Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 81
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584131

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metabolomics technologies have identified numerous blood biomarkers for type 2 diabetes risk in case-control studies of middle-aged and older individuals. We aimed to validate existing and identify novel metabolic biomarkers predictive of future diabetes in large cohorts of young adults. METHODS: NMR metabolomics was used to quantify 229 circulating metabolic measures in 11,896 individuals from four Finnish observational cohorts (baseline age 24-45 years). Associations between baseline metabolites and risk of developing diabetes during 8-15 years of follow-up (392 incident cases) were adjusted for sex, age, BMI and fasting glucose. Prospective metabolite associations were also tested with fasting glucose, 2 h glucose and HOMA-IR at follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 229 metabolic measures, 113 were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in meta-analysis of the four cohorts (ORs per 1 SD: 0.59-1.50; p< 0.0009). Among the strongest biomarkers of diabetes risk were branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (OR 1.31-1.33) and triacylglycerol within VLDL particles (OR 1.33-1.50), as well as linoleic n-6 fatty acid (OR 0.75) and non-esterified cholesterol in large HDL particles (OR 0.59). The metabolic biomarkers were more strongly associated with deterioration in post-load glucose and insulin resistance than with future fasting hyperglycaemia. A multi-metabolite score comprised of phenylalanine, non-esterified cholesterol in large HDL and the ratio of cholesteryl ester to total lipid in large VLDL was associated with future diabetes risk (OR 10.1 comparing individuals in upper vs lower fifth of the multi-metabolite score) in one of the cohorts (mean age 31 years). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Metabolic biomarkers across multiple molecular pathways are already predictive of the long-term risk of diabetes in young adults. Comprehensive metabolic profiling may help to target preventive interventions for young asymptomatic individuals at increased risk.

2.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 170(2): 196-206, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Body mass estimation from skeletal dimensions is a useful tool when studying archeological human samples. Bony articular surface dimensions of the lower limb have frequently been utilized to estimate body size. In the present study, we investigated the association between knee breadth and body mass in a Northern European population. Our study aimed to confirm both methodology and results presented in earlier studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consists of 1,290 subjects belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Three knee breadth dimensions-femoral biepicondylar breadth, mediolateral breadth of femoral condyles, and mediolateral breadth of the tibial plateau-were measured from subjects' knee PA-radiographs. Measurements and their association with body weight at 31 years were utilized for creating body mass estimation equations using linear regression and reduced major axis regression. Correlations between knee measurements and body weight at three different ages (18, 31, and 46) were also analyzed. RESULTS: Positive associations were detected between each knee breadth variable and weight in the total sample and both genders separately. Body mass estimation equations were created for the total sample, for males and for females. R values of the models ranged from 0.38 to 0.74. Median absolute percent prediction errors ranged from 6.89 to 9.72%. The highest correlations were obtained between knee breadth and body weight in early adulthood. DISCUSSION: Our large sample confirmed that equations derived from knee breadth dimensions are accurate when estimating body mass of modern humans. Knee breadth measurements clearly have a positive association with body weight in early maturity.

3.
JAMA ; 322(7): 632-641, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429897

RESUMO

Importance: Maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are risk factors for preterm birth. Milder thyroid function test abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity are more prevalent, but it remains controversial if these are associated with preterm birth. Objective: To study if maternal thyroid function test abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity are risk factors for preterm birth. Data Sources and Study Selection: Studies were identified through a search of the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar databases from inception to March 18, 2018, and by publishing open invitations in relevant journals. Data sets from published and unpublished prospective cohort studies with data on thyroid function tests (thyrotropin [often referred to as thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH] and free thyroxine [FT4] concentrations) or thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody measurements and gestational age at birth were screened for eligibility by 2 independent reviewers. Studies in which participants received treatment based on abnormal thyroid function tests were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The primary authors provided individual participant data that were analyzed using mixed-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestational age). Results: From 2526 published reports, 35 cohorts were invited to participate. After the addition of 5 unpublished data sets, a total of 19 cohorts were included. The study population included 47 045 pregnant women (mean age, 29 years; median gestational age at blood sampling, 12.9 weeks), of whom 1234 (3.1%) had subclinical hypothyroidism (increased thyrotropin concentration with normal FT4 concentration), 904 (2.2%) had isolated hypothyroxinemia (decreased FT4 concentration with normal thyrotropin concentration), and 3043 (7.5%) were TPO antibody positive; 2357 (5.0%) had a preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was higher for women with subclinical hypothyroidism than euthyroid women (6.1% vs 5.0%, respectively; absolute risk difference, 1.4% [95% CI, 0%-3.2%]; odds ratio [OR], 1.29 [95% CI, 1.01-1.64]). Among women with isolated hypothyroxinemia, the risk of preterm birth was 7.1% vs 5.0% in euthyroid women (absolute risk difference, 2.3% [95% CI, 0.6%-4.5%]; OR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.12-1.90]). In continuous analyses, each 1-SD higher maternal thyrotropin concentration was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth (absolute risk difference, 0.2% [95% CI, 0%-0.4%] per 1 SD; OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.00-1.09] per 1 SD). Thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women had a higher risk of preterm birth vs TPO antibody-negative women (6.6% vs 4.9%, respectively; absolute risk difference, 1.6% [95% CI, 0.7%-2.8%]; OR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.15-1.56]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among pregnant women without overt thyroid disease, subclinical hypothyroidism, isolated hypothyroxinemia, and TPO antibody positivity were significantly associated with higher risk of preterm birth. These results provide insights toward optimizing clinical decision-making strategies that should consider the potential harms and benefits of screening programs and levothyroxine treatment during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 950-961, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358974

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol consumption is a heritable complex trait. Here we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of alcohol consumption (g d-1) from the UK Biobank, the Alcohol Genome-Wide Consortium and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Plus consortia, collecting data from 480,842 people of European descent to decipher the genetic architecture of alcohol intake. We identified 46 new common loci and investigated their potential functional importance using magnetic resonance imaging data and gene expression studies. We identify genetic pathways associated with alcohol consumption and suggest genetic mechanisms that are shared with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9450, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263183

RESUMO

Ulnar nerve entrapment is the second most common compression neuropathy of the upper extremity. It has been associated with smoking in cross-sectional studies. Our aim was to study whether smoking is associated with ulnar nerve entrapment. The study population consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 participants, who attended the 31-year follow-up in 1997 (N = 8,716). Information on smoking, body mass index (BMI), long-term illnesses, and socio-economic status were recorded at baseline in 1997. Data on hospitalizations due to ulnar nerve entrapment neuropathies was obtained from the Care Register for Health Care, 1997-2016. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and population attributable risk (PAR) were calculated adjusted for gender, BMI and socio-economic status. 66 patients were diagnosed with ulnar nerve entrapment in the follow-up 1997-2016. Before the age of 31 years, smoking ≤10 pack years associated with more than doubled (HR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.29-5.15) and smoking >10 pack years with more than five-folded (HR = 5.61, 95% CI = 2.80-11.23) risk for ulnar nerve entrapment compared to non-smokers in the adjusted analyses. Adjusted PAR for smoking (reference of no smoking) was 53.6%. In our study, smoking associated with increased risk for ulnar nerve entrapment, accounting for considerable proportion of increased risk.

6.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(3): 299-304, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to determine whether maternal smoking and offspring's own smoking affect the offspring's risk for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHOD: The study sample consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N = 8703). Information on maternal smoking was collected from the participants' mothers. At 31 years, information on smoking, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and long-term illnesses were collected, combined with data of CTS diagnoses from the Care Register for Health Care (1997-2016). RESULTS: Maternal smoking was not associated with increased risk of CTS in offspring. Before the age of 31 years, smoking ≤10 pack years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-2.15) and >10 pack years (HR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.20-3.01) among women, and >10 pack years (HR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.14-3.12) among men was associated with CTS compared with nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: In this birth cohort, offsprings' own smoking was associated with CTS; however, maternal smoking was not.

7.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 44(22): E1325-E1335, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232978

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether 15-year trajectories of low back pain (LBP) and sciatica are associated with cardiovascular autonomic function in a large general population sample. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies using mainly small patient samples have suggested that LBP and sciatica are associated with abnormal cardiovascular autonomic function, namely altered heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). We examined this association in a large general population sample. METHODS: The data collections of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 consisted of pain questionnaires at 31 and 46 years (history of LBP, sciatica, and other musculoskeletal pains during the previous year; yes/no for each) and measurements of HRV and BRS at 46 years (heart rate, HR; root mean square of successive differences in beat-to-beat intervals, rMSSD; low-frequency systolic blood pressure variability, SBPV; cross-spectral BRS, BRS; each while seated and standing). The data collections also comprised several confounders. Trajectories for LBP, sciatica, and both together ("no pain," "decreasing," "increasing," "long-term pain") were constructed and general linear models were used to perform comparisons between trajectories (for HR/rMSSD, n = 3398; for SBPV/BRS, n = 1667). RESULTS: In the crude models, LBP and sciatica were associated with higher HR, lower rMSSD, higher SBPV, and lower BRS, but these associations were mostly attenuated by adjustments. Regarding both LBP and sciatica, only the "increasing" trajectory was associated with two of the eight outcomes (standing SBPV, seated BRS) after adjustments. Regarding LBP, the "increasing" trajectory was associated with three (standing SBPV, seated BRS, standing BRS), the "long-term pain" trajectory with one (standing BRS), and the "decreasing" trajectory with one outcome (seated SBPV) after adjustments. Sciatica showed no association with the outcomes after adjustments. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the 15-year trajectories of LBP and sciatica do not have a consistent independent association with cardiovascular autonomic function among the general population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151163

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to the increased risk of several chronic diseases, especially in people living in the Northern Latitudes. The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status in older subjects born in 1945 in Northern Finland (latitude 65°North), and to examine its associations to components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we invited 904 subjects born in 1945 from the Oulu region (Oulu45 cohort), out of an original cohort of 1332 subjects. In the cohort, plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels were determined by an enzyme immunoassay of 263 men and 373 women, with a mean age baseline of 69±0.5 years old. We assessed the participants' usage of vitamin D supplements, as well as their lifestyle factors, using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Nearly 80% of the subjects had low vitamin D levels [either vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L) or insufficient (50 - 75 nmol/L)], and only 20% of the participants had sufficient vitamin D levels (>75 nmol/L) (based on the American Endocrine Society guidelines). The low vitamin D status was associated with a high prevalence of MetS; a significantly higher number of subjects with MetS (41%) had low vitamin D levels in comparison to the non-MetS subjects (38%) (p ≤ 0.05). The subjects under vitamin D supplementation had a significantly lower incidence of MetS (42.6% vs 57.4%) and its components in comparison to the non-supplemented subjects (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin D levels are a risk factor for MetS amongst other lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits and physical inactivity, among older subjects in the Northern Latitudes (65°North). Optimal supplementation of vitamin D, along with rich dietary sources of vitamin D, are highly recommended for older subjects as a means to positively affect, e.g., hypertension, insulin resistance, and obesity, as components of the MetS.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168633

RESUMO

Objectives Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) causes a considerable amount of sick leave and healthcare costs. The etiology of CTS is multifactorial, involving both personal and occupational risk factors. To date, few prospective cohort studies on occupational risk factors of CTS have examined the general working population. Methods The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966 who attended the 31-year follow-up in 1997 and were working ≥3 days a week in a paid job (N=6326). Information on socio-economic status, weight and height, smoking, exposure to occupational physical factors, and long-term illnesses was collected at baseline in 1997. Data on hospitalizations due to CTS came from the Care Register for Health Care, 1997-2016. Results Between 1997 and 2016, 3.4% of the participants had been hospitalized (attended secondary care) for CTS. After adjusting for confounders, women [hazard ratio (HR) 3.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.70-5.25], overweight/obese participants (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.29-2.22), smokers (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.96), farmers and manual workers (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.85-4.92 compared with upper clerical workers), lower clerical workers (HR 1.74, 95% CI=1.08-2.80), workers exposed to hand vibration (HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.48-3.54) and participants with physically demanding jobs (HR 1.71, CI 1.06-2.76) were at increased risk of hospitalization for CTS. Physically demanding work increased the risk of hospitalization for CTS for overweight/obese participants at baseline, but not for participants of normal weight. Conclusions Excess body mass and occupational physical factors increase the risk of hospitalization for CTS. Excess body mass potentiates the adverse effects of strenuous work on CTS.

10.
Diabetes ; 68(8): 1681-1691, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088856

RESUMO

Liver dysfunction and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are consistently associated. However, it is currently unknown whether liver dysfunction contributes to, results from, or is merely correlated with T2D due to confounding. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate the presence and direction of any causal relation between liver function and T2D risk including up to 64,094 T2D case and 607,012 control subjects. Several biomarkers were used as proxies of liver function (i.e., alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and γ-glutamyl transferase [GGT]). Genetic variants strongly associated with each liver function marker were used to investigate the effect of liver function on T2D risk. In addition, genetic variants strongly associated with T2D risk and with fasting insulin were used to investigate the effect of predisposition to T2D and insulin resistance, respectively, on liver function. Genetically predicted higher circulating ALT and AST were related to increased risk of T2D. There was a modest negative association of genetically predicted ALP with T2D risk and no evidence of association between GGT and T2D risk. Genetic predisposition to higher fasting insulin, but not to T2D, was related to increased circulating ALT. Since circulating ALT and AST are markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), these findings provide some support for insulin resistance resulting in NAFLD, which in turn increases T2D risk.

11.
J Clin Periodontol ; 46(8): 799-808, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141197

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with deepened periodontal pockets and alveolar bone loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was based on a subpopulation of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 survey (n = 1964). The criteria of the AHA/NHLBI were used to determine MetS. The analyses were based on the metabolic data at ages 31 and 46, and probing pocket depth and alveolar bone level data at age 46. Relative risks (RR, 95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Relative risks for PD ≥ 4 mm and BL ≥ 5 mm were higher in individuals with an exposure to MetS ≥ 15 years (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.1 and RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.9, respectively) than in those whose exposure was <15 years (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3 and RR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3, respectively). Consistently stronger associations were found in never smokers. Women showed stronger associations of MetS with PD ≥ 4 mm than men. The association with BL ≥ 5 mm was observed only in men. CONCLUSION: A long-term exposure by MetS was associated independently and in an exposure-dependent manner with periodontal pockets and alveolar bone level.

12.
Eur J Pain ; 23(8): 1486-1496, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal (MS) pain is common. It often exists in several sites and is recurrent. Psychosocial difficulties and unhealthy behaviours have been related to multisite MS pain, but no literature has assessed the impact of accumulated psychosocial and lifestyle factors on recurrent multiple MS pain. METHODS: Our data were gathered from two questionnaires of the well-known Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986), sent to members when they were aged 16 and 18. A total of 1,625 adolescents (712 boys and 913 girls) answered questions on smoking, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleeping and emotional and behavioural problems at 16 years and on musculoskeletal pain at 16 and 18 years. Weight and height measurements were taken at a health examination at baseline. A latent class analysis and multinomial regression analysis were conducted. RESULTS: We identified four clusters among both sexes. "Externalizing behavior" among both genders (OR 2.98, CI 1.73-5.13 among boys; OR 2.38, CI 1.38-4.11 among girls), "Multiple risk behaviors" among girls (OR 2.73, CI 1.30-5.71) and a "Sedentary" cluster among boys (OR 1.85, CI 1.21-2.82) were associated to recurrent multisite MS pain. "Obese" clusters had no significant associations with recurrent multiple MS pain. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with psychosocial difficulties and/or several adverse health behaviours were at an increased risk of recurrent multisite MS pain, which emphasizes the importance of simultaneously studying multiple rather than single factors. The identification of risk groups may help more accurately target preventive interventions. SIGNIFICANCE: This study found subgroups of adolescents at risk of recurrent multisite musculoskeletal pain during late adolescence. The accumulation of multiple adverse behaviours is likely to provide new perspectives for understanding the multidimensional nature of multiple MS pains.

13.
Scand J Prim Health Care ; 37(2): 242-248, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099298

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the association between depressive symptoms and impaired glucose metabolism in the elderly population in arctic latitudes. Design: A population-based study. Setting. Community. Subjects: The study population consisted of 1,830 subjects born between the years 1915 and 1958 in the northernmost part of Finland, the Muonio-Enontekiö district, who participated in a health survey during 1974-1984. In 2014, a health questionnaire was sent to 1,037 subjects, and 757 participants (73%) answered it. Those (n = 629) living in the Muonio-Enontekiö district undergone a clinical examination in 2014 and 2015 including blood collections. Main outcome measures: Depressive symptoms defined by the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II) with a cut-off point of 14. Different diabetic states based on WHO's classification criteria defined by fasting plasma glucose and ADA's criteria by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values. Results: According to logistic regression analysis, depressive symptoms (BDI-II ≥ 14) were associated statistically significantly with previously known type 2 diabetes, the odds ratio (OR) being 4.33 (95% CI 1.53-14.14). Regarding prediabetic fasting glucose/HbA1c values, the corresponding OR was 2.94 (95% CI 1.17-8.94). The prevalence of depressive symptoms (BDI-II ≥ 14) was 7.1%, (men 9.7% and women 5.4%) and 13.7% (men 9.9% and women 17.0%) in subjects living in Muonio-Enontekiö district and in those who had moved away from there, respectively. Conclusions: The association of depressive symptoms between prediabetes and diabetes seems to be present also in the northernmost latitudes of the world.

14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and BMI in childhood and adulthood. Each of these associations could be due to causal intrauterine effects, or confounding (genetic or environmental), or some combination of these. Here we estimate the extent to which the association between maternal BMI and offspring body size is explained by offspring genotype, as a first step towards establishing the importance of genetic confounding. METHODS: We examined the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI with offspring BW and BMI at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, in three European birth cohorts (n ≤11 498). Bivariate Genomic-relatedness-based Restricted Maximum Likelihood implemented in the GCTA software (GCTA-GREML) was used to estimate the extent to which phenotypic covariance was explained by offspring genotype as captured by common imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We merged individual participant data from all cohorts, enabling calculation of pooled estimates. RESULTS: Phenotypic covariance (equivalent here to Pearson's correlation coefficient) between maternal BMI and offspring phenotype was 0.15 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.17] for offspring BW, increasing to 0.29 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.31) for offspring 15 year BMI. Covariance explained by offspring genotype was negligible for BW [-0.04 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.01)], but increased to 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.21) at 15 years, which is equivalent to 43% (95% CI: 15%, 72%) of the phenotypic covariance. Sensitivity analyses using weight, BMI and ponderal index as the offspring phenotype at all ages showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring genotype explains a substantial fraction of the covariance between maternal BMI and offspring adolescent BMI. This is consistent with a potentially important role for genetic confounding as a driver of the maternal BMI-offspring BMI association.

15.
Prev Med ; 124: 33-41, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051183

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the temporal patterns of these behaviors most beneficial for cardiovascular health remain unknown. We aimed to identify the intensity and temporal patterns of PA and SED measured continuously by an accelerometer and their relationship with CVD risk. At the age of 46 years, 4582 members (1916 men; 2666 women) of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study underwent continuous measurement of PA with Polar Active (Polar Electro, Finland) accelerometers for one week. X-means clustering was applied based on 10 min average MET (metabolic equivalent) values during the measurement period. Ten-year risk of CVD was estimated using the Framingham risk model. Most of the participants had low risk for CVD. Four distinct PA clusters were identified that were well differentiable by the intensity and temporal patterns of activity (inactive, evening active, moderately active, very active). A significant difference in 10-year CVD risk across the clusters was found in men (p = 0.028) and women (p < 0.001). Higher levels of HDL cholesterol were found in more active clusters compared to less active clusters (p < 0.001) in both genders. In women total cholesterol was lower in the moderately active cluster compared to the inactive and evening active clusters (p = 0.001). Four distinct PA clusters were recognized based on accelerometer data and X-means clustering. A significant difference in CVD risk across the clusters was found in both genders. These results can be used in developing and promoting CVD prevention strategies.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3944, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850701

RESUMO

Small vertebral size increases the risk of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Obese individuals have larger vertebral size and potentially lower fracture risk than lean individuals, but scarce data exist on the association between vertebral size and anthropometric measures beyond height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). Here, we evaluated several anthropometric measures (height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR], fat mass [FM], lean body mass [LBM], percentage FM [%FM], percentage LBM [%LBM]) as predictors of vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA). We used a representative sample from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 1087), with anthropometric measurements from the ages of 31 and 46, bioimpedance analysis from the age of 46, and lumbar magnetic resonance imaging from the age of 46 years. In our data, height and LBM correlated most strongly with vertebral CSA among both sexes (0.469 ≤ r ≤ 0.514), while WHR, WHtR, %FM, and %LBM had the weakest correlations with vertebral CSA (|r| ≤ 0.114). We conclude that height and LBM have the highest, yet only moderate correlations with vertebral size. High absolute LBM, rather than FM or abdominal mass accumulation, correlates with large vertebral size and thus potentially also with lower osteoporotic vertebral fracture risk.

18.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 92(3): 371-381, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767053

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between personal meaning of work and perceived work ability among middle-aged workers with physically strenuous or light work. We evaluated the course of perceived work ability from 31 to 46 years and examined the possible differences in the association between personal meaning of work and perceived work ability at the age of 46 depending on physical workload. METHODS: The study population consisted of participants of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 4420). Data were collected through questionnaires at 31 and 46 years. The main outcome was perceived work ability (0-7 = poor, 8-10 = good) and the main explanatory measures were physically strenuous work and personal meaning of work. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were adjusted for unhealthy habits, number of diseases, job strain, social support at work, employment history and gender. They were also stratified for the strenuousness of work. RESULTS: Perceived work ability decreased during the 15-year follow-up in both the strenuous and light work groups, and was lowest among workers with strenuous work. Perceived work ability remained poor or decreased in 22% of men and 21% of women in the strenuous work group vs. 14% and 13% in the light work group, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, the participants in both groups who reported low personal meaning of work were at approximately a twofold risk of having poor perceived work ability at 46 years compared to the participants who reported high personal meaning of work. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived work ability was significantly lower and deteriorated more during the follow-up among participants with strenuous work. High personal meaning of work was important for good work ability, irrespective of the strenuousness of work.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Esforço Físico , Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/classificação , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(11): 2264-2272, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that age and body mass index (BMI) at BMI peak during infancy and at BMI rebound in childhood are related to cardiovascular autonomic modulation in adulthood. METHODS: At the age of 46 years, a sample (n = 5861) of the participants of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 took part in follow-up examinations. Heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and low-frequency oscillations of systolic blood pressure (LFSBP) were measured during sympathetic stimulus by standing. BMI at various ages was calculated from frequent anthropometric measurements collected from child welfare clinical records. BRS and LFSBP were available for 1243 participants with BMI peak data and 1524 participants with BMI rebound data, and HRV for 2137 participants with BMI peak data and 2688 participants with BMI rebound data. RESULTS: Age at BMI rebound had a significant inverse association with LFSBP (beta = -0.071, p = 0.006) after all adjustments (p < 0.001) and was also directly associated with BRS (beta = 0.082, p = 0.001) independently of birth and maternal factors (p = 0.023). BMI at BMI peak and at BMI rebound was inversely associated with high-frequency component of HRV (HF) (beta = -0.045, p = 0.036 for BMI at peak; beta = -0.043, p = 0.024 for BMI at rebound) and directly associated with the ratio of low- and high-frequency components of HRV (LF/HF ratio) (beta = 0.084, p = < 0.001 for BMI at peak; beta = 0.069, p < 0.001 for BMI at rebound). These associations remained significant after all adjustments (p < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: This novel study shows that younger age at BMI rebound and higher BMI at BMI peak and at BMI rebound are associated with higher levels in markers suggestive of augmented sympathetic and reduced vagal cardiovascular modulation in midlife.

20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 2701-2711, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753521

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Menopausal transition is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. Available data on the effect of earlier climacterium on these risks are limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiovascular risk-associated parameters at the ages of 14, 31, and 46 in relation to climacteric status at the age of 46. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective cohort study including 2685 women from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Follicle-stimulating hormone, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure (BP), body composition, cholesterol levels, testosterone (T) levels, free androgen index (FAI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and liver enzymes. RESULTS: Women who were climacteric at the age of 46 had lower BMIs (P = 0.029), T levels (P = 0.018), and FAIs (P = 0.009) at the age of 31. At the age of 46, they had less skeletal muscle (P < 0.001), a higher fat percentage (P = 0.016), higher cholesterol levels [total cholesterol (P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P = 0.022), and triglycerides (P = 0.008)], and higher alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.023) and γ-glutamyltransferase (P < 0.001) levels compared with preclimacteric women. Waist circumference, WHR, BP, and hs-CRP levels did not differ between the groups. Of the climacteric women, 111/381 were using hormone-replacement therapy (HRT). In subanalysis that excluded the HRT users, triglycerides, HDL-C, and body fat percentage did not differ among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier climacterium is associated with mainly unfavorable metabolic changes.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA