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1.
Chemistry ; 26(11): 2436-2449, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774196

RESUMO

The substitution of scandium in fullerene single-molecule magnets (SMMs) DySc2 N@C80 and Dy2 ScN@C80 by lutetium has been studied to explore the influence of the diamagnetic metal on the SMM performance of dysprosium nitride clusterfullerenes. The use of lutetium led to an improved SMM performance of DyLu2 N@C80 , which shows a higher blocking temperature of magnetization (TB =9.5 K), longer relaxation times, and broader hysteresis than DySc2 N@C80 (TB =6.9 K). At the same time, Dy2 LuN@C80 was found to have a similar blocking temperature of magnetization to Dy2 ScN@C80 (TB =8 K), but substantially different interactions between the magnetic moments of the dysprosium ions in the Dy2 MN clusters. Surprisingly, although the intramolecular dipolar interactions in Dy2 LuN@C80 and Dy2 ScN@C80 are of similar strength, the exchange interactions in Dy2 LuN@C80 are close to zero. Analysis of the low-frequency molecular and lattice vibrations showed strong mixing of the lattice modes and endohedral cluster librations in k-space. This mixing simplifies the spin-lattice relaxation by conserving the momentum during the spin flip and helping to distribute the moment and energy further into the lattice.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(14): 5756-5764, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860759

RESUMO

Magnetic hysteresis is demonstrated for monolayers of the single-molecule magnet (SMM) Dy2 ScN@C80 deposited on Au(111), Ag(100), and MgO|Ag(100) surfaces by vacuum sublimation. The topography and electronic structure of Dy2 ScN@C80 adsorbed on Au(111) were studied by STM. X-ray magnetic CD studies show that the Dy2 ScN@C80 monolayers exhibit similarly broad magnetic hysteresis independent on the substrate used, but the orientation of the Dy2 ScN cluster depends strongly on the surface. DFT calculations show that the extent of the electronic interaction of the fullerene molecules with the surface is increasing dramatically from MgO to Au(111) and Ag(100). However, the charge redistribution at the fullerene-surface interface is fully absorbed by the carbon cage, leaving the state of the endohedral cluster intact. This Faraday cage effect of the fullerene preserves the magnetic bistability of fullerene-SMMs on conducting substrates and facilitates their application in molecular spintronics.

3.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(10): 2981-2993, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571482

RESUMO

A characteristic phenomenon of lanthanide-fullerene interactions is the transfer of metal valence electrons to the carbon cage. With early lanthanides such as La, a complete transfer of six valence electrons takes place for the metal dimers encapsulated in the fullerene cage. However, the low energy of the σ-type Ln-Ln bonding orbital in the second half of the lanthanide row limits the Ln2 → fullerene transfer to only five electrons. One electron remains in the Ln-Ln bonding orbital, whereas the fullerene cage with a formal charge of -5 is left electron-deficient. Such Ln2@C80 molecules are unstable in the neutral form but can be stabilized by substitution of one carbon atom by nitrogen to give azafullerenes Ln2@C79N or by quenching the unpaired electron on the fullerene cage by reacting it with a chemical such as benzyl bromide, transforming one sp2 carbon into an sp3 carbon and yielding the monoadduct Ln2@C80(CH2Ph). Because of the presence of the Ln-Ln bonding molecular orbital with one electron, the Ln2@C79N and Ln2@C80(R) molecules feature a unique single-electron Ln-Ln bond and an unconventional +2.5 oxidation state of the lanthanides. In this Account, which brings together metallofullerenes, molecular magnets, and lanthanides in unconventional valence states, we review the progress in the studies of dimetallofullerenes with single-electron Ln-Ln bonds and highlight the consequences of the unpaired electron residing in the Ln-Ln bonding orbital for the magnetic interactions between Ln ions. Usually, Ln···Ln exchange coupling in polynuclear lanthanide compounds is weak because of the core nature of 4f electrons. However, when interactions between Ln centers are mediated by a radical bridge, stronger coupling may be achieved because of the diffuse nature of radical-based orbitals. Ultimately, when the role of a radical bridge is played by a single unpaired electron in the Ln-Ln bonding orbital, the strength of the exchange coupling is increased dramatically. Giant exchange coupling in endohedral Ln2 dimers is combined with a rather strong axial ligand field exerted on the lanthanide ions by the fullerene cage and the excess electron density localized between two Ln ions. As a result, Ln2@C79N and Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) compounds exhibit slow relaxation of magnetization and exceptionally high blocking temperatures for Ln = Dy and Tb. At low temperatures, the [Ln3+-e-Ln3+] fragment behaves as a single giant spin. Furthermore, the Ln-Ln bonding orbital in dimetallofullerenes is redox-active, which allows its population to be changed by electrochemical reactions, thus changing the magnetic properties because the change in the number of electrons residing in the Ln-Ln orbital affects the magnetic structure of the molecule.

4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(20): 1901352, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637168

RESUMO

A new class of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) based on Dy-oxide clusterfullerenes is synthesized. Three isomers of Dy2O@C82 with C s(6), C 3v(8), and C 2v(9) cage symmetries are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which shows that the endohedral Dy-(µ2-O)-Dy cluster has bent shape with very short Dy-O bonds. Dy2O@C82 isomers show SMM behavior with broad magnetic hysteresis, but the temperature and magnetization relaxation depend strongly on the fullerene cage. The short Dy-O distances and the large negative charge of the oxide ion in Dy2O@C82 result in the very strong magnetic anisotropy of Dy ions. Their magnetic moments are aligned along the Dy-O bonds and are antiferromagnetically (AFM) coupled. At low temperatures, relaxation of magnetization in Dy2O@C82 proceeds via the ferromagnetically (FM)-coupled excited state, giving Arrhenius behavior with the effective barriers equal to the AFM-FM energy difference. The AFM-FM energy differences of 5.4-12.9 cm-1 in Dy2O@C82 are considerably larger than in SMMs with {Dy2O2} bridges, and the Dy∙∙∙Dy exchange coupling in Dy2O@C82 is the strongest among all dinuclear Dy SMMs with diamagnetic bridges. Dy-oxide clusterfullerenes provide a playground for the further tuning of molecular magnetism via variation of the size and shape of the fullerene cage.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(16): 8197-8200, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816387

RESUMO

The ordering of endohedral clusterfullerenes Sc3N@C80 and YSc2N@C80 co-crystallized with Ni(OEP) and isolated complexes with Ni(OEP) have been investigated theoretically. Having used multiple orientations of M3N clusters inside the cages with Fibonacci sampling, we describe the effect of intermolecular interactions on the orientation of the endohedral cluster.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 571, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718550

RESUMO

Engineering intramolecular exchange interactions between magnetic metal atoms is a ubiquitous strategy for designing molecular magnets. For lanthanides, the localized nature of 4f electrons usually results in weak exchange coupling. Mediating magnetic interactions between lanthanide ions via radical bridges is a fruitful strategy towards stronger coupling. In this work we explore the limiting case when the role of a radical bridge is played by a single unpaired electron. We synthesize an array of air-stable Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) dimetallofullerenes (Ln2 = Y2, Gd2, Tb2, Dy2, Ho2, Er2, TbY, TbGd) featuring a covalent lanthanide-lanthanide bond. The lanthanide spins are glued together by very strong exchange interactions between 4f moments and a single electron residing on the metal-metal bonding orbital. Tb2@C80(CH2Ph) shows a gigantic coercivity of 8.2 Tesla at 5 K and a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 25.2 K. The Ln-Ln bonding orbital in Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) is redox active, enabling electrochemical tuning of the magnetism.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(18): 5891-5896, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786125

RESUMO

The azafullerene Tb2 @C79 N is found to be a single-molecule magnet with a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 24 K and large coercivity. Tb magnetic moments with an easy-axis single-ion magnetic anisotropy are strongly coupled by the unpaired spin of the single-electron Tb-Tb bond. Relaxation of magnetization in Tb2 @C79 N below 15 K proceeds via quantum tunneling of magnetization with the characteristic time τQTM =16 462±1230 s. At higher temperature, relaxation follows the Orbach mechanism with a barrier of 757±4 K, corresponding to the excited states, in which one of the Tb spins is flipped.

8.
Nanoscale ; 10(38): 18153-18160, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132489

RESUMO

The magnetic ordering and bistability of one-dimensional chains of endofullerene Dy2ScN@C80 single-molecule magnets (SMMs) packed inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and ab initio calculations. X-ray absorption measurements reveal that the orientation of the encapsulated endofullerenes differs from the isotropic distribution in the bulk sample, indicating a partial ordering of the endofullerenes inside the SWCNTs. The effect of the one-dimensional packing was further investigated by ab initio calculations, demonstrating that for specific tube diameters, the encapsulation is leading to energetically preferential orientations of the endohedral clusters. Additionally, element-specific magnetization curves reveal a decreased magnetic bistability of the encapsulated Dy2ScN@C80 SMMs compared to the bulk analog.

9.
J Comput Chem ; 39(21): 1594-1598, 2018 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681135

RESUMO

Any single molecular magnets (SMMs) perspective for application is as good as its magnetization stability in ambient conditions. Endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) provide a solid basis for promising SMMs. In this study, we investigated the behavior of functionalized EMFs on a gold surface (EMF-L-Au). Having followed the systems molecular dynamics paths, we observed that the chemically locked inner cluster inside fullerene cage will remain locked even at room temperature due to the ligand-effect. We have located multiple possible minima with different charge arrangements between EMF-L-Au fragments. Remarkably, the charge state of the EMF inner cluster remained virtually constant and so magnetic properties are expected to be untouched. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

10.
Chem Sci ; 8(9): 6451-6465, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263779

RESUMO

A method for the selective synthesis of sulfide clusterfullerenes Dy2S@C2n is developed. Addition of methane to the reactive atmosphere reduces the formation of empty fullerenes in the arc-discharge synthesis, whereas the use of Dy2S3 as a source of metal and sulfur affords sulfide clusterfullerenes as the main fullerene products along with smaller amounts of carbide clusterfullerenes. Two isomers of Dy2S@C82 with Cs(6) and C3v(8) cage symmetry, Dy2S@C72-Cs(10528), and a carbide clusterfullerene Dy2C2@C82-Cs(6) were isolated. The molecular structure of both Dy2S@C82 isomers was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. SQUID magnetometry demonstrates that all of these clusterfullerenes exhibit hysteresis of magnetization, with Dy2S@C82-C3v(8) being the strongest single molecule magnet in the series. DC- and AC-susceptibility measurements were used to determine magnetization relaxation times in the temperature range from 1.6 K to 70 K. Unprecedented magnetization relaxation dynamics with three consequent Orbach processes and energy barriers of 10.5, 48, and 1232 K are determined for Dy2S@C82-C3v(8). Dy2S@C82-Cs(6) exhibits faster relaxation of magnetization with two barriers of 15.2 and 523 K. Ab initio calculations were used to interpret experimental data and compare the Dy-sulfide clusterfullerenes to other Dy-clusterfullerenes. The smallest and largest barriers are ascribed to the exchange/dipolar barrier and relaxation via crystal-field states, respectively, whereas an intermediate energy barrier of 48 K in Dy2S@C82-C3v(8) is assigned to the local phonon mode, corresponding to the librational motion of the Dy2S cluster inside the carbon cage.

11.
Nanotechnology ; 28(43): 435703, 2017 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28885185

RESUMO

Endohedral lanthanide ions packed inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a one-dimensional assembly have been studied with a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). By correlating HRTEM and STXM images we show that structures down to 30 nm are resolved with chemical contrast and record x-ray absorption spectra from endohedral lanthanide ions embedded in individual nanoscale CNT bundles. XMCD measurements of an Er3N@C80 bulk sample and a macroscopic assembly of filled CNTs indicate that the magnetic properties of the endohedral Er3+ ions are unchanged when encapsulated in CNTs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of local magnetic x-ray characterisation of low concentrations of lanthanide ions embedded in molecular nanostructures.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 16098, 2017 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706223

RESUMO

Increasing the temperature at which molecules behave as single-molecule magnets is a serious challenge in molecular magnetism. One of the ways to address this problem is to create the molecules with strongly coupled lanthanide ions. In this work, endohedral metallofullerenes Y2@C80 and Dy2@C80 are obtained in the form of air-stable benzyl monoadducts. Both feature an unpaired electron trapped between metal ions, thus forming a single-electron metal-metal bond. Giant exchange interactions between lanthanide ions and the unpaired electron result in single-molecule magnetism of Dy2@C80(CH2Ph) with a record-high 100 s blocking temperature of 18 K. All magnetic moments in Dy2@C80(CH2Ph) are parallel and couple ferromagnetically to form a single spin unit of 21 µB with a dysprosium-electron exchange constant of 32 cm-1. The barrier of the magnetization reversal of 613 K is assigned to the state in which the spin of one Dy centre is flipped.

13.
Nanoscale ; 9(23): 7977-7990, 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574078

RESUMO

Lanthanide-lanthanide bonds are exceptionally rare, and dimetallofullerenes provide a unique possibility to stabilize and study these unusual bonding patterns. The presence of metal-metal bonds and consequences thereof for the electronic properties of M2@C82 (M = Sc, Er, Lu) are addressed by electrochemistry, electron paramagnetic resonance, SQUID magnetometry and other spectroscopic techniques. A simplified non-chromatographic separation procedure is developed for the isolation of Er2@C82 (Cs(6) and C3v(8) cage isomers) and Sc2@C82 (C3v(8) isomer) from fullerene mixtures. Sulfide clusterfullerenes Er2S@C82 with Cs(6) and C3v(8) fullerene cages are synthesized for the first time. The metal-metal bonding orbital of the spd hybrid character in M2@C82 is shown to be the highest occupied molecular orbital, which undergoes reversible single-electron oxidation with a metal-dependent oxidation potential. Sulfide clusterfullerenes with a fullerene-based HOMO have more positive oxidation potentials. The metal-based oxidation of Sc2@C82-C3v is confirmed by the EPR spectrum of the cation radical [Sc2@C82-C3v]+ generated by chemical oxidation in solution. The spectrum exhibits an exceptionally large a(45Sc) hyperfine coupling constant of 199.2 G, indicating a substantial 4s contribution to the metal-metal bonding orbital. The cationic salt [Er2@C82-C3v]+SbCl6- is prepared, and its magnetization behavior is compared to that of pristine Er2@C82-C3v and Er2S@C82-C3v. The formation of the single-electron Er-Er bond in the cation dramatically changes the coupling between magnetic moments of Er ions.

14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 269, 2017 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28325911

RESUMO

A long time ago, Kuhn predicted that long polymers should approach a limit where their global motion is controlled by solvent friction alone, with ruggedness of their energy landscapes having no consequences for their dynamics. In contrast, internal friction effects are important for polymers of modest length. Internal friction in proteins, in particular, affects how fast they fold or find their binding targets and, as such, has attracted much recent attention. Here we explore the molecular origins of internal friction in unfolded proteins using atomistic simulations, coarse-grained models and analytic theory. We show that the characteristic internal friction timescale is directly proportional to the timescale of hindered dihedral rotations within the polypeptide chain, with a proportionality coefficient b that is independent of the chain length. Such chain length independence of b provides experimentally testable evidence that internal friction arises from concerted, crankshaft-like dihedral rearrangements. In accord with phenomenological models of internal friction, we find the global reconfiguration timescale of a polypeptide to be the sum of solvent friction and internal friction timescales. At the same time, the time evolution of inter-monomer distances within polypeptides deviates both from the predictions of those models and from a simple, one-dimensional diffusion model.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/metabolismo , Fricção , Solventes/metabolismo
15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(16): 4525-4529, 2017 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332256

RESUMO

We report the first example of a donor-acceptor corannulene-containing hybrid material with rapid ligand-to-ligand energy transfer (ET). Additionally, we provide the first time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) data for any corannulene-based compounds in the solid state. Comprehensive analysis of PL data in combination with theoretical calculations of donor-acceptor exciton coupling was employed to estimate ET rate and efficiency in the prepared material. The ligand-to-ligand ET rate calculated using two models is comparable with that observed in fullerene-containing materials, which are generally considered for molecular electronics development. Thus, the presented studies not only demonstrate the possibility of merging the intrinsic properties of π-bowls, specifically corannulene derivatives, with the versatility of crystalline hybrid scaffolds, but could also foreshadow the engineering of a novel class of hierarchical corannulene-based hybrid materials for optoelectronic devices.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(31): 9070-4, 2016 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27265385

RESUMO

Herein, we report the first example of a crystalline metal-donor-fullerene framework, in which control of the donor-fullerene mutual orientation was achieved through chemical bond formation, in particular, by metal coordination. The (13) C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy were performed for comprehensive structural analysis and energy-transfer (ET) studies of the fulleretic donor-acceptor scaffold. Furthermore, in combination with photoluminescence measurements, the theoretical calculations of the spectral overlap function, Förster radius, excitation energies, and band structure were employed to elucidate the photophysical and ET processes in the prepared fulleretic material. We envision that the well-defined fulleretic donor-acceptor materials could contribute not only to the basic science of fullerene chemistry but would also be used towards effective development of organic photovoltaics and molecular electronics.

18.
J Phys Chem B ; 120(8): 1537-45, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26401617

RESUMO

The notions of a reaction path and a reaction coordinate are central to chemistry as they provide low-dimensional descriptions of complex molecular processes. Here we discuss how to define, compute, and use the reaction paths for chemical transformations in molecules that are subjected to mechanical stress and thus driven toward regions of conformational space that are otherwise inaccessible both in computational studies and in reality. We further show that the circuitous nature of mechanochemical pathways often makes their one-dimensional description impossible and describe how multidimensional effects can be detected experimentally.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 142(17): 174106, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25956089

RESUMO

In covalent mechanochemistry, precise application of mechanical stress to molecules of interest ("mechanophores") is used to induce to promote desired reaction pathways. Computational prediction of such phenomena and rational mechanophore design involves the computationally costly task of finding relevant transition-state saddles on force-deformed molecular potential energy surfaces (PESs). Finding a transition state often requires an initial guess about the pathway by which the reaction will proceed. Unfortunately, chemical intuition often fails when predicting likely consequences of mechanical stress applied to molecular systems. Here, we describe a fully deterministic method for finding mechanochemically relevant transition states and reaction pathways. The method is based on the observation that application of a sufficiently high mechanical force will eventually destabilize any molecular structure. Mathematically, such destabilization proceeds via a "catastrophe" occurring at a critical force where the energy minimum corresponding to the stable molecular structure coalesces with a transition state. Catastrophe theory predicts the force-deformed PES to have universal behavior in the vicinity of the critical force, allowing us to deduce the molecular structure of the transition state just below the critical force analytically. We then use the previously developed method of tracking transition-state evolution with the force to map out the entire reaction path and to predict the complete force dependence of the reaction barrier. Beyond its applications in mechanochemistry, this approach may be useful as a general method of finding transition states using fictitious forces to target specific reaction mechanisms.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(44): 15641-6, 2014 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25331874

RESUMO

Single-atom catalysts are of great interest because of their high efficiency. In the case of chemically deposited sp(2) carbon, the implementation of a single transition metal atom for growth can provide crucial insight into the formation mechanisms of graphene and carbon nanotubes. This knowledge is particularly important if we are to overcome fabrication difficulties in these materials and fully take advantage of their distinct band structures and physical properties. In this work, we present atomically resolved transmission EM in situ investigations of single Fe atoms at graphene edges. Our in situ observations show individual iron atoms diffusing along an edge either removing or adding carbon atoms (viz., catalytic action). The experimental observations of the catalytic behavior of a single Fe atom are in excellent agreement with supporting theoretical studies. In addition, the kinetics of Fe atoms at graphene edges are shown to exhibit anomalous diffusion, which again, is in agreement with our theoretical investigations.


Assuntos
Grafite/química , Ferro/química , Modelos Químicos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química
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