the fine scale, and that variation in rate between the sexes can mostly be explained by differences in hotspot magnitude, rather than location. Nonetheless, known recombination-associated genomic features, such as THE1B repeat elements, show systematic differences between the sexes.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Troca Genética/genética , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Meiose/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
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