Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 57
Filtrar
1.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 428-439, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known if modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer-specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (adjusted p>0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI {greater than or equal to}30 vs 18.5-25 kg/m2 (HR (95%CI): 1.19 (1.06,1.34)); current vs never smoking (1.37 (1.27,1.47)), high vs low physical activity (0.43 (0.21,0.86)), age {greater than or equal to}30 years vs <20 years at first pregnancy (0.79 (0.72,0.86)); >0 to <5 years vs {greater than or equal to}10 years since last full term birth (1.31 (1.11,1.55)); ever vs never use of oral contraceptives (0.91 (0.87,0.96)); ever vs never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy (0.61 (0.54,0.69)). Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; e.g. 1.11 (1.02,1.21) for current vs never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948994

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of two systemic inflammatory markers, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and their possible predictive role regarding the efficacy of adjuvant trastuzumab, in 209 early breast cancer cases, 107 of which were HER2-positive. METHODS: Baseline NLR and MLR values were divided into two groups, high and low, according to cut-off-points determined from the ROC curve (2.2 for NLR and 0.22 for MLR). Cox's model was utilized for survival analyses. RESULTS: High NLR and MLR correlated with poor overall survival (OS) and breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) among all the patients (p ≤ 0.030). Among the HER2+ patients whose adjuvant treatment did not include trastuzumab (n = 64), the survival rates were remarkably lower in patients with a high NLR as compared to those with low; 31% vs. 71% for OS and 42% vs. 74% for BCSS (p ≤ 0.014). Similarly, high MLR correlated with poor survival among these patients (p ≤ 0.020). On the contrary, among the patients who had received adjuvant trastuzumab (n = 43), NLR or MLR did not correlate with survival. Furthermore, trastuzumab was beneficial for the HER2+ patients with high NLR/MLR, while the survival of the HER2+ patients with low NLR/MLR was good irrespective if they received adjuvant trastuzumab. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that trastuzumab modulates the systemic inflammatory conditions and overcomes the poor prognostic impact of high NLR/MLR. This finding may also provide a rationale for combining trastuzumab with immuno-oncological treatments in HER2+ breast cancer.

4.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 173, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) as the primary treatment modality in clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) is emerging. The aim of the study was to analyze the long-term results of PCa patients treated with SBRT. METHODS: This non-selected, real-life patient cohort included 213 patients with localized PCa treated with a robotic SBRT device during 2012-2015. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 64 months (range, 10-85 months), and all risk-groups were represented as 47 (22.1%), 56 (26.3%) and 110 (51.6%) patients were classified into D'Amico risk stratification of low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was administered to 64.3% of the patients. At cut-off, the biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) was 100, 87.5 and 80.0% for patients at low, intermediate and high-risk (p = 0.004), and 92.5, 84.2 and 66.7% for patients with Gleason score ≤ 6, 7 and ≥ 8, respectively (p = 0.001). The actuarial 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 97.9, 96.4 and 88.6% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively, and at the cut-off, the disease-specific survival (DSS) rate of the whole cohort was high (99.1%), as only two high-risk patients died due to PCa. CONCLUSION: Our present results of SBRT delivered with CyberKnife produced excellent long-term bRFS, OS and DSS outcomes among patients with localized PCa. We conclude that SBRT provides an efficient and convenient treatment option for patients with localized PCa, irrespective of the risk-group.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584887

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is increasingly used to characterize breast cancer. The peritumor/tumor ADC ratio is suggested to be a reliable and generally applicable index. However, its overall prognostication value remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the peritumor/tumor ADC ratio and histopathological biomarkers and published prognostic tools in patients with invasive breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 88 lesions (five bilateral) in 83 patients with primary invasive breast cancer who underwent preoperative 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging. The lowest intratumoral mean ADC value on the slice with the largest tumor cross-sectional area was designated the tumor ADC, and the highest mean ADC value on the peritumoral breast parenchymal tissue adjacent to the tumor border was designated the peritumor ADC. The peritumor/tumor ADC ratio was then calculated. The tumor and peritumor ADC values and peritumor/tumor ADC ratios were compared with histopathological parameters using an unpaired t test, and their correlations with published prognostic tools were evaluated with Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The peritumor/tumor ADC ratio was significantly associated with tumor size (p<0.001), histological grade (p = 0.005), Ki-67 index (p = 0.006), axillary-lymph-node metastasis (p = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.006), but was not associated with estrogen receptor status (p = 0.931), progesterone receptor status (p = 0.160), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status (p = 0.259). The peritumor/tumor ADC ratio showed moderate positive correlations with the Nottingham Prognostic Index (r = 0.498, p<0.001) and mortality predicted using PREDICT (r = 0.436, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The peritumor/tumor ADC ratio was correlated with histopathological biomarkers in patients with invasive breast cancer, showed significant correlations with published prognostic indexes, and may provide an easily applicable imaging index for the preoperative prognostic evaluation of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mama/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 453, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As aging is the most significant risk factor for cancer development, long-term prostate cancer (PCa) survivors have an evident risk of developing subsequent primary cancers (SPCs). Radiotherapy itself is an additional risk factor for cancer development and the SPCs appearing beyond 5 years after radiotherapy in the original treatment field can be considered as radiation-induced subsequent primary cancers (RISPCs). METHODS: During the years 1999-2008, 241 patients with localized PCa who underwent low dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) with I125 and were followed-up in Kuopio University Hospital, were included in this study. In this study the incidences and types of SPCs and RISPCs with a very long follow-up time after LDR-BT were evaluated. RESULTS: During the median follow-up time of 11.4 years, a total of 34 (14.1%) patients developed a metachronous SPC. The most abundant SPCs were lung and colorectal cancers, each diagnosed in six patients (16.7% out of all SPCs). The crude incidence rate of RISPC was 1.7% (n = 4). Half of the SPC cases (50%) were diagnosed during the latter half of the follow-up time as the risk to develop an SPC continued throughout the whole follow-up time with the actuarial 10-year SPC rate of 7.0%. The crude death rates due to metachronous out-of-field SPCs and RISPCs were 50 and 50%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The crude rate of SPC was in line with previously published data and the incidence of RISPC was very low. These results support the role of LDR-BT as a safe treatment option for patients with localized PCa.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 312, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949161

RESUMO

Identifying the underlying genetic drivers of the heritability of breast cancer prognosis remains elusive. We adapt a network-based approach to handle underpowered complex datasets to provide new insights into the potential function of germline variants in breast cancer prognosis. This network-based analysis studies ~7.3 million variants in 84,457 breast cancer patients in relation to breast cancer survival and confirms the results on 12,381 independent patients. Aggregating the prognostic effects of genetic variants across multiple genes, we identify four gene modules associated with survival in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and one in ER-positive disease. The modules show biological enrichment for cancer-related processes such as G-alpha signaling, circadian clock, angiogenesis, and Rho-GTPases in apoptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Germinativas , Apoptose , Relógios Circadianos , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Eur Radiol ; 30(1): 38-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the differences in peritumoral apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values by four different ROI selection methods and to validate the optimal method. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate if the peritumor-tumor ADC ratios are correlated with axillary lymph node positivity and hyaluronan accumulation. METHODS: Altogether, 22 breast cancer patients underwent 3.0-T breast MRI, histopathological evaluation, and hyaluronan assay. Paired t and Friedman tests were used to compare minimum, mean, and maximum values of tumoral and peritumoral ADC by four methods: (M1) band ROI, (M2) whole tumor surrounding ROI, (M3) clockwise multiple ROI, and (M4) visual assessment of ROI selection. Subsequently, peritumor/tumor ADC ratios were compared with hyaluronan levels and axillary lymph node status by the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found among the four ROI selection methods regarding minimum, mean, or maximum values of tumoral and peritumoral ADC. Visual assessment ROI measurements represented the less time-consuming evaluation method for the peritumoral area, and with sufficient accuracy. Peritumor/tumor ADC ratios obtained by all methods except the clockwise ROI (M3) showed a positive correlation with hyaluronan content (M1, p = 0.004; M2, p = 0.012; M3, p = 0.20; M4, p = 0.025) and lymph node metastasis (M1, p = 0.001; M2, p = 0.007; M3, p = 0.22; M4, p = 0.015), which are established factors for unfavorable prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the peritumor/tumor ADC ratio could be a readily applicable imaging index associated with axillary lymph node metastasis and extensive hyaluronan accumulation. It could be related to the biological aggressiveness of breast cancer and therefore might serve as an additional prognostic factor. KEY POINTS: • Out of four different ROI selection methods for peritumoral ADC evaluation, measurements based on visual assessment provided sufficient accuracy and were the less time-consuming method. • The peritumor/tumor ADC ratio can provide an easily applicable supplementary imaging index for breast cancer assessment. • A higher peritumor/tumor ADC ratio was associated with axillary lymph node metastasis and extensive hyaluronan accumulation and might serve as an additional prognostic factor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Axila/patologia , Mama/patologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 179(3): 565-575, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720917

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumor microenvironment, including inflammatory cells, adipocytes and extracellular matrix constituents such as hyaluronan (HA), impacts on cancer progression. Systemic metabolism also influences tumor growth e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are risk factors for breast cancer. Here, in 262 breast cancer cases, we explored the combined impacts on survival of M2-like tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), the abundance of breast fat visualized as low density in mammograms, and tumor HA, and their associations with T2D. METHODS: Mammographic densities were assessed visually from the diagnostic images and dichotomized into very low density (VLD, density ≤ 10%, "fatty breast") and mixed density (MID, density > 10%). The amounts of TAMs (CD163+ and CD68+) and tumor HA were determined by immunohistochemistry. The data of T2D was collected from the patient records. Statistical differences between the parameters were calculated with Chi square or Mann-Whitney test and survival analyses with Cox's model. RESULTS: A combination of fatty breasts (VLD), abundance of M2-like TAMs (CD163+) and tumor HA associated with poor survival, as survival was 88-89% in the absence of these factors but only 40-47% when all three factors were present (p < 0.001). Also, an association between T2D and fatty breasts was found (p < 0.01). Furthermore, tumors in fatty breasts contained more frequently high levels of M2-like TAMs than tumors in MID breasts (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a dramatic effect of the tumor microenvironment on breast cancer progression. We hypothesize that T2D as well as obesity increase the fat content of the breasts, subsequently enhancing local pro-tumoral inflammation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Densidade da Mama/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mama/citologia , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 5879-5890, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the prognostic role of androgen receptor (AR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor ß (GRß) expression in HER-2 negative breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population (n=152) was enriched with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (n=96; 63.2%). The median follow-up time was 100 months. AR, MR and GRß immunocytochemical staining was compared with that of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (vimentin, SIP1, ZEB1). RESULTS: High expression of cytoplasmic MR was associated with dismal local relapse-free survival (RR=13.923; 95%CI=1.071-181.045; p=0.044) in tumours with non-TNBC phenotype. AR and GRß were more frequently expressed in ER+/PR+/HER2- tumours, while cytoplasmic MR was more often expressed in TNBC tumours (for all, p<0.0005). GRß and AR were associated with decreased vimentin expression (p<0.005), indicating their association with attenuated EMT. CONCLUSION: Cytoplasmic MR expression is a strong predictor of local recurrence in non-metastatic breast cancer patients with non-TNBC tumour phenotype.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700994

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a common disease partially caused by genetic risk factors. Germline pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, and CHEK2 are associated with breast cancer risk. FANCM, which encodes for a DNA translocase, has been proposed as a breast cancer predisposition gene, with greater effects for the ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. We tested the three recurrent protein-truncating variants FANCM:p.Arg658*, p.Gln1701*, and p.Arg1931* for association with breast cancer risk in 67,112 cases, 53,766 controls, and 26,662 carriers of pathogenic variants of BRCA1 or BRCA2. These three variants were also studied functionally by measuring survival and chromosome fragility in FANCM -/- patient-derived immortalized fibroblasts treated with diepoxybutane or olaparib. We observed that FANCM:p.Arg658* was associated with increased risk of ER-negative disease and TNBC (OR = 2.44, P = 0.034 and OR = 3.79; P = 0.009, respectively). In a country-restricted analysis, we confirmed the associations detected for FANCM:p.Arg658* and found that also FANCM:p.Arg1931* was associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk (OR = 1.96; P = 0.006). The functional results indicated that all three variants were deleterious affecting cell survival and chromosome stability with FANCM:p.Arg658* causing more severe phenotypes. In conclusion, we confirmed that the two rare FANCM deleterious variants p.Arg658* and p.Arg1931* are risk factors for ER-negative and TNBC subtypes. Overall our data suggest that the effect of truncating variants on breast cancer risk may depend on their position in the gene. Cell sensitivity to olaparib exposure, identifies a possible therapeutic option to treat FANCM-associated tumors.

13.
Brachytherapy ; 18(5): 583-588, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227400

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of late severe (≥Grade 3) urinary toxicity and the long-term efficacy after low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) in patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS AND MATERIALS: During the years 1999-2008, 241 patients with PCa who underwent LDR-BT with I125 and were followed up in Kuopio University Hospital were included to this analysis. The incidence of late severe (Grade 3) urinary toxicity and the long-term efficacy results were analyzed. RESULTS: All D'Amico risk groups were represented, as 58.9%, 35.3%, and 5.8% of the patients were classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively. With a median followup of 11.4 years after implantation, the incidence of severe urinary toxicity increased throughout the followup period. The risk of Grade 3 urinary toxicity was highest among patients with higher Gleason scores (p = 0.016) and higher initial urine residual volumes (p = 0.017) and the cumulative incidence of severe urinary toxicity was 10.0%. The crude rate for transurethral prostatic resection was 5.8%. The relapse-free survival, the cause-specific survival, and the overall survival were 79.3%, 95.0%, and 66.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment was well tolerated as 90% of patients avoided any Grade 3 urinary toxicity. LDR-BT for localized PCa achieved high and durable efficacy. These results support the role of LDR-BT monotherapy as one of the valid primary treatment options for low-risk and favorable intermediate-risk patients.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Braquiterapia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Doenças Urológicas/etiologia , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
15.
Melanoma Res ; 29(3): 237-247, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30399061

RESUMO

The role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in cutaneous melanoma is controversial. TAMs include immunogenic and immunosuppressive subtypes, and have distinct functions according to their microanatomical localization. Our aim was to investigate TAMs in benign, premalignant, and malignant melanocytic lesions to determine possible associations with tumor progression and clinicopathological characteristics. In total, 184 tissue samples, including benign and dysplastic nevi, in-situ melanomas, superficial (Breslow's depth <1 mm), and deep (Breslow's depth >4 mm) invasive melanomas and lymph node metastases, were analyzed for macrophage content. Samples were stained immunohistochemically for CD68 and CD163, representing all TAMs and M2-macrophages, respectively. Macrophages were counted by hotspot analysis, and assessed semiquantitatively from the tumor cell nests and stromal component of malignant cases. CD68+ and CD163+ TAMs were more abundant in invasive melanomas compared with benign nevi. The proportion of TAMs in the tumor nests was higher in deep melanomas and lymph node metastases compared with superficially invasive melanomas. High amounts of CD68+ macrophages in tumor cell nests were associated with recurrence, whereas low CD163+ macrophage proportion in tumor stroma was associated with recurrence and in primary melanomas also with poor overall survival. TAMs seem to promote tumor progression in cutaneous melanoma. In particular, CD68+ TAMs and their abundance in tumor nests were associated with poor prognostic factors. However, the correlation of low stromal CD163+ TAM proportion with a poor prognosis indicates that the role of TAMs depends on their subtype and microanatomical localization.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Matrix Biol ; 78-79: 147-164, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709595

RESUMO

Hyaluronan accumulates in the stroma of several solid tumors and promotes their progression. Both enhanced synthesis and fragmentation of hyaluronan are required as a part of this inflammatory process resembling wound healing. Increased expression of the genes of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1-3) are infrequent in human tumors, while posttranslational modifications that activate the HAS enzymes, and glucose shunted to the UDP-sugar substrates HASs, can have crucial contributions to tumor hyaluronan synthesis. The pericellular hyaluronan influences virtually all cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, controlling migration, proliferation, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and stem cell functions. The catabolism by hyaluronidases and free radicals appears to be as important as synthesis for the inflammation that promotes tumor growth, since the receptors mediating the signals create specific responses to hyaluronan fragments. Targeting hyaluronan metabolism shows therapeutic efficiency in animal experiments and early clinical trials.


Assuntos
Hialuronan Sintases/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/biossíntese , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Movimento Celular , Progressão da Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral
17.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(9): 1199-1206, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29852043

RESUMO

Importance: Trastuzumab plus chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant treatment for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. While the standard duration of trastuzumab treatment is 12 months, the benefits and harms of trastuzumab continued beyond the chemotherapy are unclear. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant trastuzumab continued beyond chemotherapy in women treated with up-front chemotherapy containing a taxane and trastuzumab. Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label, randomized (1:1) clinical trial including women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Chemotherapy was identical in the 2 groups, consisting of 3 cycles of 3-weekly docetaxel (either 80 or 100 mg/m2) plus trastuzumab for 9 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide. Thereafter, no trastuzumab was administered in the 9-week group, whereas controls received trastuzumab to complete 1 year of administration. Disease-free survival (DFS) was compared between the groups using a Cox model and the noninferiority approach. The estimated sample size was 2168 patients (1-sided testing, with a relative noninferiority margin of 1.3). From January 3, 2008, to December 16, 2014, 2176 patients were accrued from 7 countries. Intervention: Docetaxel plus trastuzumab for 9 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide in both groups. Controls continued trastuzumab to 1 year. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary objective was DFS; secondary objectives included distant disease-free survival, overall survival, cardiac DFS, and safety. Results: In the 2174 women analyzed, median age was 56 (interquartile range [IQR], 48-64) years. The median follow-up was 5.2 (IQR, 3.8-6.7) years. Noninferiority of the 9-week treatment could not be demonstrated for DFS (hazard ratio, 1.39; 2-sided 90% CI, 1.12-1.72). Distant disease-free survival and overall survival did not differ substantially between the groups. Thirty-six (3%) and 21 (2%) patients in the 1-year and the 9-week groups, respectively, had cardiac failure; the left ventricle ejection fraction was better maintained in the 9-week group. An interaction was detected between the docetaxel dose and DFS; patients in the 9-week group treated with 80 mg/m2 had inferior and those treated with 100 mg/m2 had similar DFS as patients in the 1-year group. Conclusions and Relevance: Nine weeks of trastuzumab was not noninferior to 1 year of trastuzumab when given with similar chemotherapy. Cardiac safety was better in the 9-week group. The docetaxel dosing with trastuzumab requires further study. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00593697.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fatores de Tempo , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem
18.
Acta Oncol ; 57(10): 1331-1338, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generally, screen-detected cancers have more favourable tumour characteristics than clinically detected or symptomatic cancers. Less is known, whether the tumour characteristics of breast cancer have changed over time into more favourable in general and whether the changes have been similar in all ages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to explore the change of breast cancer characteristics in parallel to the implementation of modern diagnostic methods in three age groups over four 5-year time periods between 1992 and 2011. The data from 942 primary breast cancers in one university hospital district in Finland were combined with data from the Finnish Cancer Registry and the Mass Screening Registry. The association of favourable tumour characteristics with time period, age group and diagnostic methods was explored. RESULTS: The most discernible secular change was the increase in oestrogen (ER)-positive cancers in every consecutive time period. The risk for ER positivity in the second, third and fourth period was 2- to 2.71-fold compared to the first period. An increase in small tumours and node-negative tumours was detected during the most recent years of data collection. The secular changes were observed in all age groups; however, overall ER positivity was most frequent among women beyond screening age and small tumours among screening-aged women. The increase in small and node-negative tumours could partly be explained by the implementation of new radiological methods. CONCLUSIONS: This study detected a secular change of tumour characteristics into more favourable irrespective of age group. If the trend continues, it seems that we are going to have a breast cancer population of mainly small ER-positive breast cancers in the future forcing to rethink the therapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 223, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The subtype of claudin-low breast cancer can be reliably determined only by gene-expression profiling. Attempts have been made to develop immunohistochemical surrogates, which nearly always focus on membranous claudin expression. METHODS: We assessed the immunohistochemical expression of both membranous and cytoplasmic claudins 3, 4 and 7 in a series of 197 non-metastatic breast cancers, enriched with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs; 60%). The expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-regulating transcription factors Sip1, Zeb1 and vimentin had previously been determined in the same material. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, strong cytoplasmic claudin 3 expression was associated with poor relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival among TNBC patients (for RFS, RR 5.202, 95% CI 1.210-22.369, p = 0.027, vs. T-class, RR 0.663, 95% CI 0.168-2.623, p = 0.558, and N-class, RR 3.940, 95% CI 0.933-16.631, p = 0.062). Cytoplasmic claudin 3 expression was also associated with strong nuclear Sip1 expression (p = 0.000053), TNBC phenotype (p = 0.012) and within them, non-basal-like phenotype (p = 0.026). Cytoplasmic claudin 7 was associated with dismal RFS (RR 6.328, 95% CI 1.401-28.593, p = 0.016, vs. T-class, RR 0.692, 95% CI 0.242-1.982, p = 0.493, and N-class, RR 2.981, 95% CI 1.1016-8.749, p = 0.047). Low cytoplasmic expression of claudins 3, 4 and 7 together also predicted poor RFS (RR 6.070, 95% CI 1.347-27.363, p = 0.019, vs. T-class, RR 0.677, 95% CI 0.237-1.934, p = 0.467, and N-class, RR 3.167, 95% CI 1.079-9.290, p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical expression levels of cytoplasmic claudins 3 and 7 appear to be novel prognostic factors in TNBC.


Assuntos
Claudina-3/genética , Claudinas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Claudina-3/análise , Claudina-4/análise , Claudina-4/genética , Claudinas/análise , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica
20.
Matrix Biol ; 67: 63-74, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331336

RESUMO

Increased uptake of glucose, a general hallmark of malignant tumors, leads to an accumulation of intermediate metabolites of glycolysis. We investigated whether the high supply of these intermediates promotes their flow into UDP-sugars, and consequently into hyaluronan, a tumor-promoting matrix molecule. We quantified UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) in human breast cancer biopsies, the levels of enzymes contributing to their synthesis, and their association with the hyaluronan accumulation in the tumor. The content of UDP-GlcUA was 4 times, and that of UDP-GlcNAc 12 times higher in the tumors as compared to normal glandular tissue obtained from breast reductions. The surge of UDP-GlcNAc correlated with an elevated mRNA expression of glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase 2 (GFAT2), one of the key enzymes in the biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc, and the expression of GFAT1 was also elevated. The contents of both UDP-sugars strongly correlated with tumor hyaluronan levels. Interestingly, hyaluronan content did not correlate with the mRNA levels of the hyaluronan synthases (HAS1-3), thus emphasizing the role of the UDP-sugar substrates of these enzymes. The UDP-sugars showed a trend to higher levels in ductal vs. lobular cancer subtypes. The results reveal for the first time a dramatic increase of UDP-sugars in breast cancer, and suggest that their high supply drives the accumulation of hyaluronan, a known promoter of breast cancer and other malignancies. In general, the study shows how the disturbed glucose metabolism typical for malignant tumors can influence cancer microenvironment through UDP-sugars and hyaluronan.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato Ácido Glucurônico/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato N-Acetilglicosamina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glutamina-Frutose-6-Fosfato Transaminase (Isomerizante)/genética , Humanos , Hialuronan Sintases/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...