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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 115(17): 172502, 2015 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26551107

RESUMO

We report the first measurement of the target single-spin asymmetry, A(y), in quasielastic scattering from the inclusive reaction (3)He(↑)(e,e') on a (3)He gas target polarized normal to the lepton scattering plane. Assuming time-reversal invariance, this asymmetry is strictly zero for one-photon exchange. A nonzero A(y) can arise from the interference between the one- and two-photon exchange processes which is sensitive to the details of the substructure of the nucleon. An experiment recently completed at Jefferson Lab yielded asymmetries with high statistical precision at Q(2)=0.13, 0.46, and 0.97 GeV(2). These measurements demonstrate, for the first time, that the (3)He asymmetry is clearly nonzero and negative at the 4σ-9σ level. Using measured proton-to-(3)He cross-section ratios and the effective polarization approximation, neutron asymmetries of -(1-3)% were obtained. The neutron asymmetry at high Q(2) is related to moments of the generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Our measured neutron asymmetry at Q(2)=0.97 GeV(2) agrees well with a prediction based on two-photon exchange using a GPD model and thus provides a new, independent constraint on these distributions.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(23): 232505, 2014 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25526124

RESUMO

We present a precise measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in the ^{3}He[over →](e[over →],e^{'}d) reaction. This particular process is a uniquely sensitive probe of hadron dynamics in ^{3}He and the structure of the underlying electromagnetic currents. The measurements have been performed in and around quasielastic kinematics at Q^{2}=0.25(GeV/c)^{2} for missing momenta up to 270 MeV/c. The asymmetries are in fair agreement with the state-of-the-art calculations in terms of their functional dependencies on p_{m} and ω, but are systematically offset. Beyond the region of the quasielastic peak, the discrepancies become even more pronounced. Thus, our measurements have been able to reveal deficiencies in the most sophisticated calculations of the three-body nuclear system, and indicate that further refinement in the treatment of their two-and/or three-body dynamics is required.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(2): 022002, 2014 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25062166

RESUMO

Double-spin asymmetries and absolute cross sections were measured at large Bjorken x (0.25≤x≤0.90), in both the deep-inelastic and resonance regions, by scattering longitudinally polarized electrons at beam energies of 4.7 and 5.9 GeV from a transversely and longitudinally polarized (3)He target. In this dedicated experiment, the spin structure function g(2)((3)He) was determined with precision at large x, and the neutron twist-3 matrix element d(2)(n) was measured at ⟨Q(2)⟩ of 3.21 and 4.32 GeV(2)/c(2), with an absolute precision of about 10(-5). Our results are found to be in agreement with lattice QCD calculations and resolve the disagreement found with previous data at ⟨Q(2)⟩=5 GeV(2)/c(2). Combining d(2)(n) and a newly extracted twist-4 matrix element f(2)(n), the average neutron color electric and magnetic forces were extracted and found to be of opposite sign and about 30 MeV/fm in magnitude.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(2): 022501, 2014 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25062168

RESUMO

We studied simultaneously the (4)He(e,e'p), (4)He(e,e'pp), and (4)He(e,e'pn) reactions at Q(2)=2(GeV/c)(2) and x(B)>1, for an (e,e'p) missing-momentum range of 400 to 830 MeV/c. The knocked-out proton was detected in coincidence with a proton or neutron recoiling almost back to back to the missing momentum, leaving the residual A=2 system at low excitation energy. These data were used to identify two-nucleon short-range correlated pairs and to deduce their isospin structure as a function of missing momentum, in a region where the nucleon-nucleon (NN) force is expected to change from predominantly tensor to repulsive. The abundance of neutron-proton pairs is reduced as the nucleon momentum increases beyond ∼500 MeV/c. The extracted fraction of proton-proton pairs is small and almost independent of the missing momentum. Our data are compared with calculations of two-nucleon momentum distributions in (4)He and discussed in the context of probing the elusive repulsive component of the NN force.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(2): 022502, 2014 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25062169

RESUMO

We report the first measurement of the target-normal single-spin asymmetry in deep-inelastic scattering from the inclusive reaction 3)He(↑)(e,e')X on a polarized (3)He gas target. Assuming time-reversal invariance, this asymmetry is strictly zero in the Born approximation but can be nonzero if two-photon-exchange contributions are included. The experiment, conducted at Jefferson Lab using a 5.89 GeV electron beam, covers a range of 1.72 GeV, which is nonzero at the 2.89σ level. Our measured asymmetry agrees both in sign and magnitude with a two-photon-exchange model prediction that uses input from the Sivers transverse momentum distribution obtained from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 111(14): 141803, 2013 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24152148

RESUMO

The Q(weak) experiment has measured the parity-violating asymmetry in ep elastic scattering at Q(2)=0.025(GeV/c)(2), employing 145 µA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons on a 34.4 cm long liquid hydrogen target at Jefferson Lab. The results of the experiment's commissioning run, constituting approximately 4% of the data collected in the experiment, are reported here. From these initial results, the measured asymmetry is A(ep)=-279±35 (stat) ± 31 (syst) ppb, which is the smallest and most precise asymmetry ever measured in ep scattering. The small Q(2) of this experiment has made possible the first determination of the weak charge of the proton Q(W)(p) by incorporating earlier parity-violating electron scattering (PVES) data at higher Q(2) to constrain hadronic corrections. The value of Q(W)(p) obtained in this way is Q(W)(p)(PVES)=0.064±0.012, which is in good agreement with the standard model prediction of Q(W)(p)(SM)=0.0710±0.0007. When this result is further combined with the Cs atomic parity violation (APV) measurement, significant constraints on the weak charges of the up and down quarks can also be extracted. That PVES+APV analysis reveals the neutron's weak charge to be Q(W)(n)(PVES+APV)=-0.975±0.010.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(20): 202501, 2013 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25167400

RESUMO

The first measurement of the three-body photodisintegration of longitudinally polarized (3)He with a circularly polarized γ-ray beam was carried out at the High Intensity γ-ray Source facility located at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. The spin-dependent double-differential cross sections and the contributions from the three-body photodisintegration to the (3)He Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn integrand are presented and compared with state-of-the-art three-body calculations at the incident photon energies of 12.8 and 14.7 MeV. The data reveal the importance of including the Coulomb interaction between protons in three-body calculations.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(11): 112502, 2012 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22540469

RESUMO

We report the first measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry A(PV) in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb. A(PV) is sensitive to the radius of the neutron distribution (R(n)). The result A(PV)=0.656±0.060(stat)±0.014(syst) ppm corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions R(n)-R(p)=0.33(-0.18)(+0.16) fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin which is expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus.

9.
10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(19): 191804, 2011 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22181599

RESUMO

We present a search at the Jefferson Laboratory for new forces mediated by sub-GeV vector bosons with weak coupling α' to electrons. Such a particle A' can be produced in electron-nucleus fixed-target scattering and then decay to an e + e- pair, producing a narrow resonance in the QED trident spectrum. Using APEX test run data, we searched in the mass range 175-250 MeV, found no evidence for an A'→ e+ e- reaction, and set an upper limit of α'/α ~/= 10(-6). Our findings demonstrate that fixed-target searches can explore a new, wide, and important range of masses and couplings for sub-GeV forces.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(7): 072003, 2011 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21902386

RESUMO

We report the first measurement of target single spin asymmetries in the semi-inclusive (3)He(e,e'π(±))X reaction on a transversely polarized target. The experiment, conducted at Jefferson Lab using a 5.9 GeV electron beam, covers a range of 0.16 < x < 0.35 with 1.4 < Q(2) < 2.7 GeV(2). The Collins and Sivers moments were extracted from the azimuthal angular dependence of the measured asymmetries. The π(±) Collins moments for (3)He are consistent with zero, except for the π(+) moment at x = 0.35, which deviates from zero by 2.3σ. While the π(-) Sivers moments are consistent with zero, the π(+) Sivers moments favor negative values. The neutron results were extracted using the nucleon effective polarization and measured cross section ratios of proton to (3)He, and are largely consistent with the predictions of phenomenological fits and quark model calculations.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(26): 262302, 2010 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21231649

RESUMO

The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from studies of the reaction 3He(e,e'n)pp in quasielastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized target in which the nuclear polarization was oriented perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons that were registered in a large-solid-angle detector. More than doubling the Q2 range over which it is known, we find G(E)(n)=0.0236±0.0017(stat)±0.0026(syst), 0.0208±0.0024±0.0019, and 0.0147±0.0020±0.0014 for Q(2)=1.72, 2.48, and 3.41 GeV2, respectively.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 101(18): 182502, 2008 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18999823

RESUMO

We present experimental results of the first high-precision test of quark-hadron duality in the spin-structure function g_{1} of the neutron and 3He using a polarized 3He target in the four-momentum-transfer-squared range from 0.7 to 4.0 (GeV/c);{2}. Global duality is observed for the spin-structure function g_{1} down to at least Q;{2}=1.8 (GeV/c);{2} in both targets. We have also formed the photon-nucleon asymmetry A1 in the resonance region for 3He and found no strong Q2 dependence above 2.2 (GeV/c);{2}.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 101(2): 022303, 2008 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18764175

RESUMO

We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the 3He over -->(e over -->,e')X reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at a four-momentum transfer 0.1< or =Q2< or =0.9 GeV2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt-Cottingham and extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rules for the first time. The data are also compared to an impulse approximation calculation and an exact three-body Faddeev calculation in the quasielastic region.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 99(9): 092301, 2007 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17930999

RESUMO

We have measured the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry in elastic scattering of transversely polarized 3 GeV electrons from unpolarized protons at Q2=0.15, 0.25 (GeV/c)2. The results are inconsistent with calculations solely using the elastic nucleon intermediate state and generally agree with calculations with significant inelastic hadronic intermediate state contributions. A(n) provides a direct probe of the imaginary component of the 2gamma exchange amplitude, the complete description of which is important in the interpretation of data from precision electron-scattering experiments.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 98(3): 032301, 2007 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17358678

RESUMO

We report new measurements of the parity-violating asymmetry A(PV) in elastic scattering of 3 GeV electrons off hydrogen and 4He targets with approximately 6.0 degrees . The 4He result is A(PV)=(+6.40+/-0.23(stat)+/-0.12(syst))x10(-6). The hydrogen result is A(PV)=(-1.58+/-0.12(stat)+/-0.04(syst))x10(-6). These results significantly improve constraints on the electric and magnetic strange form factors G(E)(s) and G(M)(s). We extract G(E)(s)=0.002+/-0.014+/-0.007 at =0.077 GeV2, and G(E)(s)+0.09G(M)(s)=0.007+/-0.011+/-0.006 at =0.109 GeV2, providing new limits on the role of strange quarks in the nucleon charge and magnetization distributions.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 96(2): 022003, 2006 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16486563

RESUMO

We have measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 4He at an average scattering angle = 5.7 degrees and a four-momentum transfer Q2 = 0.091 GeV2 . From these data, for the first time, the strange electric form factor of the nucleon G(E)s can be isolated. The measured asymmetry of A(PV) = (6.72 +/- 0.84(stat) +/- 0.21(syst) x 10(-6) yields a value of G(E)s = -0.038 +/- 0.042(stat) +/- 0.010(syst), consistent with zero.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 95(9): 092001, 2005 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16197209

RESUMO

We have measured parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton scattering over the range of momentum transfers 0.12 < or =Q2 < or =1.0 GeV2. These asymmetries, arising from interference of the electromagnetic and neutral weak interactions, are sensitive to strange-quark contributions to the currents of the proton. The measurements were made at Jefferson Laboratory using a toroidal spectrometer to detect the recoiling protons from a liquid hydrogen target. The results indicate nonzero, Q2 dependent, strange-quark contributions and provide new information beyond that obtained in previous experiments.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 95(14): 142002, 2005 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16241646

RESUMO

We present the first measurement of the Q2 dependence of the neutron spin structure function g2(n) at five kinematic points covering 0.57 (GeV/c)2 < or = Q2 < or = 1.34 (GeV/c)2 at x approximately = 0.2. Though the naive quark-parton model predicts g2 = 0, nonzero values occur in more realistic models of the nucleon which include quark-gluon correlations, finite quark masses, or orbital angular momentum. When scattering from a noninteracting quark, g2(n) can be predicted using next-to-leading order fits to world data for g1(n). Deviations from this prediction provide an opportunity to examine QCD dynamics in nucleon structure. Our results show a positive deviation from this prediction at lower Q2, indicating that contributions such as quark-gluon interactions may be important. Precision data obtained for g1(n) are consistent with next-to-leading order fits to world data.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 93(15): 152301, 2004 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15524867

RESUMO

The generalized forward spin polarizabilities gamma(0) and delta(LT) of the neutron have been extracted for the first time in a Q2 range from 0.1 to 0.9 GeV2. Since gamma(0) is sensitive to nucleon resonances and delta(LT) is insensitive to the Delta resonance, it is expected that the pair of forward spin polarizabilities should provide benchmark tests of the current understanding of the chiral dynamics of QCD. The new results on delta(LT) show significant disagreement with chiral perturbation theory calculations, while the data for gamma(0) at low Q2 are in good agreement with a next-to-leading-order relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory calculation. The data show good agreement with the phenomenological MAID model.

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