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1.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 20(1): e30-e37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic advances have greatly extended survival times in patients with multiple myeloma, necessitating increasingly lengthy trials when using survival outcomes as primary endpoints. A surrogate endpoint that can more rapidly predict survival could accelerate drug development. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate minimal residual disease (MRD) status as a valid progression-free survival (PFS) surrogate in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched abstracts in PubMed, The American Society of Hematology, and the European Hematology Association for "myeloma," "minimal residual disease," and "clinical trial." Because of the need to evaluate the treatment effect on MRD response, only randomized studies for subjects with NDMM were included. Details on the MRD-tested populations were required. The meta-analysis was performed by principles outlined at the 2013 United States Food and Drug Administration workshop on MRD in acute myeloid leukemia.42 For samples that were not measured for MRD and within the subset specified for MRD assessment, their MRD status was imputed from the samples that had known MRD status. Patients that were excluded from planned MRD assessment were considered MRD-positive. RESULTS: Six randomized studies, representing 3283 patients and 2208 MRD samples, met analysis inclusion criteria. MRD negativity rates ranged from 0.06 to 0.70. The treatment effect on the odds ratio for MRD-negative response strongly correlated with the hazard ratio for PFS with a coefficient of determination for the weighted regression line of 0.97. Our meta-analysis suggested that MRD status met both the Prentice criteria for PFS surrogacy. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the claim that MRD status can be used as a surrogate for PFS in NDMM.

2.
Leukemia ; 34(1): 167-179, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182781

RESUMO

Over the last few years, a detailed map of genetic and epigenetic lesions that underlie multiple myeloma (MM) has been created. Regulation of microRNA (miR)-dependent gene expression and mRNA splicing play significant roles in MM pathogenesis; however, to date an interplay between these processes is not yet delineated. Here we investigated miR-mediated regulation of splicing networks at the transcriptome level. Our studies show that a significant number (78%) of miRs which are either up- or down-regulated in patient CD138+ MM cells, but not in healthy donors (HD) CD138+ plasma cells (PC), target genes involved in early stages of pre-mRNA splicing. We also identified deregulated miRs that target core splicing factors (SF) and modifiers (SM, enhancers/silencers) which cause altered splicing in MM. Our studies suggest that Let-7f, in combination other miRs which are frequently and significantly deregulated in patients with overt MM, targets genes that regulate intron excision. Importantly, deregulated expression of certain miRs in MM promote increased intron retention, a novel characteristic of the MM genome, by inducing deregulated expression of the genes that regulate the splicing network. Our studies, therefore, provide the rationale for therapeutically targeting deregulated miRs to reverse aberrant splicing and improve patient outcome in MM.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3835, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444325

RESUMO

The multiple myeloma (MM) genome is heterogeneous and evolves through preclinical and post-diagnosis phases. Here we report a catalog and hierarchy of driver lesions using sequences from 67 MM genomes serially collected from 30 patients together with public exome datasets. Bayesian clustering defines at least 7 genomic subgroups with distinct sets of co-operating events. Focusing on whole genome sequencing data, complex structural events emerge as major drivers, including chromothripsis and a novel replication-based mechanism of templated insertions, which typically occur early. Hyperdiploidy also occurs early, with individual trisomies often acquired in different chronological windows during evolution, and with a preferred order of acquisition. Conversely, positively selected point mutations, whole genome duplication and chromoplexy events occur in later disease phases. Thus, initiating driver events, drawn from a limited repertoire of structural and numerical chromosomal changes, shape preferred trajectories of evolution that are biologically relevant but heterogeneous across patients.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Medula Óssea/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Cromotripsia , Replicação do DNA , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Filogenia , Mutação Puntual , Fatores de Tempo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2969, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278357

RESUMO

Analysis of mutational signatures is becoming routine in cancer genomics, with implications for pathogenesis, classification, prognosis, and even treatment decisions. However, the field lacks a consensus on analysis and result interpretation. Using whole-genome sequencing of multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute myeloid leukemia, we compare the performance of public signature analysis tools. We describe caveats and pitfalls of de novo signature extraction and fitting approaches, reporting on common inaccuracies: erroneous signature assignment, identification of localized hyper-mutational processes, overcalling of signatures. We provide reproducible solutions to solve these issues and use orthogonal approaches to validate our results. We show how a comprehensive mutational signature analysis may provide relevant biological insights, reporting evidence of c-AID activity among unmutated CLL cases or the absence of BRCA1/BRCA2-mediated homologous recombination deficiency in a MM cohort. Finally, we propose a general analysis framework to ensure production of accurate and reproducible mutational signature data.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/normas , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Biologia Computacional/normas , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Mutação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas
8.
Br J Haematol ; 187(3): 319-327, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218679

RESUMO

Single agent daratumumab has shown clinical activity in relapsed, refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). The Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome 2014-04 trial was designed to further investigate daratumumab in combination with dexamethasone in triple RRMM patients. Patients received daratumumab infusions in combination with weekly dexamethasone until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Fifty-seven patients were included in the trial and evaluable for response. The overall response rate and the clinical benefit rate were 33% (n = 19) and 48% (n = 27), respectively. Five (8·8%) patients achieved a very good partial response or better. The median time to response was 4 weeks. For responding patients, the median progression-free survival was 6·6 months, compared to 3·7 months (3·0-5·5) for those with a minimal or stable disease. The median overall survival (OS) for all patients was 16·7 months (11·2-24·0). For responding patients, the median OS was 23·23 months, whereas that of patients with progressive disease was 2·97 months. The incidence of infusion-related reactions was 37%; all cases were manageable and did not lead to dose reduction or permanent treatment discontinuation. These data demonstrate that treatment with daratumumab and dexamethasone results in a meaningful long-term benefit with an acceptable safety profile for patients with triple RRMM.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(14): 4224-4230, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053600

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Carfilzomib is a novel generation proteasome inhibitor. The Carmysap trial demonstrated that twice-weekly KMP (carfilzomib, melphalan, prednisone) might challenge the MPV (melphalan, prednisone, bortezomib) standard. We sought to study KMP weekly, allowing to increase carfilzomib's dose with maintained efficacy and improved safety profile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: IFM2012-03, a phase I multicenter study of KMP weekly in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (eNDMM), aimed to determine the MTD of carfilzomib. Carfilzomib was given intravenously at 36, 45, 56, and 70 mg/m2/day on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 with melphalan and prednisone, for nine 35-day induction cycles, followed by carfilzomib maintenance for 1 year. Three dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) determined MTD at the lower dose. RESULTS: Thirty eNDMMs were treated, 6 per cohort at 36, 45, and 56 mg/m2 and 12 at 70 mg/m². There was one DLT at 36 mg/m2 (lymphopenia), one at 45 mg/m2 (lysis syndrome), two at 56 mg/m2 (cardiac insufficiency and febrile neutropenia), and two at 70 mg/m2 (vomiting and elevated liver enzymes). The safety profile was acceptable; however, specific attention must be paid to the risk of cardiovascular events, especially for elderly patients. The overall response rate was 93.3%, with 46.6% complete response. CONCLUSIONS: The MTD dose of carfilzomib was 70 mg/m2 in this KMP weekly study in eNDMM. Response rates, and especially CR rate, were remarkable in this population, and would benefit from being assessed in a larger-scale study. The IFM2012-03 study demonstrated that the MTD of carfilzomib weekly is 70 mg/m2 in eNDMM, and 56 mg/m2 for patients older than 75 years. Carfilzomib used weekly in combination has a good efficacy and safety profile in eNDMM.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(19): 1657-1665, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091136

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The wide heterogeneity in multiple myeloma (MM) outcome is driven mainly by cytogenetic abnormalities. The current definition of high-risk profile is restrictive and oversimplified. To adapt MM treatment to risk, we need to better define a cytogenetic risk classification. To address this issue, we simultaneously examined the prognostic impact of del(17p); t(4;14); del(1p32); 1q21 gain; and trisomies 3, 5, and 21 in a cohort of newly diagnosed patients with MM. METHODS: Data were obtained from 1,635 patients enrolled in four trials implemented by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome. The oldest collection of data were used for model development and internal validation. For external validation, one of the two independent data sets was used to assess the performance of the model in patients treated with more current regimens. Six cytogenetic abnormalities were identified as clinically relevant, and a prognostic index (PI) that was based on the parameter estimates of the multivariable Cox model was computed for all patients. RESULTS: In all data sets, a higher PI was consistently associated with a poor survival outcome. Dependent on the validation cohorts used, hazard ratios for patients in the high-risk category for death were between six and 15 times higher than those of patients in the low-risk category. Among patients with t(4;14) or del(17p), we observed a worse survival in those classified in the high-risk category than in those in the intermediate-risk category. The PI showed good performance for discriminating between patients who died and those who survived (Harrell's concordance index greater than 70%). CONCLUSION: The cytogenetic PI improves the classification of newly diagnosed patients with MM in the high-risk group compared with current classifications. These findings may facilitate the development of risk-adapted treatment strategies.

11.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 57(9): 1397-1405, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973821

RESUMO

Background Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic plasma cell disorder with a high risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). The serum free light chain (sFLC) ratio is a powerful prognostic factor for SMM: an sFLC ratio ≥8 has been reported to be associated with a high risk of progression to MM, and an sFLC ratio ≥100 has been described as a criterion for ultra-high-risk SMM, and has been integrated into the definition criteria for MM since 2014. However, all recommendations were based on sFLC measured using the first commercialized assay, Freelite™, while other assays are now available. We aimed to evaluate the safety and accuracy of N-Latex sFLC to identify high-risk and ultra-high-risk SMM. Methods The sFLC ratio was measured at diagnosis with both Freelite and N-Latex assays in a cohort of 176 SMM patients on a BN Prospec nephelometer. Demographic, clinical, therapeutic and laboratory data were collected at the time of diagnosis and at follow-up. Results Sixty-two patients (35.2%) progressed to MM within 2 years. Compared to Freelite™ sFLC, N Latex sFLC ratios ≥8 and ≥100 provided similar performances for the identification of high-risk and ultra-high risk SMM patients. Conclusions Our results evidenced that the N-Latex assay could be used for SMM monitoring, like Freelite. However, an N-Latex sFLC ratio ≥70 appears to provide similar performances to a Freelite sFLC ratio ≥100, with a slightly better positive predictive value. Both assays provided accurate identification of high-risk and ultra-high risk SMM patients. These results should be confirmed in an independent study.

12.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 77(2): 197-217, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998199

RESUMO

Flow cytometric immunophenotyping has become essential for management of multiple myeloma (assessment of clonality, prognostic information on the risk of progression in gammopathy of undetermined significance, minimal residual disease monitoring). Immunophenotyping of bone marrow plasma cells is routinely used in the haematology laboratory of the University Hospital of Toulouse. To guarantee the reliability of this technique, the laboratory decided to check this method in compliance with the NF ISO EN 15189, standard for medical laboratories requirements. As expected, the method showed good technical performances. However, this initiative has demonstrated the importance of the sample quality and of the control of the preanalytical and analytical conditions. This process led us to maximize our professional pratices.


Assuntos
Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Plasmócitos/patologia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , França , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem/normas , Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada/diagnóstico , Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada/patologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Fase Pré-Analítica/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(4): 39, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914633

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) and its precursor condition MGUS are characterized by chromosomal aberrations. Here, we comprehensively characterize the order of occurrence of these complex genomic events underlying MM development using 500 MGUS, and MM samples. We identify hyperdiploid MM (HMM) and non-HMM as genomically distinct entities with different evolution of the copy number alterations. In HMM, gains of 9,15 or 19 are the first and clonal events observed as clonal even at MGUS stage. These events are thus early and may underlie initial transformation of normal plasma cells to MGUS cells. However, CNAs may not be adequate for progression to MM except in 15% of the patients in whom the complex subclonal deletion events are observed in MM but not MGUS. In NHMM, besides the driver translocations, clonal deletion of 13 and 1q gain are early events also observed in MGUS. We combined this information to propose a timeline for copy number alteration.

14.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 19(5): e228-e237, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum free light chain (FLC) measurement has become an important marker for the management of multiple myeloma (MM). However, several analytical challenges remain unresolved. We compared the clinical performances of the Sebia FLC assay in MM to the Freelite assay. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 177 patients from the IFM DFCI 2009 trial were enrolled onto this study, with a total of 368 samples analyzed. At baseline, concordance of the involved to noninvolved FLC ratio (iFLC/niFLC) was evaluated. During therapy, comparison of the disease response assessments according to International Myeloma Working Group criteria was performed. RESULTS: Compared to Freelite, the Sebia FLC assay demonstrated lower results, with a proportional bias with increased values. We demonstrated that the Sebia equivalent of the iFLC/niFLC ratio of 100 was 16. During follow-up, agreement in response assessment was moderate (for light chains MM) to good (for intact immunoglobulin MM). In the context of relapse, the concordance was moderate, but longitudinal follow-up showed a similar kinetics. CONCLUSION: The Sebia FLC assay provides inequivalent absolute results from the Freelite assay. Despite lower absolute FLC values, the kinetics of response and relapse is exactly the same. As with other FLC assays available, follow-up of MM with the same method is advisable.

15.
Blood ; 133(11): 1217-1221, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692124

RESUMO

Deletions of chromosome 17p (del17p) that span the TP53 gene are associated with poor outcome in multiple myeloma (MM), but the prognostic value of del17p cancer clonal fraction (CCF) remains unclear. We applied uniform cytogenetic assessments in a large cohort of newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) patients carrying varying levels of del17p. Incremental CCF change was associated with shorter survival, and a robust CCF threshold of 0.55 was established in discovery and replication data sets. After stratification on the 0.55-CCF threshold, high-risk patients had statistically significantly poorer outcomes compared with low-risk patients (median progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS], 14 and 32 vs 23.1 and 76.2 months, respectively). Analyses of a third data set comprising whole-exome sequencing data from NDMM patients identified presence of TP53 deletions/mutations as a necessary requirement for high-risk stratification in addition to exceeding the del17p CCF threshold. Meta-analysis conducted across 3 data sets confirmed the robustness of the CCF threshold for PFS and OS. Our analyses demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence in situ hybridization- and sequencing-based methods to identify TP53 deletions, estimate CCF, and establish that both CCF threshold of 0.55 and presence of TP53 deletion are necessary to identify del17p-carrying NDMM patients with poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Evolução Clonal , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Mutação , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Cancer J ; 25(1): 54-58, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694860

RESUMO

Although therapeutic strategies have been adapted to age and comorbidities of myeloma patients for a long time, all patients currently experiment the same treatment whatever their genomic risk. However, high-risk patients should benefit right now from the most efficient drugs combinations. Herein, we review and discuss how to optimally define risk to adapt treatment and why a modern multiparametric definition of genomic risk is urgently needed. Minimal residual disease status will probably also take a growing place in patient's management, including in treatment adaptation. We also discuss how next-generation sequencing will definitively represent an essential tool to manage risk-based therapeutic strategies. Finally, despite an explosive knowledge of myeloma molecular landscape, targeted therapy perspectives remain poor, with only few exceptions.

18.
Leukemia ; 33(1): 159-170, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967379

RESUMO

Patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) with high-risk disease are in need of new treatment strategies to improve the outcomes. Multiple clinical, cytogenetic, or gene expression features have been used to identify high-risk patients, each of which has significant weaknesses. Inclusion of molecular features into risk stratification could resolve the current challenges. In a genome-wide analysis of the largest set of molecular and clinical data established to date from NDMM, as part of the Myeloma Genome Project, we have defined DNA drivers of aggressive clinical behavior. Whole-genome and exome data from 1273 NDMM patients identified genetic factors that contribute significantly to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (cumulative R2 = 18.4% and 25.2%, respectively). Integrating DNA drivers and clinical data into a Cox model using 784 patients with ISS, age, PFS, OS, and genomic data, the model has a cumlative R2 of 34.3% for PFS and 46.5% for OS. A high-risk subgroup was defined by recursive partitioning using either a) bi-allelic TP53 inactivation or b) amplification (≥4 copies) of CKS1B (1q21) on the background of International Staging System III, comprising 6.1% of the population (median PFS = 15.4 months; OS = 20.7 months) that was validated in an independent dataset. Double-Hit patients have a dire prognosis despite modern therapies and should be considered for novel therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Cell Rep ; 25(13): 3693-3705.e6, 2018 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590042

RESUMO

The relationship between promoter proximal transcription factor-associated gene expression and super-enhancer-driven transcriptional programs are not well defined. However, their distinct genomic occupancy suggests a mechanism for specific and separable gene control. We explored the transcriptional and functional interrelationship between E2F transcription factors and BET transcriptional co-activators in multiple myeloma. We found that the transcription factor E2F1 and its heterodimerization partner DP1 represent a dependency in multiple myeloma cells. Global chromatin analysis reveals distinct regulatory axes for E2F and BETs, with E2F predominantly localized to active gene promoters of growth and/or proliferation genes and BETs disproportionately at enhancer-regulated tissue-specific genes. These two separate gene regulatory axes can be simultaneously targeted to impair the myeloma proliferative program, providing an important molecular mechanism for combination therapy. This study therefore suggests a sequestered cellular functional control that may be perturbed in cancer with potential for development of a promising therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Azepinas/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos SCID , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Fator de Transcrição DP1/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia
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