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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047286

RESUMO

The aim of this survey was to summarize the current antimicrobial practice in febrile neutropenia and the presence of key aspects of antimicrobial stewardship. A questionnaire was sent to 567 centers, and complete responses were obtained from 194 (34.2%). Fluoroquinolone and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis are used in 57.1% and 89.1%, respectively. In 66.4%, the first-line empirical therapy is piperacillin/tazobactam, whereas 10.9% use carbapenems. Empirical combination therapy is used in stable patients without history of resistant pathogens in 37.4%. De-escalation to monotherapy is performed within 3 days in 35.3% and after 10 days in 19.1%. Empirical addition of a glycopeptide is performed when fever persists more than 2-3 days in 60.8%. Empirical escalation to a broader spectrum agent is performed when fever persists more than 3-5 days in 71.4%. In case of positive blood cultures with a susceptible pathogen and uncomplicated presentation, 76.7% of centers de-escalate and 36.6% discontinue before neutrophil recovery. In fever of unknown origin with uncomplicated presentation, 54.1% of centers de-escalate and 49.5% discontinue before neutrophil recovery. Recommendations put forward in the ECIL guidelines are not widely implemented in clinical practice. Specific problems include overuse of carbapenems and combination therapy and unjustified addition of glycopeptides without further de-escalation or discontinuation.

2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(7): 698-705, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a major cause of community-acquired upper and lower respiratory infections in school-age children; however, there is increasing recognition that younger children are also affected. Clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic, to severe complicated pneumonia sometimes with extrapulmonary manifestations. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all MP positive pediatric patients admitted to the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center. MP positive case was defined if MP polymerase chain reaction was positive from an oropharyngeal swab sent from 2007 to 2017. RESULTS: During the study period, we identified 353 MP positive pediatric cases, of which 51.3% (181 of 353) were younger than 6 years old. Full clinical data were available for 332 of 353 (94%). The median age was 5.7 years (range, 3 weeks to 18 years). Disease presentation differed between younger and older children. Children older than 6 years were more likely to have chest radiograph confirmed pneumonia (66% vs. 52%; P = 0.009), while younger children were more likely to have other respiratory manifestations (37% vs. 25%; P = 0.017). The duration of hospitalization and pediatric intensive care unit admission rate, however, did not differ between age groups. The rate of extrapulmonary manifestations were also similar. CONCLUSIONS: MP-associated infection is a significant cause of hospitalization in the pediatric population including younger children (<6 years old). However, the clinical presentation in younger age is less typical than is thought. These findings should prompt clinicians to consider MP infections also in children younger than 6 admitted with fever even without pneumonia.

3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(4): 575-579, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734096

RESUMO

Pyogenic sacroiliitis (PS) is rare with less than 100 pediatric cases reported in the medical literature. To better characterize PS in the pediatric population, we investigated a series of children presenting with PS. Retrospective data analysis was done at an academic tertiary center between the years of 2000 and 2017. All hospitalized children ≤ 16 years of age with PS were evaluated. Of the 894 children hospitalized with osteoarticular infections, 18 were diagnosed with PS (2%) and are included in the review. Two clinically distinct groups were identified. PS in infants (n = 13, 72.2%, mean age 1.1 years) had an indolent course and a faster recovery without any bacterial source identified. In contrast, the group of older children (n = 5, 27.8%, mean age 11.6 years) had a more complicated course and a higher rate of identified bacterial infections.Conclusion: We describe an under-recognized entity of PS in infants with a mild clinical course and fast recovery that differ from the "classical" septic sacroiliitis. Infants with PS did not suffer from invasive complications, and pathogen characteristics of older children were not identified. Infants with fever, irritability, decreased range of motion in the pelvic area, and pain during diapering should alert the clinician to this diagnosis. What is Known: • Pediatric pyogenic sacroiliitis is an extremely rare condition usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus with highest incidence in adolescents. • The diagnosis of PS is challenging due to its rarity and difficulty in assessing the sacroiliac joint. What is New: • We describe an under-recognized entity of PS in infants with a mild clinical course, without invasive complications and with fast recovery that differ from "classical" septic sacroiliitis. • Infants with fever, irritability, decreased range of motion in the pelvic area and pain during diapering should raise clinical suspicion of this diagnosis.


Assuntos
Sacroileíte/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/etiologia , Osteomielite/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sacroileíte/diagnóstico por imagem , Sacroileíte/tratamento farmacológico , Sacroileíte/fisiopatologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/fisiopatologia
4.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(8): 1275-1280, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546071

RESUMO

To determine the current practices on the management of Adenovirus (ADV) infection after allogenic stem cell transplantation, a survey was undertook among EBMT centres. The response rate was 20% (91/446): 46% were adult, 44% were paediatric and 10% were mixed centres, respectively. The overall incidence of ADV infection was 7.1%: 4.1% in adult, 15.4% in paediatric, and 3.6% in mixed population. The determination of ADV-DNA in biological samples was used in 96% of centres; 58% of them monitored asymptomatic patients with a frequency of twice a week in 9%, once a week in 45%, every two weeks in 4% of centres. The treatment of ADV infection was mainly based on the administration of cidofovir (87%), being the schedule of 5 mg/kg/week with probenecid the most used, and the reduction of immunosuppression (84%). The threshold of ADV-DNAemia to start cidofovir in high-risk patients was most frequently >1000 copies/ml. Innovative treatments, such as brincidofovir and adoptive ADV-cytotoxic-T-lymphocytes, were used in 27% and 20% of centres, respectively. Almost all responding centres consider ADV infection serious enough to deserve testing asymptomatic or symptomatic patients. Cidofovir and reduction of immunosuppression represent the main therapeutic options but one fourth of responding centres experimented novel therapies.

5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(5): 459-463, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a major cause of bacteremia in children. Methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) is considered a public health threat; however, the differences in the prognosis of children with methicillin-susceptible SA (MSSA) versus MRSA bacteremia are not well defined. METHODS: Data from all SA bacteremia events in children (0-16 years) from 2002 to 2016 in a single Israeli tertiary center were collected. Positive cultures within 48 hours of hospitalization were considered community associated (CA). Those obtained afterward or from children hospitalized within the previous year were considered health-care associated (HA). RESULTS: We recorded 427 events, 284 (66%) were HA, 64 (15%) were MRSA and 9 (2%) were CA-MRSA. There was no increase in MRSA during the study period. In-hospital, 30-day and 1-year mortality were 3% (12 cases), 3.5% (16 cases), and 12% (50 cases), respectively. A multivariable analysis controlling for demographics, admitting department and prior morbidity showed an increased 1-year mortality in children with HA bacteremia (hazard ratio [HR] 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-12) and prior chronic disease (HR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.0). MRSA was not independently associated with increased one-year mortality compared with MSSA: HR (95% CI: 1.4 [0.6-3.1]). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term pediatric mortality after SA bacteremia is low. HA-SA bacteremia has an increased long-term risk for mortality, particularly in children with chronic diseases. Our data suggest mortality was not increased for MRSA compared with MSSA bacteremia. The very low rate of CA-MRSA bacteremia justifies the current practice not to include glycopeptides in the empiric treatment of CA bacteremia in Israel.

6.
Science ; 349(6248): 606-613, 2015 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26160376

RESUMO

Human inborn errors of immunity mediated by the cytokines interleukin-17A and interleukin-17F (IL-17A/F) underlie mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report the discovery of bi-allelic RORC loss-of-function mutations in seven individuals from three kindreds of different ethnic origins with both candidiasis and mycobacteriosis. The lack of functional RORγ and RORγT isoforms resulted in the absence of IL-17A/F-producing T cells in these individuals, probably accounting for their chronic candidiasis. Unexpectedly, leukocytes from RORγ- and RORγT-deficient individuals also displayed an impaired IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium. This principally reflected profoundly defective IFN-γ production by circulating γδ T cells and CD4(+)CCR6(+)CXCR3(+) αß T cells. In humans, both mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and systemic immunity to Mycobacterium require RORγ, RORγT, or both.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/imunologia , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/genética , Imunidade/genética , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Tuberculose Bovina/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Alelos , Animais , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/complicações , Candidíase Mucocutânea Crônica/imunologia , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico da Cadeia alfa dos Receptores de Antígenos dos Linfócitos T , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timo/anormalidades , Timo/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia
7.
J Clin Virol ; 58(1): 205-10, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23810613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human parechoviruses (HPeV) have been recognized as the causative agents of central nervous system (CNS) infection of infants and young children in different parts of the world. The role of HPeV in CNS infection of Israeli infants and children is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the detection rate of HPeV in enterovirus RT-PCR-negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained during the years 2007-2009 from children 0-5 years old with suspected CNS infection or from very young infants with unexplained fever in four medical centers in Israel. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 367 CSF samples were retrospectively tested for the presence of HPeV RNA using nested RT-PCR assay. Positive samples were further typed on the basis of molecular sequencing. Retrospective analysis of the medical charts was performed. RESULTS: HPeV3 RNA was detected in CSF obtained between May and September 2008 in 13 patients, all of whom were <3 months old (3.5% of all CSFs; 11.3% of all infants<3 months in 2008). The HPeV-positive CSF samples were without pleocytosis. All HPeV3-positive patients recovered without obvious short term sequelae. CONCLUSION: HPeV infection could play an important role in summertime febrile/CNS illness in young infants during specific years with high HPeV activity. PCR detection of parechoviral RNA in CSF should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of fever or CNS infection of neonates and very young infants. The rapid identification of HPeV in CSF could curtail unnecessary empirical antibiotic treatment and shorten hospital stay in selected patients.


Assuntos
Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Parechovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Parechovirus/classificação , Parechovirus/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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