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1.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

2.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842629

RESUMO

Tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in maintaining immunological homeostasis, dampening immune responses, and promoting tolerance. DC-10, a tolerogenic population of human IL-10-producing DCs characterized by the expression of HLA-G and ILT4, play a pivotal role in promoting tolerance via T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells. Thus far, the absence of markers that uniquely identify DC-10 has limited in vivo studies. By in vitro gene expression profiling of differentiated human DCs, we identified CD141 and CD163 as surface markers for DC-10. The coexpression of CD141 and CD163 in combination with CD14 and CD16 enables the ex vivo isolation of DC-10 from the peripheral blood. CD14+CD16+CD141+CD163+ cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy subjects (ex vivo DC-10) produced spontaneously and upon activation of IL-10 and limited levels of IL-12. Moreover, in vitro stimulation of allogeneic naive CD4+ T cells with ex vivo DC-10 induced the differentiation of alloantigen-specific CD49b+LAG-3+ Tr1 cells. Finally, ex vivo DC-10 and in vitro generated DC-10 exhibited a similar transcriptional profile, which are characterized by an anti-inflammatory and pro-tolerogenic signature. These results provide new insights into the phenotype and molecular signature of DC-10 and highlight the tolerogenic properties of circulating DC-10. These findings open the opportunity to track DC-10 in vivo and to define their role in physiological and pathological settings.

3.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
4.
Mutagenesis ; 31(3): 323-8, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26208916

RESUMO

Assessment of genetic toxicity and/or carcinogenic activity is an essential element of chemical screening programs employed to protect human health. Dose-response and gene mutation data are frequently analysed by industry, academia and governmental agencies for regulatory evaluations and decision making. Over the years, a number of efforts at different institutions have led to the creation and curation of databases to house genetic toxicology data, largely, with the aim of providing public access to facilitate research and regulatory assessments. This article provides a brief introduction to a new genetic toxicology portal called Mutation Analysis Informatics Tools (MutAIT) (www.mutait.org) that provides easy access to two of the largest genetic toxicology databases, the Mammalian Gene Mutation Database (MGMD) and TransgenicDB. TransgenicDB is a comprehensive collection of transgenic rodent mutation data initially compiled and collated by Health Canada. The updated MGMD contains approximately 50 000 individual mutation spectral records from the published literature. The portal not only gives access to an enormous quantity of genetic toxicology data, but also provides statistical tools for dose-response analysis and calculation of benchmark dose. Two important R packages for dose-response analysis are provided as web-distributed applications with user-friendly graphical interfaces. The 'drsmooth' package performs dose-response shape analysis and determines various points of departure (PoD) metrics and the 'PROAST' package provides algorithms for dose-response modelling. The MutAIT statistical tools, which are currently being enhanced, provide users with an efficient and comprehensive platform to conduct quantitative dose-response analyses and determine PoD values that can then be used to calculate human exposure limits or margins of exposure.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Mutação , Software , Toxicologia/métodos , Animais , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Biologia Computacional/métodos , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Genéticos , Primatas/genética , Ratos
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