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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e23999, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545992

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate sonoelastographic features of the tibial nerve.The study included 72 tibial nerves in 36 healthy subjects. High resolution ultrasound and Shear wave elastography were used to evaluate the tibial nerve. Cross sectional area and stiffness were measured.The mean cross sectional area of the tibial nerve was 13.4 mm2. The mean shear elastic modulus of the tibial nerve in the short axis was 23.3 kPa. The mean shear elastic modulus of the tibial nerve in long axis was 26.1 kPa. The tibial nerve elastic modulus also showed no correlation with cross sectional area neither in the long axis nor short axis. Age, height, weight, and body mass index showed no correlation with tibial nerve elastic modulus in short or long axes.The elastic modulus of the tibial nerve has been determined in healthy subjects and can serve as a reference for future assessment of polyneuropathy.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Nervo Tibial/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Módulo de Elasticidade/fisiologia , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Nervo Tibial/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(10): e6204, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28272211

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to estimate the reference values for the number of fascicles and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the ulnar nerve at a single predetermined site by ultrasound in healthy young adult males.The demographic and physical characteristics of 50 adult male volunteers were evaluated and recorded. The subjects were positioned supine with the elbow flexed at 90° and the palm of the hand placed on a hard surface. The ulnar nerve was scanned bilaterally 1 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle in projection of the cubital tunnel. The number of fascicles and mean CSA of the ulnar nerve were identified. In addition, the side-to-side differences of the estimated reference values and their correlations with the age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated.The mean fascicular number was 5.66 ±â€Š1.48, the mean ultrasound-estimated CSA of the ulnar nerve was 6.54 ±â€Š1.67 mm and both sides were comparable in the mean CSA and fascicular number (6.43 ±â€Š1.80 mm and 5.88 vs 6.64 ±â€Š1.55 mm and 5.44, for right and left side, respectively). No significant correlations were observed between CSA and fascicles number and age, weight, height, or BMI of study subjects.The reference values for the number of fascicles number and the CSA of the ulnar nerve at a single predetermined site were identified. These values could be used for the sonographic diagnosis and follow-up of the ulnar nerve lesions.


Assuntos
Nervo Ulnar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 7: 39501, 2017 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045034

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is characterized by a permanent cell-cycle arrest and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, and can be induced by a variety of stimuli, including ionizing radiation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In endothelial cells, this phenomenon might contribute to vascular disease. Plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) are increased in age-related and chronic conditions such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease. Although TNFα is a known activator of the central inflammatory mediator NF-κB, and can induce the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the question whether TNFα can induce senescence has not been answered conclusively. Here, we investigated the effect of prolonged TNFα exposure on the fate of endothelial cells and found that such treatment induced premature senescence. Induction of endothelial senescence was prevented by the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine, as well as by plumericin and PHA-408, inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway. Our results indicated that prolonged TNFα exposure could have detrimental consequences to endothelial cells by causing senescence and, therefore, chronically increased TNFα levels might possibly contribute to the pathology of chronic inflammatory diseases by driving premature endothelial senescence.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
4.
PLoS One ; 8(10): e76929, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24130812

RESUMO

In vitro screening of 17 Alpine lichen species for their inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 and nuclear factor kappa B revealed Cetrelia monachorum (Zahlbr.) W.L. Culb. & C.F. Culb. As conceivable source for novel anti-inflammatory compounds. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic crude extract resulted in the isolation and identification of 11 constituents, belonging to depsides and derivatives of orsellinic acid, olivetolic acid and olivetol. The two depsides imbricaric acid (4) and perlatolic acid (5) approved dual inhibitory activities on microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (IC50 = 1.9 and 0.4 µM, resp.) and on 5-lipoxygenase tested in a cell-based assay (IC50 = 5.3 and 1.8 µM, resp.) and on purified enzyme (IC50 = 3.5 and 0.4 µM, resp.). Additionally, these two main constituents quantified in the extract with 15.22% (4) and 9.10% (5) showed significant inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation in luciferase reporter cells with IC50 values of 2.0 and 7.0 µM, respectively. In a murine in vivo model of inflammation, 5 impaired the inflammatory, thioglycollate-induced recruitment of leukocytes to the peritoneum. The potent inhibitory effects on the three identified targets attest 4 and 5 a pronounced multi-target anti-inflammatory profile which warrants further investigation on their pharmacokinetics and in vivo efficacy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Benzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Depsídeos/isolamento & purificação , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peritônio/efeitos dos fármacos , Peritônio/imunologia
5.
J Leukoc Biol ; 86(3): 589-97, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19401390

RESUMO

HSA preparations for i.v. use are administered in critically ill patients. Although increasing intravascular osmotic pressure seems to be a pathophysiologically orientated treatment, clinical trials do not indicate a benefit for mortality in HSA-treated patients. Instead, there is evidence for inflammatory reactions upon infusion of different HSA batches. A neglected issue concerning the safety and quality of these therapeutics is processing-related post-transcriptional protein modifications, such as AGEs. We therefore tested the hypothesis that commercially available infusion solutions contain AGEs and studied whether these protein modifications influence outcome and inflammation in a murine model of sepsis induced by CLP. Screening of different HSA and Ig preparations in this study revealed an up to approximate tenfold difference in the amount of AGE modifications. Application of clinically relevant concentrations of CML-modified HSA in CLP led to increased inflammation and enhanced mortality in wild-type mice but not in mice lacking the RAGE. Lethality was paralleled by increased activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression, and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the peritoneal cavity. This study implies that infusion solutions containing a high load of the AGE-modified protein have the potential to activate RAGE/NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory reactions, causing increased mortality in experimental peritonitis.


Assuntos
Inflamação/etiologia , Peritonite/patologia , Sepse/etiologia , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Soluções , Animais , Aorta/citologia , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Infusões Intravenosas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Sepse/genética , Sepse/metabolismo , Transfecção
6.
Thromb Haemost ; 95(1): 107-16, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16543969

RESUMO

In most studies showing cardio- and vasculoprotective effects of estrogens, 17beta-estradiol was used and little information on possible effects of different estrogen metabolites is yet available. We investigated whether particular estrogen metabolites are effective in counteracting inflammatory activation of human endothelium. Human endothelial cells were incubated with 17alpha-dihydroequilenin, 17beta-dihydroequilenin, delta-8,9-dehydroestrone, estrone and 17beta-estradiol and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1alpha. The expression of IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was determined. 17beta-dihydroequilenin and 17beta-estradiol at a concentration of 1 microM reduced IL-1alpha-induced up regulation of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 close to control levels. When both compounds were used in combination an additive effect was observed. 17alpha-dihydroequilenin and delta-8,9-dehydroestrone showed a similar anti-inflammatory effect only when used at 10 microM whereas estrone had no effect. The effect of 17beta-dihydroequilenin on IL-1alpha-induced production of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 was reversed by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. 17beta-dihydroequilenin also inhibited IL-1alpha-induced translocation of p50 and p65 to the nucleus of the cells. We have identified the estrogen metabolite 17beta-dihydroequilenin, as an inhibitor of inflammatory activation of human endothelial cells. Characterization of specific estrogens--as shown in our study--could provide the basis for tailored therapies, which might be able to achieve vasoprotection without adverse side effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Equilina/análogos & derivados , Interleucina-1/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Equilina/farmacologia , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Estradiol/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Fulvestranto , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
7.
Egypt J Immunol ; 10(2): 49-56, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15719611

RESUMO

Aeromonas hydrophila is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of man that gives rise to both intestinal and extraintestinal infection. This study examined the effect of one the immunostimulants; fungal cell-wall beta-1, 3-D-glucan (Laminarin) on the immune response to Aeromonas hydrophila in albino rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 ml of 1% laminarin (15 mg/100 g b.wt) stimulated humoral immunity. On the ninth day, after application of laminarin in vivo, a statistically higher value of total Ig (p < 0.05) was observed. At the same time, serum total immunoglobulins (25.5 +/- 2) g/L in bacterial groups were significantly higher (p < 0.05), compared to the control group (17 +/- 2) g/L. For Aeromonas infected group, all Ig classes showed increase statistically significant (p < 0.05). On the other hand laminarin groups exhibited reduced values of Ig subclasses but still higher than control values. This was reported for all time period. Rats were divided into 3 equal groups designated, Aeromonas infected, Laminarin-treated and control groups. Infection was carrid out by intraperitoneal injection of 2 x 10(6) bacteria daily for 6 days.


Assuntos
Aeromonas hydrophila , Bacteriemia/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/patogenicidade , Animais , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Parede Celular/imunologia , Fungos/imunologia , Glucanos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/etiologia , Imunoglobulinas/biossíntese , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/classificação , Masculino , Ratos
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