Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 32
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Hortic Res ; 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039852

RESUMO

In this study we investigated the transcriptome and epigenome dynamics of the tomato fruit during post-harvest in a landrace belonging to a group of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) collectively known as "Piennolo del Vesuvio", all characterized by a long shelf-life. Expression of protein-coding genes and microRNAs as well as DNA methylation patterns and histone modifications were analysed in distinct post-harvest phases. Multi-omics data integration contributed to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying processes leading to long shelf-life. We unveiled global changes in transcriptome and epigenome. DNA methylation increased and the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 was lost as the fruit progressed from red ripe to 150 days post-harvest. Thousands of genes were differentially expressed, about half of which were potentially epi-regulated as they were engaged in at least one epi-mark change in addition to being microRNA targets in ~5% of cases. Down-regulation of the ripening regulator MADS-RIN and of genes involved in ethylene response and cell wall degradation was consistent with the delayed fruit softening. Large-scale epigenome reprogramming that occurred in the fruit during post-harvest likely contributed to delayed fruit senescence.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(5)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069771

RESUMO

Whole-genome doubling (polyploidy) is common in angiosperms. Several studies have indicated that it is often associated with molecular, physiological, and phenotypic changes. Mounting evidence has pointed out that micro-RNAs (miRNAs) may have an important role in whole-genome doubling. However, an integrative approach that compares miRNA expression in polyploids is still lacking. Here, a re-analysis of already published RNAseq datasets was performed to identify microRNAs' precursors (pre-miRNAs) in diploids (2x) and tetraploids (4x) of five species (Arabidopsis thaliana L., Morus alba L., Brassica rapa L., Isatis indigotica Fort., and Solanum commersonii Dun). We found 3568 pre-miRNAs, three of which (pre-miR414, pre-miR5538, and pre-miR5141) were abundant in all 2x, and were absent/low in their 4x counterparts. They are predicted to target more than one mRNA transcript, many belonging to transcription factors (TFs), DNA repair mechanisms, and related to stress. Sixteen pre-miRNAs were found in common in all 2x and 4x. Among them, pre-miRNA482, pre-miRNA2916, and pre-miRNA167 changed their expression after polyploidization, being induced or repressed in 4x plants. Based on our results, a common ploidy-dependent response was triggered in all species under investigation, which involves DNA repair, ATP-synthesis, terpenoid biosynthesis, and several stress-responsive transcripts. In addition, an ad hoc pre-miRNA expression analysis carried out solely on 2x vs. 4x samples of S. commersonii indicated that ploidy-dependent pre-miRNAs seem to actively regulate the nucleotide metabolism, probably to cope with the increased requirement for DNA building blocks caused by the augmented DNA content. Overall, the results outline the critical role of microRNA-mediated responses following autopolyploidization in plants.

3.
Plant Sci ; 298: 110597, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771154

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are antioxidant pigments widely used in drugs and food preparations. Flesh-coloured tubers of the cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum are important sources of different anthocyanins. Due to the high degree of decoration achieved by acylation, anthocyanins from potato are very stable and suitable for the food processing industry. The use of cell culture allows to extract anthocyanins on-demand, avoiding seasonality and consequences associated with land-based-tuber production. However, a well-known limit of cell culture is the metabolic instability and loss of anthocyanin production during successive subcultures. To get a general picture of mechanisms responsible for this instability, we explored both genetic and epigenetic regulation that may affect anthocyanin production in cell culture. We selected two clonally related populations of anthocyanin-producing (purple) and non-producing (white) potato cells. Through targeted molecular investigations, we identified and functionally characterized an R3-MYB, here named StMYBATV. This transcription factor can interact with bHLHs belonging to the MBW (R2R3-MYB, bHLH and WD40) anthocyanin activator complex and, potentially, may interfere with its formation. Genome methylation analysis revealed that, for several genomic loci, anthocyanin-producing cells were more methylated than clonally related white cells. In particular, we localized some methylation events in ribosomal protein-coding genes. Overall, our study explores novel molecular aspects associated with loss of anthocyanins in cell culture systems.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Epigênese Genética , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Tubérculos/citologia , Solanum tuberosum/citologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética
4.
Life (Basel) ; 10(4)2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290207

RESUMO

Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are a class of nitrogen-containing glycosides occurring in several plant families and biosynthesized through a specific pathway. HMG-CoA reductase is the first enzyme of this pathway, and its transcription can be regulated by biotic and abiotic stressors and even in a tissue-specific manner. This study aimed to characterize the HMG genes family in a tuber-bearing potato species, Solanum commersonii, using transcriptional and functional approaches. Our results provided evidence that four ScHMGs with different tissue-specificities represent the HMG gene family in S. commersonii and that they originated from ScHMG1 through segmental duplications. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that ScHMG1 is the direct ortholog of AtHMG1, which is associated with SGAs accumulation in plants. Its overexpression in S. commersonii revealed that this gene plays a key role in the accumulation of glycoalkaloids regulating the production of dehydrocommersonine.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7196, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346026

RESUMO

Wild potatoes, as dynamic resource adapted to various environmental conditions, represent a powerful and informative reservoir of genes useful for breeding efforts. WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are encoded by one of the largest families in plants and are involved in several biological processes such as growth and development, signal transduction, and plant defence against stress. In this study, 79 and 84 genes encoding putative WRKY TFs have been identified in two wild potato relatives, Solanum commersonii and S. chacoense. Phylogenetic analysis of WRKY proteins divided ScWRKYs and SchWRKYs into three Groups and seven subGroups. Structural and phylogenetic comparative analyses suggested an interspecific variability of WRKYs. Analysis of gene expression profiles in different tissues and under various stresses allowed to select ScWRKY045 as a good candidate in wounding-response, ScWRKY055 as a bacterial infection triggered WRKY and ScWRKY023 as a multiple stress-responsive WRKY gene. Those WRKYs were further studied through interactome analysis allowing the identification of potential co-expression relationships between ScWRKYs/SchWRKYs and genes of various pathways. Overall, this study enabled the discrimination of WRKY genes that could be considered as potential candidates in both breeding programs and functional studies.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Solanum , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Solanum/microbiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 25(1)2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935970

RESUMO

Plants produce a vast array of biomolecules with beneficial effects for human health. In this study, polyphenol and anthocyanin-rich extracts (PAE) from pigmented tubers of Solanum tuberosum L. varieties "Blue Star", "Magenta Love", and "Double Fun" in comparison with the more extensively studied "Vitelotte" were evaluated and compared for antiproliferative effects in human leukemia cells, and their phytochemical and genetic profiles were determined. In U937 cells, upon treatment with PAE, it was possible to reveal the expression of specific apoptotic players, such as caspase 8, 9, 3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), as well as the induction of monocyte and granulocyte differentiation. A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) investigation revealed the presence of polyphenolic compounds in all the varieties of potatoes analyzed, among which caffeoyl and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives were the most abundant, as well as several acylated anthocyanins. Each pigmented variety was genotyped by DNA-based molecular markers, and flavonoid-related transcription factors were profiled in tubers in order to better characterize these outstanding resources and contribute to their exploitation in breeding. Interesting biological activities were observed for "Blue Star" and "Vitelotte" varieties with respect to the minor or no effect of the "Double Fun" variety.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tubérculos/química , Polifenóis/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Perfil Genético , Genótipo , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
7.
Planta ; 251(1): 34, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848729

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Arundo donax ecotypes react differently to salinity, partly due to differences in constitutive defences and methylome plasticity. Arundo donax L. is a C3 fast-growing grass that yields high biomass under stress. To elucidate its ability to produce biomass under high salinity, we investigated short/long-term NaCl responses of three ecotypes through transcriptional, metabolic and DNA methylation profiling of leaves and roots. Prolonged salt treatment discriminated the sensitive ecotype 'Cercola' from the tolerant 'Domitiana' and 'Canneto' in terms of biomass. Transcriptional and metabolic responses to NaCl differed between the ecotypes. In roots, constitutive expression of ion transporter and stress-related transcription factors' genes was higher in 'Canneto' and 'Domitiana' than 'Cercola' and 21-day NaCl drove strong up-regulation in all ecotypes. In leaves, unstressed 'Domitiana' confirmed higher expression of the above genes, whose transcription was repressed in 'Domitiana' but induced in 'Cercola' following NaCl treatment. In all ecotypes, salinity increased proline, ABA and leaf antioxidants, paralleled by up-regulation of antioxidant genes in 'Canneto' and 'Cercola' but not in 'Domitiana', which tolerated a higher level of oxidative damage. Changes in DNA methylation patterns highlighted a marked capacity of the tolerant 'Domitiana' ecotype to adjust DNA methylation to salt stress. The reduced salt sensitivity of 'Domitiana' and, to a lesser extent, 'Canneto' appears to rely on a complex set of constitutively activated defences, possibly due to the environmental conditions of the site of origin, and on higher plasticity of the methylome. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of adaptability of A. donax ecotypes to salinity, offering new perspectives for the improvement of this species for cultivation in limiting environments.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Ecótipo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Biomassa , Genes de Plantas/genética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Pressão Osmótica , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Transcriptoma
8.
Planta ; 251(1): 32, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823009

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Genomic and transcriptomic studies in plants and, more in deep, in grapevine reveal that the disease-resistance RNL gene family is highly variable. RNLs (RPW8-NLRs) are a phylogenetically distinct class of nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) identified in plants. Two RNLs, namely, the NRG1 (N Requirement Gene 1) and the ADR1 (Activated Disease Resistance 1), have been characterized; however, little is known about the RNL evolutionary history in higher plants. To trace the diversification of RNL gene subfamily, we scanned the NLR proteins of 73 plant genomes belonging to 29 taxa, revealing a noticeable diversification across species and within the same genus or botanic family together with a conspicuous expansion in important crop species. To explore the RNL variability in Vitis vinifera and gain information with respect to their structure, evolutionary diversification of five grape genomes ('Aglianico', 'Falanghina', 'Sultanina', 'Tannat', and 'Nebbiolo') has been compared to the reference genome ('Pinot Noir'). The number of RNLs ranged from 6 ('Sultanina') to 14 ('Nebbiolo'), in contrast to the 10 'Pinot Noir' RNLs. The phylogenetic study on grapevine RNLs revealed that all collapsed into NRG1-clade, rather than four. To investigate more in depth the means of intraspecific variability of grape RNL copies, a transcriptomic profiling in response to powdery mildew (PM) infection was carried out through qRT-PCRs and public databases interrogation. The RNL expression variability identified in transcriptome data sets supports the hypothesis of a functional expansion/contraction in grapevine varieties. Although no direct correlations between grapevine PM-resistance and RNL expression was identified, our work can provide good candidates for functional studies able to elucidate the putative "helper" role of RNLs in grape immune signalling.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitis/genética , Vitis/metabolismo , Ascomicetos , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Neuregulina-1 , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma
9.
Planta ; 250(5): 1781-1787, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562541

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Copia/Ale is the youngest lineage in both Solanum tuberosum and S. commersonii. Within it, we identified nightshade, a new LTR element active in the cultivated potato. From an evolutionary perspective, long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RT) activity during stress may be viewed as a mean by which organisms can keep up rates of genetic adaptation to changing conditions. Potato is one of the most important crop consumed worldwide, but studies on LTR-RT characterization are still lacking. Here, we assessed the abundance, insertion time and activity of LTR-RTs in both cultivated Solanum tuberosum and its cold-tolerant wild relative S. commersonii genomes. Gypsy elements were more abundant than Copia ones, suggesting that the former was somehow more successful in colonizing potato genomes. However, Copia elements, and in particular, the Ale lineage, are younger than Gypsy ones, since their insertion time was in average ~ 2 Mya. Due to the ability of LTR-RTs to be circularized by the host DNA repair mechanisms, we identified via mobilome-seq a Copia/Ale element (called nightshade, informal name used for potato family) active in S. tuberosum genome. Our analyses represent a valuable resource for comparative genomics within the Solanaceae, transposon-tagging and for the design of cultivar-specific molecular markers in potato.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica , Retroelementos/ética , Solanum/genética , Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Evolução Molecular , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Solanum/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
Hortic Res ; 6: 5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603091

RESUMO

Beneficial interactions of rhizosphere microorganisms are widely exploited for plant biofertilization and mitigation of biotic and abiotic constraints. To provide new insights into the onset of the roots-beneficial microorganisms interplay, we characterised the transcriptomes expressed in tomato roots at 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation with the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum T22 and analysed the epigenetic and post-trascriptional regulation mechanisms. We detected 1243 tomato transcripts that were differentially expressed between Trichoderma-interacting and control roots and 83 T. harzianum transcripts that were differentially expressed between the three experimental time points. Interaction with Trichoderma triggered a transcriptional response mainly ascribable to signal recognition and transduction, stress response, transcriptional regulation and transport. In tomato roots, salicylic acid, and not jasmonate, appears to have a prominent role in orchestrating the interplay with this beneficial strain. Differential regulation of many nutrient transporter genes indicated a strong effect on plant nutrition processes, which, together with the possible modifications in root architecture triggered by ethylene/indole-3-acetic acid signalling at 72 h post inoculation may concur to the well-described growth-promotion ability of this strain. Alongside, T. harzianum-induced defence priming and stress tolerance may be mediated by the induction of reactive oxygen species, detoxification and defence genes. A deeper insight into gene expression and regulation control provided first evidences for the involvement of cytosine methylation and alternative splicing mechanisms in the plant-Trichoderma interaction. A model is proposed that integrates the plant transcriptomic responses in the roots, where interaction between the plant and beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms occurs.

11.
Planta ; 248(3): 729-743, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948127

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: We provide advances in DCL and RDR gene diversity in Solanaceae. We also shed light on DCL and RDR gene expression in response to cold stress. DICER-like (DCL) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) genes form the core components to trigger small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) production. In spite of this, little is known about the two gene families in non-model plant species. As their genome sequences are now available, the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its cold-tolerant wild relative Solanum commersonii offer a valuable opportunity to advance our understanding of the above genes. To determine the extent of diversification and evolution of DCLs and RDRs in these species, we performed a comparative analysis. Seven DCLs were identified in the two species, whereas seven and six RDR genes were found in S. tuberosum and S. commersonii, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis with DCLs and RDRs from several species, we provide evidence for an increase in their number in both potato species. We also disclosed that tandem duplications played a major role in the evolution of these gene families in Solanaceae. DCL and RDR expression was investigated in different tissues and under cold and virus stresses, with divergent profiles of the tandem duplicated genes being found in different tissues. DCL paralogs showed a contrasting expression in S. tuberosum and S. commersonii following cold stress and virus infection. By contrast, no change in RDR transcript activity was detected following both stresses. Overall, this study provides the first comparative genomic analysis of the core components of the RNAi machinery in Solanaceae and offers a scaffold for future functional analysis of these gene families.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Ribonuclease III/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alinhamento de Sequência , Solanum/enzimologia , Solanum tuberosum/enzimologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
12.
Plant Cell Environ ; 41(5): 1038-1051, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28386931

RESUMO

Wild potato species are useful sources of allelic diversity and loci lacking in the cultivated potato. In these species, the presence of anthocyanins in leaves has been associated with a greater tolerance to cold stress. However, the molecular mechanisms that allow potatoes to withstand cold exposure remain unclear. Here, we show that the expression of AN2, a MYB transcription factor, is induced by low temperatures in wild, cold-tolerant Solanum commersonii, and not in susceptible Solanum tuberosum varieties. We found that AN2 is a paralog of the potato anthocyanin regulator AN1, showing similar interaction ability with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) co-partners. Their sequence diversity resulted in a different capacity to promote accumulation of phenolics when tested in tobacco. Indeed, functional studies demonstrated that AN2 is less able to induce anthocyanins than AN1, but nevertheless it has a strong ability to induce accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. We propose that the duplication of R2R3 MYB genes resulted in subsequent subfunctionalization, where AN1 specialized in anthocyanin production and AN2 conserved the ability to respond to cold stress, inducing mainly the synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. These results contribute to understanding the evolutionary significance of gene duplication on phenolic compound regulation.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Genes Duplicados , Pressão Osmótica , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Solanum/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 239: 789-796, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873636

RESUMO

The objectives of this research were to study tuber starch characteristics and chemical - thermal properties of 21 potato varieties, and to determine their genetic diversity through SSR markers. Starch granular size varied among samples, with a wide diameter distribution (5-85µm), while granule shapes were similar. Differential Scanning Calorimeter analysis showed that the transition temperatures (69°C-74°C) and enthalpies of gelatinization (0.9J/g-3.8J/g) of tubers were also variety dependent. SSR analysis allowed the detection of 157 alleles across all varieties, with an average value of 6.8 alleles per locus. Variety-specific alleles were also identified. SSR-based cluster analysis revealed that varieties with interesting quality attributes were distributed among all clusters and sub-clusters, suggesting that the genetic basis of traits analyzed may differ among our varieties. The information obtained in this study may be useful to identify and develop varieties with slowly digestible starch.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Alelos , Fenótipo , Tubérculos , Amido
14.
DNA Res ; 25(2): 149-160, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149280

RESUMO

Tomato is a high value crop and the primary model for fleshy fruit development and ripening. Breeding priorities include increased fruit quality, shelf life and tolerance to stresses. To contribute towards this goal, we re-sequenced the genomes of Corbarino (COR) and Lucariello (LUC) landraces, which both possess the traits of plant adaptation to water deficit, prolonged fruit shelf-life and good fruit quality. Through the newly developed pipeline Reconstructor, we generated the genome sequences of COR and LUC using datasets of 65.8 M and 56.4 M of 30-150 bp paired-end reads, respectively. New contigs including reads that could not be mapped to the tomato reference genome were assembled, and a total of 43, 054 and 44, 579 gene loci were annotated in COR and LUC. Both genomes showed novel regions with similarity to Solanum pimpinellifolium and Solanum pennellii. In addition to small deletions and insertions, 2, 000 and 1, 700 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could exert potentially disruptive effects on 1, 371 and 1, 201 genes in COR and LUC, respectively. A detailed survey of the SNPs occurring in fruit quality, shelf life and stress tolerance related-genes identified several candidates of potential relevance. Variations in ethylene response components may concur in determining peculiar phenotypes of COR and LUC.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Sequência de Bases , Genes de Plantas , Genômica
15.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0186298, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29140987

RESUMO

Although domestication of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has been extensively documented, the history of genotype selection and evolution of vineyard management remain relatively neglected fields of study. The find of 454 waterlogged grapevine pips from a well-dated Etrusco-Roman site in the Chianti district (Tuscany, Central Italy) is an extraordinary chance to gain insights into the progress of viticulture occurring in a key historical period in one of the world's most famous wine regions. The molecular and geometrical analyses of grape seeds showed (a) the presence in the site of different grapevine individuals and (b) a sudden increase in pip size, occurring at around 200 BC, whic explainable by the selection and introduction of new varieties. In this period, the Etruscans settlers in Chianti were stimulated by northward-expanding Roman culture to use novel vineyard management practices. We hypothesize that one of the most important innovations may have been the introduction of pruning, inducing vine physiological conditions more favorable to pip growth. Such changes were the consequence of specific entrepreneurial choices made by the Romans in a period of economic investment in grape cultivation and wine making to satisfy the increased trade demand after the conquest of the Central-Western Mediterranean basin.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Teóricos , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arqueologia , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , História Antiga , Itália , Região do Mediterrâneo
16.
Food Chem ; 237: 545-552, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764033

RESUMO

A fingerprinting strategy based on genetic (simple sequence repeat) and geochemical (multielement and 87Sr/86Sr ratio) analysis was tested to prove the geographical origin of high-quality Italian products "White Asparagus from Bassano del Grappa" and "Green Pistachio from Bronte". Genetic analysis generated many polymorphic alleles and different specific amplified fragments in both agriproducts. In addition, a core set of markers was defined. According to variability within production soils and products, potential candidate elements linking asparagus (Zn, P, Cr, Mg, B, K) and pistachio (Mn, P, Cr, Mg, Ti, B, K, Sc, S) to the production areas were identified. The Sr isotopic signature was an excellent marker when Italian asparagus was compared with literature data for Hungarian and Peruvian asparagus. This work reinforces the use of Sr isotope composition in the soil bioavailable fraction, as assessed by 1mol/L NH4NO3, to distinguish white asparagus and pistachio originating from different geographical areas.


Assuntos
Asparagus (Planta)/genética , Pistacia/genética , Fraude , Solo
17.
Food Chem ; 233: 52-59, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530607

RESUMO

Aglianico grapes are known for their high content of proanthocyanidins (PAs), which are responsible for the astringency of wines derived from this cultivar. However, the accumulation of PAs and their genetic control during berry development remain largely unexplored. This work aimed to monitor astringency-causing PAs in Aglianico berries and correlate them with the expression of 14 key genes. Berries were collected during ripening and dissected in skins and seeds. PAs were fractionated and the content of total phenolics, flavans, anthocyanins, tannins reactive towards salivary proteins and tannin structural composition were evaluated. The results provided evidence that PAs were more abundant in seeds than in skins as expected, with differences in the structural composition between tissues, which did not varied during ripening. Expression analysis showed that Aglianico is able to accumulate polyphenols due to its ability to modulate key genes in a tissue-specific manner.


Assuntos
Vitis , Antocianinas , Frutas , Metabolômica , Proantocianidinas , RNA , Transcriptoma , Vinho
18.
Phytochemistry ; 137: 42-51, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28215419

RESUMO

The cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum is unrivalled among crop plants for its wild relatives, which potentially represent an important source of genetic diversity to improve the nutritional value of potato varieties and understand metabolism regulation. The main aim of this research was to profile human health-related metabolites in a number of clones from 13 Solanum species. Results from HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS analyses highlighted a high interspecific variability in the level of metabolites analysed. Ascorbic acid was confirmed to be the most abundant antioxidant in potato and chlorogenic acid the primary polyphenol. Generally, metabolite-based hierarchical clustering (HCL) and correlation networks did not group clones of identical species in the same cluster. This might be due to various factors, including the outcrossing nature of potato species, gene expression level and metabolic profiling techniques. Access to the genome sequence of S. tuberosum and S. commersonii allowed comparison of the genes involved in ascorbic acid, aromatic amino acid, phenylpropanoid and glycoalkaloid biosynthesis and helped interpret their respective pathways.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Metaboloma , Tubérculos/química , Tubérculos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triptofano/química , Tirosina/química
19.
New Phytol ; 210(4): 1382-94, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26915816

RESUMO

Polyploids are generally classified as autopolyploids, derived from a single species, and allopolyploids, arising from interspecific hybridization. The former represent ideal materials with which to study the consequences of genome doubling and ascertain whether there are molecular and functional rules operating following polyploidization events. To investigate whether the effects of autopolyploidization are common to different species, or if species-specific or stochastic events are prevalent, we performed a comprehensive transcriptomic and metabolomic characterization of diploids and autotetraploids of Solanum commersonii and Solanum bulbocastanum. Autopolyploidization remodelled the transcriptome and the metabolome of both species. In S. commersonii, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were highly enriched in pericentromeric regions. Most changes were stochastic, suggesting a strong genotypic response. However, a set of robustly regulated transcripts and metabolites was also detected, including purine bases and nucleosides, which are likely to underlie a common response to polyploidization. We hypothesize that autopolyploidization results in nucleotide pool imbalance, which in turn triggers a genomic shock responsible for the stochastic events observed. The more extensive genomic stress and the higher number of stochastic events observed in S. commersonii with respect to S. bulbocastanum could be the result of the higher nucleoside depletion observed in this species.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metaboloma , Solanum/genética , Transcriptoma , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Diploide , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Hibridização Genética , Metabolômica , Modelos Biológicos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Poliploidia , Solanum/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 6(4): 925-38, 2016 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26858330

RESUMO

Polyploidization as the consequence of 2n gamete formation is a prominent mechanism in plant evolution. Studying its effects on the genome, and on genome expression, has both basic and applied interest. We crossed two diploid (2n = 2x = 16) Medicago sativa plants, a subsp. falcata seed parent, and a coerulea × falcata pollen parent that form a mixture of n and 2n eggs and pollen, respectively. Such a cross produced full-sib diploid and tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) hybrids, the latter being the result of bilateral sexual polyploidization (BSP). These unique materials allowed us to investigate the effects of BSP, and to separate the effect of intraspecific hybridization from those of polyploidization by comparing 2x with 4x full sib progeny plants. Simple sequence repeat marker segregation demonstrated tetrasomic inheritance for all chromosomes but one, demonstrating that these neotetraploids are true autotetraploids. BSP brought about increased biomass, earlier flowering, higher seed set and weight, and larger leaves with larger cells. Microarray analyses with M. truncatula gene chips showed that several hundred genes, related to diverse metabolic functions, changed their expression level as a consequence of polyploidization. In addition, cytosine methylation increased in 2x, but not in 4x, hybrids. Our results indicate that sexual polyploidization induces significant transcriptional novelty, possibly mediated in part by DNA methylation, and phenotypic novelty that could underpin improved adaptation and reproductive success of tetraploid M. sativa with respect to its diploid progenitor. These polyploidy-induced changes may have promoted the adoption of tetraploid alfalfa in agriculture.


Assuntos
Medicago sativa/genética , Poliploidia , Reprodução/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos de Plantas , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Hibridização Genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Tetraploidia , Transcrição Genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...