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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD006219, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people who stop smoking gain weight. This can discourage some people from making a quit attempt and risks offsetting some, but not all, of the health advantages of quitting. Interventions to prevent weight gain could improve health outcomes, but there is a concern that they may undermine quitting. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the effects of: (1) interventions targeting post-cessation weight gain on weight change and smoking cessation (referred to as 'Part 1') and (2) interventions designed to aid smoking cessation that plausibly affect post-cessation weight gain (referred to as 'Part 2'). SEARCH METHODS: Part 1 - We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register and CENTRAL; latest search 16 October 2020. Part 2 - We searched included studies in the following 'parent' Cochrane reviews: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), antidepressants, nicotine receptor partial agonists, e-cigarettes, and exercise interventions for smoking cessation published in Issue 10, 2020 of the Cochrane Library. We updated register searches for the review of nicotine receptor partial agonists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Part 1 - trials of interventions that targeted post-cessation weight gain and had measured weight at any follow-up point or smoking cessation, or both, six or more months after quit day. Part 2 - trials included in the selected parent Cochrane reviews reporting weight change at any time point. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. Change in weight was expressed as difference in weight change from baseline to follow-up between trial arms and was reported only in people abstinent from smoking. Abstinence from smoking was expressed as a risk ratio (RR). Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using the inverse variance method for weight, and Mantel-Haenszel method for smoking. MAIN RESULTS: Part 1: We include 37 completed studies; 21 are new to this update. We judged five studies to be at low risk of bias, 17 to be at unclear risk and the remainder at high risk.  An intermittent very low calorie diet (VLCD) comprising full meal replacement provided free of charge and accompanied by intensive dietitian support significantly reduced weight gain at end of treatment compared with education on how to avoid weight gain (mean difference (MD) -3.70 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -4.82 to -2.58; 1 study, 121 participants), but there was no evidence of benefit at 12 months (MD -1.30 kg, 95% CI -3.49 to 0.89; 1 study, 62 participants). The VLCD increased the chances of abstinence at 12 months (RR 1.73, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.73; 1 study, 287 participants). However, a second study  found that no-one completed the VLCD intervention or achieved abstinence. Interventions aimed at increasing acceptance of weight gain reported mixed effects at end of treatment, 6 months and 12 months with confidence intervals including both increases and decreases in weight gain compared with no advice or health education. Due to high heterogeneity, we did not combine the data. These interventions increased quit rates at 6 months (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.96; 4 studies, 619 participants; I2 = 21%), but there was no evidence at 12 months (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.76 to 2.06; 2 studies, 496 participants; I2 = 26%). Some pharmacological interventions tested for limiting post-cessation weight gain (PCWG) reduced weight gain at the end of treatment (dexfenfluramine, phenylpropanolamine, naltrexone). The effects of ephedrine and caffeine combined, lorcaserin, and chromium were too imprecise to give useful estimates of treatment effects. There was very low-certainty evidence that personalized weight management support reduced weight gain at end of treatment (MD -1.11 kg, 95% CI -1.93 to -0.29; 3 studies, 121 participants; I2 = 0%), but no evidence in the longer-term 12 months (MD -0.44 kg, 95% CI -2.34 to 1.46; 4 studies, 530 participants; I2 = 41%). There was low to very low-certainty evidence that detailed weight management education without personalized assessment, planning and feedback did not reduce weight gain and may have reduced smoking cessation rates (12 months: MD -0.21 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to 1.86; 2 studies, 61 participants; I2 = 0%; RR for smoking cessation 0.66, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.90; 2 studies, 522 participants; I2 = 0%). Part 2: We include 83 completed studies, 27 of which are new to this update. There was low certainty that exercise interventions led to minimal or no weight reduction compared with standard care at end of treatment (MD -0.25 kg, 95% CI -0.78 to 0.29; 4 studies, 404 participants; I2 = 0%). However, weight was reduced at 12 months (MD -2.07 kg, 95% CI -3.78 to -0.36; 3 studies, 182 participants; I2 = 0%). Both bupropion and fluoxetine limited weight gain at end of treatment (bupropion MD -1.01 kg, 95% CI -1.35 to -0.67; 10 studies, 1098 participants; I2 = 3%); (fluoxetine MD -1.01 kg, 95% CI -1.49 to -0.53; 2 studies, 144 participants; I2 = 38%; low- and very low-certainty evidence, respectively). There was no evidence of benefit at 12 months for bupropion, but estimates were imprecise (bupropion MD -0.26 kg, 95% CI -1.31 to 0.78; 7 studies, 471 participants; I2 = 0%). No studies of fluoxetine provided data at 12 months. There was moderate-certainty that NRT reduced weight at end of treatment (MD -0.52 kg, 95% CI -0.99 to -0.05; 21 studies, 2784 participants; I2 = 81%) and moderate-certainty that the effect may be similar at 12 months (MD -0.37 kg, 95% CI -0.86 to 0.11; 17 studies, 1463 participants; I2 = 0%), although the estimates are too imprecise to assess long-term benefit. There was mixed evidence of the effect of varenicline on weight, with high-certainty evidence that weight change was very modestly lower at the end of treatment (MD -0.23 kg, 95% CI -0.53 to 0.06; 14 studies, 2566 participants; I2 = 32%); a low-certainty estimate gave an imprecise estimate of higher weight at 12 months (MD 1.05 kg, 95% CI -0.58 to 2.69; 3 studies, 237 participants; I2 = 0%). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall, there is no intervention for which there is moderate certainty of a clinically useful effect on long-term weight gain. There is also no moderate- or high-certainty evidence that interventions designed to limit weight gain reduce the chances of people achieving abstinence from smoking.

2.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Guidelines recommend that clinicians should offer patients with obesity referrals to weight management services. However, clinicians and patients worry that such conversations will generate friction, and the risk of this is greatest when patients say no. We examined how doctors actually respond to patient refusals, and how patients reacted to clinicians in turn. METHODS: Conversation analysis of 226 GP-patient interactions recorded during a clinical trial of weight management referrals in UK primary care. RESULTS: Some clinicians responded to refusals by delivering further information or offering referral again. These actions treated patient refusals as unwelcome, and acted to pursue acceptance instead. However, pursuit did not lead to acceptance. Rather, pursuing acceptance lengthened consultations and led to frustration, offence, or anger. Clinicians who accepted refusals and closed the consultation avoided friction and negative emotional displays. CONCLUSION: Patient refusals have the potential to create negative consequences in the consultation and clinician responses were key in avoiding these. When clinicians acknowledged the legitimacy of patient refusals, negative consequences were avoided, and the conversation was briefer and smoother. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: When patients refuse the offer of a free weight management referral, GPs should accept this refusal, rather than trying to persuade patients to accept.

3.
Thorax ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has emerged regarding the relevance of smoking on risk of COVID-19 and its severity. METHODS: We undertook large-scale observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses using UK Biobank. Most recent smoking status was determined from primary care records (70.8%) and UK Biobank questionnaire data (29.2%). COVID-19 outcomes were derived from Public Health England SARS-CoV-2 testing data, hospital admissions data, and death certificates (until 18 August 2020). Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between smoking status and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19-related hospitalisation, and COVID-19-related death. Inverse variance-weighted MR analyses using established genetic instruments for smoking initiation and smoking heaviness were undertaken (reported per SD increase). RESULTS: There were 421 469 eligible participants, 1649 confirmed infections, 968 COVID-19-related hospitalisations and 444 COVID-19-related deaths. Compared with never-smokers, current smokers had higher risks of hospitalisation (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.29) and mortality (smoking 1-9/day: OR 2.14, 95% CI 0.87 to 5.24; 10-19/day: OR 5.91, 95% CI 3.66 to 9.54; 20+/day: OR 6.11, 95% CI 3.59 to 10.42). In MR analyses of 281 105 White British participants, genetically predicted propensity to initiate smoking was associated with higher risks of infection (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.91) and hospitalisation (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.27). Genetically predicted higher number of cigarettes smoked per day was associated with higher risks of all outcomes (infection OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.20 to 5.24; hospitalisation OR 5.08, 95% CI 2.04 to 12.66; and death OR 10.02, 95% CI 2.53 to 39.72). INTERPRETATION: Congruent results from two analytical approaches support a causal effect of smoking on risk of severe COVID-19.

4.
PLoS Med ; 18(8): e1003728, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unexpected weight loss (UWL) is a presenting feature of cancer in primary care. Existing research proposes simple combinations of clinical features (risk factors, symptoms, signs, and blood test data) that, when present, warrant cancer investigation. More complex combinations may modify cancer risk to sufficiently rule-out the need for investigation. We aimed to identify which clinical features can be used together to stratify patients with UWL based on their risk of cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from 63,973 adults (age: mean 59 years, standard deviation 21 years; 42% male) to predict cancer in patients with UWL recorded in a large representative United Kingdom primary care electronic health record between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012. We derived 3 clinical prediction models using logistic regression and backwards stepwise covariate selection: Sm, symptoms-only model; STm, symptoms and tests model; Tm, tests-only model. Fifty imputations replaced missing data. Estimates of discrimination and calibration were derived using 10-fold internal cross-validation. Simple clinical risk scores are presented for models with the greatest clinical utility in decision curve analysis. The STm and Tm showed improved discrimination (area under the curve ≥ 0.91), calibration, and greater clinical utility than the Sm. The Tm was simplest including age-group, sex, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, liver enzymes, C-reactive protein, haemoglobin, platelets, and total white cell count. A Tm score of 5 balanced ruling-in (sensitivity 84.0%, positive likelihood ratio 5.36) and ruling-out (specificity 84.3%, negative likelihood ratio 0.19) further cancer investigation. A Tm score of 1 prioritised ruling-out (sensitivity 97.5%). At this threshold, 35 people presenting with UWL in primary care would be referred for investigation for each person with cancer referred, and 1,730 people would be spared referral for each person with cancer not referred. Study limitations include using a retrospective routinely collected dataset, a reliance on coding to identify UWL, and missing data for some predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that combinations of simple blood test abnormalities could be used to identify patients with UWL who warrant referral for investigation, while people with combinations of normal results could be exempted from referral.

5.
BMJ ; 374: n1840, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the characteristics of behavioural weight loss programmes influence the rate of change in weight after the end of the programme. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Trial registries, 11 electronic databases, and forward citation searching (from database inception; latest search December 2019). Randomised trials of behavioural weight loss programmes in adults with overweight or obesity, reporting outcomes at ≥12 months, including at the end of the programme and after the end of the programme. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were screened by two independent reviewers with discrepancies resolved by discussion. 5% of the studies identified in the searches met the inclusion criteria. One reviewer extracted the data and a second reviewer checked the data. Risk of bias was assessed with Cochrane's risk of bias tool (version 1). The rate of change in weight was calculated (kg/month; converted to kg/year for interpretability) after the end of the programme in the intervention versus control groups by a mixed model with a random intercept. Associations between the rate of change in weight and prespecified variables were tested. RESULTS: Data were analysed from 249 trials (n=59 081) with a mean length of follow-up of two years (longest 30 years). 56% of studies (n=140) had an unclear risk of bias, 21% (n=52) a low risk, and 23% (n=57) a high risk of bias. Regain in weight was faster in the intervention versus the no intervention control groups (0.12-0.32 kg/year) but the difference between groups was maintained for at least five years. Each kilogram of weight lost at the end of the programme was associated with faster regain in weight at a rate of 0.13-0.19 kg/year. Financial incentives for weight loss were associated with faster regain in weight at a rate of 1-1.5 kg/year. Compared with programmes with no meal replacements, interventions involving partial meal replacements were associated with faster regain in weight but not after adjustment for weight loss during the programme. Access to the programme outside of the study was associated with slower regain in weight. Programmes where the intensity of the interaction reduced gradually were also associated with slower regain in weight in the multivariable analysis, although the point estimate suggested that the association was small. Other characteristics did not explain the heterogeneity in regain in weight. CONCLUSION: Faster regain in weight after weight loss was associated with greater initial weight loss, but greater initial weight loss was still associated with reduced weight for at least five years after the end of the programme, after which data were limited. Continued availability of the programme to participants outside of the study predicted a slower regain in weight, and provision of financial incentives predicted faster regain in weight; no other clear associations were found. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018105744.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
6.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; : 108591, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391588

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is effective for smoking cessation, but the optimal method of using NRT to maximize benefit is unclear. We examined whether nicotine dependence was associated with consumption of NRT, whether this was mediated by withdrawal symptoms, and the impact of these factors on cessation, in a population advised to use as much NRT as needed. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from an open label, parallel group randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 539) attended a smoking cessation clinic in primary care and remained engaged with treatment for at least one week following a quit attempt. Baseline dependence was measured by the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD), with tobacco exposure assessed via an exhaled carbon monoxide test. At one week after quit day, mean daily consumption of NRT was measured for all participants; withdrawal (Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale (MPSS)) was also assessed in the subsample who reported being completely abstinent to that point (n = 279). Abstinence was biochemically assessed at four weeks for all participants as the principal smoking cessation outcome. RESULTS: Each point higher on the FTCD was associated with 0.83 mg/day more NRT consumption, controlling for tobacco exposure. This relationship was diminished when withdrawal was controlled for, and withdrawal was associated with NRT consumption, with each point higher on the MPSS associated with a 0.12 mg/day increase. Increased consumption of NRT directly predicted subsequent smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Higher dependence appears to lead to greater withdrawal, which appears to drive greater use of NRT. This effect may partly offset lower abstinence rates in people with higher dependence. Advice to use sufficient NRT to suppress withdrawal may increase abstinence rates.

7.
Obes Rev ; 22(11): e13317, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374197

RESUMO

The relationship between BMI and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) critically affects regulatory approval of interventions for weight loss, but evidence of the association is inconsistent. A higher standard of evidence than that available was sought with an IPD meta-analysis of 10,884 people enrolled in five randomized controlled trials of intentional weight loss interventions. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of BMI and HRQoL were estimated in mixed effects models specifying a latent variable for HRQoL. Spline regressions captured nonlinear associations across the range of BMI. In cross-sectional spline regressions, BMI was not associated with HRQoL for people with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 but was for those with a higher BMI. In longitudinal spline regressions, decreases in BMI were positively associated with HRQoL for people with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 . The impact of change in BMI was larger for people with higher BMIs than for those with BMIs under 30 kg/m2 . Lower BMI and decreases in BMI were related to higher HRQoL for people living with obesity but not in the population without excess weight. HRQoL gains from weight loss are greater for more severe obesity. Commissioners should use these estimates for future decision making.

8.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess GPs' thoughts, feelings, and practices on providing opportunistic weight loss interventions before and after educational training and application in practice. METHODS: In an embedded sequential mixed-methods design, 137 GPs delivered a 30-second brief opportunistic intervention to a mean of 14 patients with obesity. To assess GPs' experiences and views on the intervention, all were invited to complete pre- and post-trial questionnaires and 18 were purposively interviewed. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive framework analysis. RESULTS: GPs' attitudes (importance, feasibility, appropriateness, helpfulness, and effectiveness), capacities (comfort, confidence, and knowledge), perceived subjective norms (role expectations), willingness, and intentions on providing weight loss interventions were predominantly improved post-trial. The research setting allowed GPs to depersonalise intervening on obesity and feel more comfortable discussing the topic. Beyond the trial, GPs reverted largely to not intervening, citing barriers that had reportedly been overcome during the trial. CONCLUSION: GPs who delivered the intervention had positive experiences doing so, shifting their beliefs modestly that this intervention is important, feasible, and acceptable. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Given that outside of the trial GPs were apprehensive about intervening without a prompt, developing systems to prompt patients may support implementation.

9.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the long-term effectiveness of a total diet replacement programme (TDR) for routine treatment of obesity in a primary care setting. METHODS: This study was a pragmatic, two-arm, parallel-group, open-label, individually randomised controlled trial in adults with obesity. The outcomes were change in weight and biomarkers of diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk from baseline to 3 years, analysed as intention-to-treat with mixed effects models. INTERVENTIONS: The intervention was TDR for 8 weeks, followed by food-reintroduction over 4 weeks. Behavioural support was provided weekly for 8 weeks, bi-weekly for the next 4 weeks, then monthly for 3 months after which no further support was provided. The usual care (UC) group received dietary advice and behavioural support from a practice nurse for up to 3 months. RESULTS: Outcome measures were collected from 179 (66%) participants. Compared with baseline, at 3 years the TDR group lost -6.2 kg (SD 9.1) and usual care -2.7 kg (SD 7.7); adjusted mean difference -3.3 kg (95% CI: -5.2, -1.5), p < 0.0001. Regain from programme end (6 months) to 3 years was greater in TDR group +8.9 kg (SD 9.4) than UC + 1.2, (SD 9.1); adjusted mean difference +6.9 kg (95% CI 4.2, 9.5) P < 0.001. At 3 years TDR led to greater reductions than UC in diastolic blood pressure (mean difference -3.3 mmHg (95% CI:-6.2; -0.4) P = 0.024), and systolic blood pressure (mean differences -3.7 mmHg (95% CI: -7.4; 0.1) P = 0.057). There was no evidence of differences between groups in the change from baseline to 3 years HbA1c (-1.9 mmol/mol (95% CI: -0.7; 4.5; P = 0.15), LDL cholesterol concentrations (0.2 mmol/L (95% CI -0.3, 0.7) P = 0.39), cardiovascular risk score (QRISK2) (-0.37 (95% CI -0.96; 0.22); P = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of people with obesity with a TDR programme compared with support from a practice nurse leads to greater weight loss which persists to at least 3 years, but there was only evidence of sustained improvements in BP and not in other aspects of cardiometabolic risk.

10.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(6): 350-359, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major risk factor for adverse outcomes after infection with SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to examine this association, including interactions with demographic and behavioural characteristics, type 2 diabetes, and other health conditions. METHODS: In this prospective, community-based, cohort study, we used de-identified patient-level data from the QResearch database of general practices in England, UK. We extracted data for patients aged 20 years and older who were registered at a practice eligible for inclusion in the QResearch database between Jan 24, 2020 (date of the first recorded infection in the UK) and April 30, 2020, and with available data on BMI. Data extracted included demographic, clinical, clinical values linked with Public Health England's database of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, and death certificates from the Office of National Statistics. Outcomes, as a proxy measure of severe COVID-19, were admission to hospital, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), and death due to COVID-19. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the risk of severe COVID-19, sequentially adjusting for demographic characteristics, behavioural factors, and comorbidities. FINDINGS: Among 6 910 695 eligible individuals (mean BMI 26·78 kg/m2 [SD 5·59]), 13 503 (0·20%) were admitted to hospital, 1601 (0·02%) to an ICU, and 5479 (0·08%) died after a positive test for SARS-CoV-2. We found J-shaped associations between BMI and admission to hospital due to COVID-19 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per kg/m2 from the nadir at BMI of 23 kg/m2 of 1·05 [95% CI 1·05-1·05]) and death (1·04 [1·04-1·05]), and a linear association across the whole BMI range with ICU admission (1·10 [1·09-1·10]). We found a significant interaction between BMI and age and ethnicity, with higher HR per kg/m2 above BMI 23 kg/m2 for younger people (adjusted HR per kg/m2 above BMI 23 kg/m2 for hospital admission 1·09 [95% CI 1·08-1·10] in 20-39 years age group vs 80-100 years group 1·01 [1·00-1·02]) and Black people than White people (1·07 [1·06-1·08] vs 1·04 [1·04-1·05]). The risk of admission to hospital and ICU due to COVID-19 associated with unit increase in BMI was slightly lower in people with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease than in those without these morbidities. INTERPRETATION: At a BMI of more than 23 kg/m2, we found a linear increase in risk of severe COVID-19 leading to admission to hospital and death, and a linear increase in admission to an ICU across the whole BMI range, which is not attributable to excess risks of related diseases. The relative risk due to increasing BMI is particularly notable people younger than 40 years and of Black ethnicity. FUNDING: NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Vida Independente/tendências , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 909-923, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that the prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 was lower than its prevalence in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic lung disease or use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) affects the risk of contracting severe COVID-19. METHODS: In this population cohort study, records from 1205 general practices in England that contribute to the QResearch database were linked to Public Health England's database of SARS-CoV-2 testing and English hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and deaths for COVID-19. All patients aged 20 years and older who were registered with one of the 1205 general practices on Jan 24, 2020, were included in this study. With Cox regression, we examined the risks of COVID-19-related hospitalisation, admission to ICU, and death in relation to respiratory disease and use of ICS, adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic status and comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19. FINDINGS: Between Jan 24 and April 30, 2020, 8 256 161 people were included in the cohort and observed, of whom 14 479 (0·2%) were admitted to hospital with COVID-19, 1542 (<0·1%) were admitted to ICU, and 5956 (0·1%) died. People with some respiratory diseases were at an increased risk of hospitalisation (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] hazard ratio [HR] 1·54 [95% CI 1·45-1·63], asthma 1·18 [1·13-1·24], severe asthma 1·29 [1·22-1·37; people on three or more current asthma medications], bronchiectasis 1·34 [1·20-1·50], sarcoidosis 1·36 [1·10-1·68], extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·35 [0·82-2·21], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·59 [1·30-1·95], other interstitial lung disease 1·66 [1·30-2·12], and lung cancer 2·24 [1·89-2·65]) and death (COPD 1·54 [1·42-1·67], asthma 0·99 [0·91-1·07], severe asthma 1·08 [0·98-1·19], bronchiectasis 1·12 [0·94-1·33], sarcoidosis 1·41 [0·99-1·99), extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·56 [0·78-3·13], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·47 [1·12-1·92], other interstitial lung disease 2·05 [1·49-2·81], and lung cancer 1·77 [1·37-2·29]) due to COVID-19 compared with those without these diseases. Admission to ICU was rare, but the HR for people with asthma was 1·08 (0·93-1·25) and severe asthma was 1·30 (1·08-1·58). In a post-hoc analysis, relative risks of severe COVID-19 in people with respiratory disease were similar before and after shielding was introduced on March 23, 2020. In another post-hoc analysis, people with two or more prescriptions for ICS in the 150 days before study start were at a slightly higher risk of severe COVID-19 compared with all other individuals (ie, no or one ICS prescription): HR 1·13 (1·03-1·23) for hospitalisation, 1·63 (1·18-2·24) for ICU admission, and 1·15 (1·01-1·31) for death. INTERPRETATION: The risk of severe COVID-19 in people with asthma is relatively small. People with COPD and interstitial lung disease appear to have a modestly increased risk of severe disease, but their risk of death from COVID-19 at the height of the epidemic was mostly far lower than the ordinary risk of death from any cause. Use of inhaled steroids might be associated with a modestly increased risk of severe COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides , COVID-19 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Comorbidade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Classe Social
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Weight loss is recommended for patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) but the impact of weight change on disease activity remains unclear. We examined the association between weight change (gain/loss) and changes in biochemical and histological features of NASH. METHODS: This was an analysis of the PIVENS and FLINT trials in adults with NASH who had liver biopsies at baseline and at either 1.5 years or 2 years. Multivariable regression models examined how weight change was associated with changes in (a) blood liver markers, (b) NASH resolution with no fibrosis worsening, (c) fibrosis improving with no NASH worsening, and (d) individual histological features. RESULTS: The BMI of the 421 participants was 34.3 kg/m2 (SD:6.5) and their mean weight change was +0.5 kg (SD:6.5). Weight change was independently and positively associated with changes in liver enzymes and the Fibrosis-4 score (all P < .001). Each kg of weight loss was associated with 7% (95% CI, 3%-10%; P < .001) increase in odds of achieving NASH resolution with no fibrosis worsening and with 5% (95% CI, 1%-8%; P = .01) increase in odds of achieving fibrosis improvement with no NASH worsening. Weight gain was associated with worsening of disease activity. For every kg of weight lost, the odds of fibrosis improving were 5% (95% CI, 2%-8%; P = .001). There was no evidence that the association between weight change and outcome depended upon pharmacological treatment, trial, body mass index, and baseline fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Weight change was independently and monotonically associated with changes in biochemical and histological features of NASH. Guidelines for NASH management should incorporate recommendations for both avoidance of weight gain and support to lose weight.

13.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 'Primary Care SHOPping Intervention for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention' (PCSHOP) trial tested the effectiveness and feasibility of a behavioural intervention to reduce saturated fat in food purchases. The intervention offered feedback from data collected through a supermarket loyalty card to supplement brief advice from a nurse. This qualitative study aimed to describe participants' experiences of receiving this intervention. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured, one-to-one, telephone interviews with participants from the PCSHOP trial. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We employed the one sheet of paper technique and a thematic analysis to develop high-level themes in NVivo software. RESULTS: Twenty-four participants were interviewed (mean age: 63 years (SD 12)). They reported that the brief advice did not provide any new information but they welcomed the sense of accountability the nurse provided. The personalised shopping feedback and healthier swap suggestions provided novel information that challenged previously held beliefs about the saturated fat content of food purchases and encouraged some positive dietary changes. However, the taste preferences of the participant or other household members were a barrier to changing food shopping behaviours. CONCLUSION: Harnessing loyalty card data is a novel and acceptable method to offering personalised dietary feedback. Yet, issues on the suitability of the healthier swap suggestions limited the extent of dietary change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN14279335. Registered 1 September 2017.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Ácidos Graxos , Alimentos/economia , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Supermercados , Idoso , Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta , Feminino , Alimentos/classificação , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 83, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, studies investigating diet and health associations have focused on single nutrients. However, key nutrients co-exist in many common foods, and studies focusing solely on individual nutrients may obscure their combined effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. We aimed to identify food-based dietary patterns which operate through excess energy intake and explain high variability in energy density, free sugars, saturated fat, and fiber intakes and to investigate their association with total and fatal CVD and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Detailed dietary data was collected using a 24-h online dietary assessment on two or more occasions (n = 116,806). We used reduced rank regression to derive dietary patterns explaining the maximum variance. Multivariable Cox-proportional hazards models were used to investigate prospective associations with all-cause mortality and fatal and non-fatal CVD. RESULTS: Over an average of 4.9 years of follow-up, 4245 cases of total CVD, 838 cases of fatal CVD, and 3629 cases of all-cause mortality occurred. Two dietary patterns were retained that jointly explained 63% of variation in energy density, free sugars, saturated fat, and fiber intakes in total. The main dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of chocolate and confectionery, butter and low-fiber bread, and low intakes of fresh fruit and vegetables. There was a positive linear association between the dietary pattern and total CVD [hazard ratio (HR) per z-score 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.09; HRtotal CVD 1.40, 95% CI 1.31-1.50, and HRall-cause mortality 1.37, 95% CI 1.27-1.47 in highest quintile]. A second dietary pattern was characterized by a higher intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice, and table sugar/preserves. There was a non-linear association with total CVD risk and all-cause mortality, with increased risk in the highest quintile [HRtotal CVD 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22; HRall-cause mortality 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19]. CONCLUSIONS: We identified dietary patterns which are associated with increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. These results help identify specific foods and beverages which are major contributors to unhealthy dietary patterns and provide evidence to underpin food-based dietary advice to reduce health risks.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250385, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Trials of treatments for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis require endpoint assessment with liver biopsies. Previous large-scale trials have calculated their sample size expecting high retention but on average did not achieve this. We aimed to quantify the proportion of participants with a valid follow-up biopsy. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of MEDLINE and Embase until May 2020 and included randomized clinical trials of any intervention in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with at least 1-year follow-up. We were guided by Cochrane methods to run a meta-analysis with generalized linear mixed models with random effects. RESULTS: Forty-one trials (n = 6,695) were included. The proportion of participants with a valid follow-up biopsy was 82% (95%CI: 78%-86%, I2 = 92%). There was no evidence of a difference by location, trial length, or by allocated treatment group. Reasons for missing follow-up biopsies were, in ranked order, related to participants (95 per 1,000 participants (95%CI: 69-129, I2 = 92%), medical factors, protocol, trial conduct, and other/unclear. Biopsy-related serious adverse events occurred in 16 per 1,000 participants (95% CI: 8-33, I2 = 54%). No biopsy-related deaths were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of participants with a valid follow-up biopsy in therapeutic trials in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is on average 82%, with around 1 in 10 participants declining a follow-up biopsy. These findings can inform adequately-powered trials.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Biópsia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD013522, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a common perception that smoking generally helps people to manage stress, and may be a form of 'self-medication' in people with mental health conditions. However, there are biologically plausible reasons why smoking may worsen mental health through neuroadaptations arising from chronic smoking, leading to frequent nicotine withdrawal symptoms (e.g. anxiety, depression, irritability), in which case smoking cessation may help to improve rather than worsen mental health. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between tobacco smoking cessation and change in mental health. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the trial registries clinicaltrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, from 14 April 2012 to 07 January 2020. These were updated searches of a previously-conducted non-Cochrane review where searches were conducted from database inception to 13 April 2012.  SELECTION CRITERIA: We included controlled before-after studies, including randomised controlled trials (RCTs) analysed by smoking status at follow-up, and longitudinal cohort studies. In order to be eligible for inclusion studies had to recruit adults who smoked tobacco, and assess whether they quit or continued smoking during the study. They also had to measure a mental health outcome at baseline and at least six weeks later. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methods for screening and data extraction. Our primary outcomes were change in depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms or mixed anxiety and depression symptoms between baseline and follow-up. Secondary outcomes  included change in symptoms of stress, psychological quality of life, positive affect, and social impact or social quality of life, as well as new incidence of depression, anxiety, or mixed anxiety and depression disorders. We assessed the risk of bias for the primary outcomes using a modified ROBINS-I tool.  For change in mental health outcomes, we calculated the pooled standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the difference in change in mental health from baseline to follow-up between those who had quit smoking and those who had continued to smoke. For the incidence of psychological disorders, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. For all meta-analyses we used a generic inverse variance random-effects model and quantified statistical heterogeneity using I2. We conducted subgroup analyses to investigate any differences in associations between sub-populations, i.e. unselected people with mental illness, people with physical chronic diseases. We assessed the certainty of evidence for our primary outcomes (depression, anxiety, and mixed depression and anxiety) and our secondary social impact outcome using the eight GRADE considerations relevant to non-randomised studies (risk of bias, inconsistency, imprecision, indirectness, publication bias, magnitude of the effect, the influence of all plausible residual confounding, the presence of a dose-response gradient). MAIN RESULTS: We included 102 studies representing over 169,500 participants. Sixty-two of these were identified in the updated search for this review and 40 were included in the original version of the review.  Sixty-three studies provided data on change in mental health, 10 were included in meta-analyses of incidence of mental health disorders, and 31 were synthesised narratively.  For all primary outcomes, smoking cessation was associated with an improvement in mental health symptoms compared with continuing to smoke: anxiety symptoms (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.13; 15 studies, 3141 participants; I2 = 69%; low-certainty evidence); depression symptoms: (SMD -0.30, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.21; 34 studies, 7156 participants; I2 = 69%' very low-certainty evidence);  mixed anxiety and depression symptoms (SMD -0.31, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.22; 8 studies, 2829 participants; I2 = 0%; moderate certainty evidence).  These findings were robust to preplanned sensitivity analyses, and subgroup analysis generally did not produce evidence of differences in the effect size among subpopulations or based on methodological characteristics. All studies were deemed to be at serious risk of bias due to possible time-varying confounding, and three studies measuring depression symptoms were judged to be at critical risk of bias overall. There was also some evidence of funnel plot asymmetry. For these reasons, we rated our certainty in the estimates for anxiety as low, for depression as very low, and for mixed anxiety and depression as moderate. For the secondary outcomes, smoking cessation was associated with an improvement in symptoms of stress (SMD -0.19, 95% CI -0.34 to -0.04; 4 studies, 1792 participants; I2 = 50%), positive affect (SMD 0.22, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.33; 13 studies, 4880 participants; I2 = 75%), and psychological quality of life (SMD 0.11, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.16; 19 studies, 18,034 participants; I2 = 42%). There was also evidence that smoking cessation was not associated with a reduction in social quality of life, with the confidence interval incorporating the possibility of a small improvement (SMD 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.06; 9 studies, 14,673 participants; I2 = 0%). The incidence of new mixed anxiety and depression was lower in people who stopped smoking compared with those who continued (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.86; 3 studies, 8685 participants; I2 = 57%), as was the incidence of anxiety disorder (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.12; 2 studies, 2293 participants; I2 = 46%). We deemed it inappropriate to present a pooled estimate for the incidence of new cases of clinical depression, as there was high statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 87%). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data provide evidence that mental health does not worsen as a result of quitting smoking, and very low- to moderate-certainty evidence that smoking cessation is associated with small to moderate improvements in mental health.  These improvements are seen in both unselected samples and in subpopulations, including people diagnosed with mental health conditions. Additional studies that use more advanced methods to overcome time-varying confounding would strengthen the evidence in this area.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Saúde Mental , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Afeto , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Humanos , Incidência , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Interação Social , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/métodos , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/psicologia
17.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(705): e312-e319, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend that clinicians identify individuals at high cardiometabolic risk and support weight loss in those with overweight or obesity. However, we lack individual level data quantifying the benefits of weight change for individuals to guide consultations in primary care. AIM: To examine how weight change affects cardiometabolic risk factors, and to facilitate shared decision making between patients and clinicians regarding weight loss. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational analysis using data from two trials of referral of individuals with overweight or obesity in primary care to community weight-loss groups. METHOD: Linear mixed effects regression modelling examining the association between weight change and change in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profile across multiple timepoints (baseline to 24 months). Subgroup analyses examined changes in individuals with hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia. RESULTS: In total, 2041 participants had a mean (standard deviation) age of 50 (SD 13.5) years, mean baseline weight of 90.6 (14.8) kg and mean body mass index (BMI) of 32.7 (SD 4.1) kg/m2. Mean (SD) weight change was -4.3 (SD 6.0) kg. All outcome measures showed statistically significant improvements. Each 1 kg weight loss was associated with 0.4 mmHg reduction in SBP and 0.3 mmHg reduction in DBP, or 0.5 mmHg and 0.4 mmHg/kg respectively in people with hypertension. Each 1 kg weight loss was associated with 0.2 mmol/mol reduction in HbA1c, or 0.6 mmol/mol in people with diabetes. Effects on plasma lipids were negligible. CONCLUSION: Weight loss achieved through referral to community weight-loss programmes, which are commonly accessible in primary care, can lead to clinically relevant reductions in BP and glucose regulation, especially in those at highest risk.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Programas de Redução de Peso , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013229, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is a leading cause of disease and death worldwide. In people who smoke, quitting smoking can reverse much of the damage. Many people use behavioural interventions to help them quit smoking; these interventions can vary substantially in their content and effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from Cochrane Reviews that assessed the effect of behavioural interventions designed to support smoking cessation attempts and to conduct a network meta-analysis to determine how modes of delivery; person delivering the intervention; and the nature, focus, and intensity of behavioural interventions for smoking cessation influence the likelihood of achieving abstinence six months after attempting to stop smoking; and whether the effects of behavioural interventions depend upon other characteristics, including population, setting, and the provision of pharmacotherapy. To summarise the availability and principal findings of economic evaluations of behavioural interventions for smoking cessation, in terms of comparative costs and cost-effectiveness, in the form of a brief economic commentary. METHODS: This work comprises two main elements. 1. We conducted a Cochrane Overview of reviews following standard Cochrane methods. We identified Cochrane Reviews of behavioural interventions (including all non-pharmacological interventions, e.g. counselling, exercise, hypnotherapy, self-help materials) for smoking cessation by searching the Cochrane Library in July 2020. We evaluated the methodological quality of reviews using AMSTAR 2 and synthesised data from the reviews narratively. 2. We used the included reviews to identify randomised controlled trials of behavioural interventions for smoking cessation compared with other behavioural interventions or no intervention for smoking cessation. To be included, studies had to include adult smokers and measure smoking abstinence at six months or longer. Screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment followed standard Cochrane methods. We synthesised data using Bayesian component network meta-analysis (CNMA), examining the effects of 38 different components compared to minimal intervention. Components included behavioural and motivational elements, intervention providers, delivery modes, nature, focus, and intensity of the behavioural intervention. We used component network meta-regression (CNMR) to evaluate the influence of population characteristics, provision of pharmacotherapy, and intervention intensity on the component effects. We evaluated certainty of the evidence using GRADE domains. We assumed an additive effect for individual components. MAIN RESULTS: We included 33 Cochrane Reviews, from which 312 randomised controlled trials, representing 250,563 participants and 845 distinct study arms, met the criteria for inclusion in our component network meta-analysis. This represented 437 different combinations of components. Of the 33 reviews, confidence in review findings was high in four reviews and moderate in nine reviews, as measured by the AMSTAR 2 critical appraisal tool. The remaining 20 reviews were low or critically low due to one or more critical weaknesses, most commonly inadequate investigation or discussion (or both) of the impact of publication bias. Of note, the critical weaknesses identified did not affect the searching, screening, or data extraction elements of the review process, which have direct bearing on our CNMA. Of the included studies, 125/312 were at low risk of bias overall, 50 were at high risk of bias, and the remainder were at unclear risk. Analyses from the contributing reviews and from our CNMA showed behavioural interventions for smoking cessation can increase quit rates, but effectiveness varies on characteristics of the support provided. There was high-certainty evidence of benefit for the provision of counselling (odds ratio (OR) 1.44, 95% credibility interval (CrI) 1.22 to 1.70, 194 studies, n = 72,273) and guaranteed financial incentives (OR 1.46, 95% CrI 1.15 to 1.85, 19 studies, n = 8877). Evidence of benefit remained when removing studies at high risk of bias. These findings were consistent with pair-wise meta-analyses from contributing reviews. There was moderate-certainty evidence of benefit for interventions delivered via text message (downgraded due to unexplained statistical heterogeneity in pair-wise comparison), and for the following components where point estimates suggested benefit but CrIs incorporated no clinically significant difference: individual tailoring; intervention content including motivational components; intervention content focused on how to quit. The remaining intervention components had low-to very low-certainty evidence, with the main issues being imprecision and risk of bias. There was no evidence to suggest an increase in harms in groups receiving behavioural support for smoking cessation. Intervention effects were not changed by adjusting for population characteristics, but data were limited. Increasing intensity of behavioural support, as measured through the number of contacts, duration of each contact, and programme length, had point estimates associated with modestly increased chances of quitting, but CrIs included no difference. The effect of behavioural support for smoking cessation appeared slightly less pronounced when people were already receiving smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Behavioural support for smoking cessation can increase quit rates at six months or longer, with no evidence that support increases harms. This is the case whether or not smoking cessation pharmacotherapy is also provided, but the effect is slightly more pronounced in the absence of pharmacotherapy. Evidence of benefit is strongest for the provision of any form of counselling, and guaranteed financial incentives. Evidence suggested possible benefit but the need of further studies to evaluate: individual tailoring; delivery via text message, email, and audio recording; delivery by lay health advisor; and intervention content with motivational components and a focus on how to quit. We identified 23 economic evaluations; evidence did not consistently suggest one type of behavioural intervention for smoking cessation was more cost-effective than another. Future reviews should fully consider publication bias. Tools to investigate publication bias and to evaluate certainty in CNMA are needed.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Metanálise em Rede , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Viés , Aconselhamento , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnose , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Viés de Publicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(3): 228-241, 2021 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that clinician-delivered brief opportunistic interventions are effective in obesity, and guidelines promote their use. However, there is no evidence on how clinicians should do this, and guidelines are not based on clinical evidence. PURPOSE: A trial (Brief Interventions for Weight Loss [BWeL]) showed that brief opportunistic interventions on obesity that endorsed, offered, and facilitated referral to community weight management service (CWMS) led to 77% agreeing to attend, and 40% attending CWMS, as well as significantly greater weight loss than control at 12 months. We assessed which behavior change techniques (BCTs) doctors used that were associated with CWMS attendance. METHODS: We coded 237 recorded BWeL interventions using the behavioral change techniques version one taxonomy. We also coded the BWeL training video to examine delivery of recommended BCTs. Mixed effects logistic regression assessed the association between each BCT, the total number of BCTs, and delivery of recommended BCTs, with patient's agreement to attend and actual CWMS attendance. RESULTS: Of 237 patients, 133 (56%) agreed to attend and 109 (46%) attended. Thirteen BCTs were used more than eight times but none of the 13 were associated with increased attendance. One, "practical social support," was significantly associated with increased patient agreement (odds ratio [OR] = 4.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 20.13). Delivery of recommended BCTs and the total number of BCTs used were both associated with increased agreement (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.23 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.75, respectively), but not attendance at CWMS (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.98-1.47 and OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.94-1.24, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence that particular BCT can increase the effectiveness of brief opportunistic interventions for obesity in adults. However, using more BCTs and delivery of recommended BCTs may increase agreement to attend community weight management services.

20.
Clin Obes ; 11(1): e12418, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026192

RESUMO

Weight loss programmes appeal mainly to women, prompting calls for gender-specific programmes. In the United Kingdom, general practitioners (GPs) refer nine times as many women as men to community weight loss programmes. GPs endorsement and offering programmes systematically could reduce this imbalance. In this trial, consecutively attending patients in primary care with obesity were invited and 1882 were enrolled and randomized to one of two opportunistic 30-second interventions to support weight loss given by GPs in consultations unrelated to weight. In the support arm, clinicians endorsed and offered referral to a weight loss programme and, in the advice arm, advised that weight loss would improve health. Generalized linear mixed effects models examined whether gender moderated the intervention. Men took effective weight loss action less often in both arms (support: 41.6% vs 60.7%; advice: 12.1% vs 18.3%; odds ratio (OR) = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27, 0.52, P < .001) but there was no evidence that the relative effect differed by gender (interaction P = .32). In the support arm, men accepted referral and attended referral less often, 69.3% vs 82.4%; OR = 0.48, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.66, P < .001 and 30.4% vs 47.6%; OR = 0.48, 95% CI, 0.36, 0.63, P < .001, respectively. Nevertheless, the gender balance in attending weight loss programmes closed to 1.6:1. Men and women attended the same number of sessions (9.7 vs 9.1 sessions, P = .16) and there was no evidence weight loss differed by gender (6.05 kg men vs 4.37 kg women, P = .39). Clinician-delivered opportunistic 30-second interventions benefits men and women equally and reduce most of the gender imbalance in attending weight loss programmes.

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