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1.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385007

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the accuracy of rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy computed tomography (rsDECT) for prediction of classes of non-uric-acid stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Non-uric-acid renal stones retrieved via percutaneous nephrolithotomy were prospectively collected between January 2017 and February 2018 in a single institution. Only stones ≥ 5 mm and with pure composition (i.e., ≥ 80% composed of one component) were included. Stone composition was determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The stones were scanned in 32-cm-wide anthropomorphic whole-body phantom using rsDECT. The effective atomic number (Zeff), the attenuation at 40 keV (HU40), 70 keV (HU70), and 140 keV (HU140) virtual monochromatic sets of images as well as the ratios between the attenuations were calculated. Values of stone classes were compared using ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating curves and area under curve (AUC) were calculated. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The final study sample included 31 stones from 31 patients consisting of 25 (81%) calcium-based, 4 (13%) cystine, and 2 (6%) struvite pure stones. The mean size of the stones was 9.9 ± 2.4 mm. The mean Zeff of the stones was 12.01 ± 0.54 for calcium-based, 11.10 ± 0.68 for struvite, and 10.23 ± 0.75 for cystine stones (p < 0.001). Zeff had the best efficacy to separate different classes of stones. The calculated AUC was 0.947 for Zeff; 0.833 for HU40; 0.880 for HU70; and 0.893 for HU140. CONCLUSION: Zeff derived from rsDECT has superior performance to HU and attenuation ratios for separation of different classes of non-uric-acid stones.

2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 572-580, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012316

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To better characterize metabolic stone risk in patients with neurologically derived musculoskeletal deficiencies (NDMD) by determining how patient characteristics relate to renal calculus composition and 24-hour urine parameters. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with neurologically derived musculoskeletal deficiencies presenting to our multidisciplinary Kidney Stone Clinic. Patients with a diagnosis of NDMD, at least one 24-hour urine collection, and one chemical stone analysis were included in the analysis. Calculi were classified as primarily metabolic or elevated pH. We assessed in clinical factors, demographics, and urine metabolites for differences between patients who formed primarily metabolic or elevated pH stones. Results: Over a 16-year period, 100 patients with NDMD and nephrolithiasis were identified and 41 met inclusion criteria. Thirty percent (12 / 41) of patients had purely metabolic calculi. Patients with metabolic calculi were significantly more likely to be obese (median body mass index 30.3kg / m2 versus 25.9kg / m2), void spontaneously (75% vs. 6.9%), and have low urine volumes (100% vs. 69%). Patients who formed elevated pH stones were more likely to have positive preoperative urine cultures with urease splitting organisms (58.6% vs. 16.7%) and be hyperoxaluric and hypocitraturic on 24-hour urine analysis (37mg / day and 265mg / day versus 29mg / day and 523mg / day). Conclusions: Among patients with NDMD, metabolic factors may play a more significant role in renal calculus formation than previously believed. There is still a high incidence of carbonate apatite calculi, which could be attributed to bacteriuria. However, obesity, low urine volumes, hypocitraturia, and hyperoxaluria suggest an underrecognized metabolic contribution to stone formation in this population.

3.
J Urol ; 202(2): 309-313, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026215

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kidney stone formers have lower health related quality of life than nonstone formers. The North American Stone Quality of Life Consortium is a multicenter, longitudinal, prospective study of health related quality of life in patients with kidney stones using the WISQOL (Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life Questionnaire) with data on 2,052 patients from a total of 11 centers. This study is a subanalysis of cross-sectional data looking at the association of age, gender and race on health related quality of life of stone formers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed multivariable analyses of ordinal logistic regression analyses to determine the impact of age, gender and race on health related quality of life, adjusting for other baseline covariates. The proportional odds assumption of ordinal logistic regression was checked. Total score and scores on 4 subdomains (social functioning, emotional functioning, stone related impact and vitality) were included. RESULTS: Median total score for all patients was 80.4. On multivariable analysis older patients had a significantly higher total health related quality of life score than younger patients (per 10-year increase OR 1.25, p <0.0001). Male patients had higher scores than females (OR 1.56, p = 0.0003) and nonCaucasian patients had lower health related quality of life than nonLatino Caucasian patients (OR 0.63, p = 0.0045). CONCLUSIONS: Younger and female patients with kidney stones have lower health related quality of life than older and male patients, respectively. NonCaucasian patients with stones also have lower health related quality of life. The clinical impact of these findings might include future implications for patient counseling, including dietary and medical management of stone disease, and potential changes to the paradigm of the surgical management of stones.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
4.
J Urol ; 202(1): 119-124, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kidney stones are a source of significant morbidity which have been shown to negatively impact health related quality of life. We sought to understand the association between health related quality of life, socioeconomic status and race among patients with kidney stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with stones at a total of 11 stone centers across the United States completed the WISQOL (Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life questionnaire). The patient ZIP Code™ was used to estimate household income. A mixed effects regression model was constructed for analysis with ZIP Code as the random intercept. RESULTS: A total of 2,057 stone formers completed the WISQOL. Lower income was independently associated with significantly lower health related quality of life (ß = 0.372, p = 0.014), as were nonwhite race (ß = -0.299, p = 0.001), unemployed work status (ß = -0.291, p = 0.008), female gender (ß = -0.204, p <0.001), body mass index greater than 40 kg/m2 (ß = -0.380, p <0.001), 5 or more medical comorbidities (ß = -0.354, p = 0.001), severe recurrent stone formation (ß = -0.146, p = 0.045), enrollment at an acute care visit, or a preoperative or postoperative appointment (ß = -0.548, p <0.001) and recent stone symptoms (ß = -0.892, p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Lower income, nonwhite race and unemployed work status were independently associated with lower health related quality of life among patients with kidney stones. While clinical characteristics such as body mass and stone disease severity were also associated with health related quality of life, this study shows that socioeconomic factors are similarly important. Further research to understand the specific mechanisms by which socioeconomic status and race impact health may lend insight into methods to optimize clinical treatment of stone formers and patients with other chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Doença Crônica , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
J Urol ; 201(5): 955, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821582
6.
Urology ; 123: 32, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598222
7.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(3): 572-580, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676304

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To better characterize metabolic stone risk in patients with neurologically derived musculoskeletal deficiencies (NDMD) by determining how patient characteristics relate to renal calculus composition and 24-hour urine parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with neurologically derived musculoskeletal deficiencies presenting to our multidisciplinary Kidney Stone Clinic. Patients with a diagnosis of NDMD, at least one 24-hour urine collection, and one chemical stone analysis were included in the analysis. Calculi were classified as primarily metabolic or elevated pH. We assessed in clinical factors, demographics, and urine metabolites for differences between patients who formed primarily metabolic or elevated pH stones. RESULTS: Over a 16-year period, 100 patients with NDMD and nephrolithiasis were identified and 41 met inclusion criteria. Thirty percent (12 / 41) of patients had purely metabolic calculi. Patients with metabolic calculi were significantly more likely to be obese (median body mass index 30.3kg / m2 versus 25.9kg / m2), void spontaneously (75% vs. 6.9%), and have low urine volumes (100% vs. 69%). Patients who formed elevated pH stones were more likely to have positive preoperative urine cultures with urease splitting organisms (58.6% vs. 16.7%) and be hyperoxaluric and hypocitraturic on 24-hour urine analysis (37mg / day and 265mg / day versus 29mg / day and 523mg / day). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with NDMD, metabolic factors may play a more significant role in renal calculus formation than previously believed. There is still a high incidence of carbonate apatite calculi, which could be attributed to bacteriuria. However, obesity, low urine volumes, hypocitraturia, and hyperoxaluria suggest an underrecognized metabolic contribution to stone formation in this population.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/química , Cálculos Renais/urina , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/urina , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/urina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Urol ; 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29913138

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To our knowledge it is unknown whether the benefits of medical management of urolithiasis outweigh the potential side effects of the medications used, including potassium citrate and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between potassium citrate or thiazides and overall stone related health related quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data were obtained on stone forming enrollees in the North American Stone Quality of Life Consortium. We used the WISQOL (Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life) questionnaire to compare health related quality of life between patients treated and not treated with potassium citrate or thiazide type diuretics. Additionally, the likelihood of gastrointestinal complaints was compared between those prescribed and not prescribed potassium citrate. The likelihood of fatigue and sexual complaints was also compared in those prescribed and not prescribed thiazides. RESULTS: Of the 1,511 subjects, including 787 males and 724 females, 279 were on potassium citrate and 238 were on thiazides at study enrollment. Patients prescribed potassium citrate had higher health related quality of life in each domain vs those not prescribed potassium citrate (p <0.001). Patients prescribed thiazides had higher health related quality of life in each domain compared to those not prescribed thiazide (all p <0.01). Those prescribed potassium citrate were less likely than those not prescribed potassium citrate to report nausea, stomach upset or cramps (OR 0.57, p <0.001). Patients prescribed thiazides were less likely than those not prescribed thiazides to report fatigue (OR 0.63, p = 0.004) or reduced sexual interest and/or activity (OR 0.64, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Among stone formers the use of potassium citrate and thiazides was associated with better health related quality of life across all WISQOL domains without an increased likelihood of gastrointestinal complaints and fatigue or sexual complaints, respectively. These findings may be useful when counseling patients regarding the initiation of potassium citrate or thiazides for medical management of nephrolithiasis.

10.
Can J Urol ; 25(1): 9154-9160, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29524969

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The risks of exposure to medical ionizing radiation is of increasing concern both among medical professionals and the general public. Patients with nephrolithiasis are exposed to high levels of ionizing radiation through both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Endourologists who perform a high-volume of fluoroscopy guided procedures are also exposed to significant quantities of ionizing radiation. The combination of judicious use of radiation-based imaging modalities, application of new imaging techniques such as ultra-low dose computed tomography (CT) scan, and modifying use of current technology such as increasing ultrasound and pulsed fluoroscopy utilization offers the possibility of significantly reducing radiation exposure. We present a review of the literature regarding the risks of medical ionizing radiation to patients and surgeons as it pertains to the field of endourology and interventions that can be performed to limit this exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the current state of the literature was performed using MEDLINE and PubMed. Interventions designed to limit patient and surgeon radiation exposure were identified and analyzed. Summaries of the data were compiled and synthesized in the body of the text. RESULTS: While no level 1 evidence exists demonstrating the risk of secondary malignancy with radiation exposure, the preponderance of evidence suggests a dose and age dependent increase in malignancy risk from ionizing radiation. Patients with nephrolithiasis were exposed to an average effective dose of 37mSv over a 2 year period. Multiple evidence-based interventions to limit patient and surgeon radiation exposure and associated risk were identified. CONCLUSION: Current evidence suggest an age and dose dependent risk of secondary malignancy from ionizing radiation. Urologists must act in accordance with ALARA principles to safely manage nephrolithiasis while minimizing radiation exposure.

12.
J Urol ; 197(4): 1079-1083, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27765695

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency is often detected during metabolic evaluation in the nephrolithiasis population. Multiple vitamin D repletion protocols exist, although their differing impact on urinary stone formation risk factors is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with a history of calcium stones and vitamin D deficiency (less than 30 ng/ml) were randomized to receive either 1,000 IU daily or 50,000 IU weekly of vitamin D supplementation for 6 weeks. Patients completed a pretreatment and posttreatment serum vitamin D level evaluation and 24-hour urine collections to assess the response and any changes in urine stone formation risk parameters. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients completed the study, including 8 who received 1,000 IU daily and 13 who received 50,000 IU weekly. The 50,000 IU weekly group showed a significant increase in median serum vitamin D levels of 23 ng/ml (135%, p <0.01), while the 1,000 IU daily group showed a nonsignificant median increase of 9 ng/ml (49%, p = 0.12). Post-repletion 24-hour urine analysis demonstrated no significant change in urine calcium between the groups, including a median change of -11 mg (IQR -143-29) in patients receiving 1,000 IU and -16 mg (IQR -42-66) in those receiving 50,000 IU. Between the groups there was no significant difference in the supersaturation of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. CONCLUSIONS: High dose and low dose vitamin D repletion had no effect on urine calcium excretion or the supersaturation of calcium salts in known stone formers. The higher dosing regimen, which had superior repletion, may be the optimal protocol in patients with vitamin D deficiency.

13.
J Urol ; 197(5): 1280-1288, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: WISQOL (Wisconsin Stone Quality of Life questionnaire) is a disease specific, health related quality of life measure designed for patients who form kidney stones. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the external and convergent validity of WISQOL and assess its psychometric properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At the WISQOL creation site (development sample) and at 8 geographically diverse centers in the United States and Canada (consortium sample) patients with a history of kidney stones were recruited. Item response option variability, correlation patterns and internal consistency were compared between samples. Convergent validity was assessed by patients who completed both WISQOL and SF-36v2® (36-Item Short Form Health Survey, version 2). RESULTS: Results were analyzed in 1,609 patients, including 275 in the development sample and 1,334 in the consortium sample. Response option variability patterns of all items were acceptable. Internal WISQOL consistency was acceptable. Intersample score comparisons revealed few differences. For both samples the domain-total WISQOL score correlations exceeded 0.86. Item level analyses demonstrated suitable variation, allowing for discriminatory scoring. At the time that they completed WISQOL, patients with stones and stone related symptoms scored lowest for health related quality of life. Patients with stones but no symptoms and those with no stones scored higher. The convergent validity substudy confirmed the ability of WISQOL to identify stone specific decrements in health related quality of life that were not identified on SF-36v2. CONCLUSIONS: WISQOL is internally consistent and discriminates among patients with different stone statuses and symptoms. WISQOL is externally valid across the North American population. It may be used for multicenter health related quality of life studies in kidney stone disease.

14.
J Urol ; 197(3 Pt 1): 714, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27992754
15.
Urology ; 97: 129, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27569422
17.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 10(11-12): 403-404, 2016 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28096914
19.
Can J Urol ; 22(2): 7758-62, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25891344

RESUMO

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the standard treatment for patients with large stone burdens, but can be associated with significant complications. Flexible ureteroscopy is an alternative approach that is less invasive, but often requires multiple procedures. Typically, many factors play a role in the decision to perform PCNL or ureteroscopy. The challenge is that it is difficult to predict which stone burdens will be able to be cleared ureteroscopically. We describe our approach using initial prone ureteroscopy with the transition to standard prone PCNL if required.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/patologia , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Litotripsia a Laser , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Posicionamento do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Urol ; 194(4): 1063-7, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25912495

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The urology match is highly competitive but there is a paucity of published data regarding the costs and barriers that applicants face. We gathered data on contributors to cost in the 2014 urology residency match. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was sent to all applicants offered an interview at each of 18 participating institutions. Information on demographics, interview related costs, access to financial aid, frequency of away rotations and second look invitations was collected. RESULTS: A total of 173 respondents spent a median of $7,000 on the urology match. Applicants attended a mean of 14 interviews with an average per interview cost of $500. Overall 95% of respondents did at least 1 away rotation and 79% reported being asked to return for a second look interview at least once. Of the respondents 66% did not receive any financial aid for interviews and only 28% believed their financial aid departments provided adequate financial planning. Of those surveyed 20% indicated that their financial situation limited the number of interviews they attended. CONCLUSIONS: We estimate that $3,122,000 was spent by applicants on the 2014 urology match. One in 5 applicants reported limiting the number of interviews they attended due to financial concerns. Adequate financial planning resources were not widely available. Nearly all applicants went on an away rotation and encouragement to return for second look interviews was common. These factors may contribute to financial and regional bias in the match process, and are potential targets for reform.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/economia , Candidatura a Emprego , Urologia/educação , Adulto , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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