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1.
J Surg Case Rep ; 2019(5): rjz146, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086655

RESUMO

We discuss the rare finding of what initially presented as a common subcutaneous scalp nodule. Yet, after surgical excision, the lesion was found to be a poroid hidradenoma (PH). PH is a rare variant of poroid neoplasms. PH, when observed, is commonly associated with the head and neck. However, it is rarely described in literature beyond the dermatopathologic findings. Here, we describe the clinical presentation of a unique case of a scalp PH in the setting of immunosuppression.

2.
Surg Endosc ; 33(6): 1938-1943, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350099

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traditional laparoscopic surgery (TLS) has increasingly been associated with physical muscle strain for the operating surgeon. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) may offer improved ergonomics. Ergonomics for the surgeon on these two platforms can be compared using surface electromyography (sEMG) to measure muscle activation, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NTLX) survey to assess workload subjectively. METHODS: Subjects were recruited and divided into groups according to level of expertise in traditional laparoscopic (TLS) and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS): novice, traditional laparoscopic surgeons (TL surgeons), robot-assisted laparoscopic surgeons (RAL surgeons). Each subject performed three fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) tasks in randomized order while sEMG data were obtained from bilateral biceps, triceps, deltoid, and trapezius muscles. After completing all tasks, subjects completed the NTLX survey. sEMG data normalized to the maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle (MVC%), and NTLX data were compared with unpaired t tests and considered significant with a p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Muscle activation was higher during TLS compared to RALS in most muscle groups for novices except for the trapezius muscles. Muscle activation scores were also higher for TLS among the groups with more experience, but the differences were less significant. NTLX scores were higher for the TLS platform compared to the RALS platform for novices. DISCUSSION: TLS is associated with higher muscle activation in all muscle groups except for trapezius muscles, suggesting greater strain on the surgeon. Increased trapezius muscle activation on RALS has previously been documented and is likely due to the position of the eye piece. The differences seen in muscle activation diminish with increasing levels of expertise. Experience likely mitigates the ergonomic disadvantage of TLS. NTLX survey data suggest there are subjective benefits to RALS, namely in the perception of temporal demand. Further research to correlate NTLX data and sEMG measurements, and to investigate whether these metrics affect patient outcomes is warranted.

3.
J Am Coll Surg ; 227(2): 203-211, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the epidemic of prescription opioid abuse in the US, rates of opioid-related unintentional deaths have risen dramatically. However, few data exist comparing postoperative opioid prescriptions with patient use. We sought to better elucidate this relationship in surgical patients. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted of narcotic-naïve patients undergoing open and laparoscopic abdominal procedures on a minimally invasive surgery service. During the first 14 post-discharge days and at their first postoperative clinic visit, patients recorded pain scores and number of opioid pills taken. Clinical data were extracted from the medical record. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. RESULTS: From 2014 through 2017, one hundred and seventy-six patients completed postoperative pain surveys. Mean age was 60.4 ± 14.9 years and sex was distributed equally. Most patients (69.9%) underwent laparoscopic procedures. Hydrocodone-acetaminophen was the most commonly prescribed postoperative pain medication (118 patients [67.0%]), followed by oxycodone-acetaminophen (26 patients [14.8%]). Patients were prescribed a median of 150 morphine milligram equivalents (MME) (interquartile range [IQR] 150 to 225 MME), equivalent to twenty 5-mg oral oxycodone pills (IQR 20 to 30 pills). However, by their first postoperative visit, they had only taken a median 30 MME (IQR 10 to 90 MME), or 4 pills (IQR 1.3 to 12 pills). Eight (4.5%) patients received a refill or an additional prescription for pain medications. At the first postoperative visit, 76.7% of respondents were satisfied or very satisfied with their overall postoperative pain management. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative patients might consume less than half of the opioid pills they are prescribed. More research is needed to standardize opioid prescriptions for postoperative pain management while reducing opioid diversion.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
J Surg Res ; 223: 29-33, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robotic platforms have the potential advantage of providing additional dexterity and precision to surgeons while performing complex laparoscopic tasks, especially for those in training. Few quantitative evaluations of surgical task performance comparing laparoscopic and robotic platforms among surgeons of varying experience levels have been done. We compared measures of quality and efficiency of Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery task performance on these platforms in novices and experienced laparoscopic and robotic surgeons. METHODS: Fourteen novices, 12 expert laparoscopic surgeons (>100 laparoscopic procedures performed, no robotics experience), and five expert robotic surgeons (>25 robotic procedures performed) performed three Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery tasks on both laparoscopic and robotic platforms: peg transfer (PT), pattern cutting (PC), and intracorporeal suturing. All tasks were repeated three times by each subject on each platform in a randomized order. Mean completion times and mean errors per trial (EPT) were calculated for each task on both platforms. Results were compared using Student's t-test (P < 0.05 considered statistically significant). RESULTS: Among novices, greater errors were noted during laparoscopic PC (Lap 2.21 versus Robot 0.88 EPT, P < 0.001). Among expert laparoscopists, greater errors were noted during laparoscopic PT compared with robotic (PT: Lap 0.14 versus Robot 0.00 EPT, P = 0.04). Among expert robotic surgeons, greater errors were noted during laparoscopic PC compared with robotic (Lap 0.80 versus Robot 0.13 EPT, P = 0.02). Among expert laparoscopists, task performance was slower on the robotic platform compared with laparoscopy. In comparisons of expert laparoscopists performing tasks on the laparoscopic platform and expert robotic surgeons performing tasks on the robotic platform, expert robotic surgeons demonstrated fewer errors during the PC task (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Robotic assistance provided a reduction in errors at all experience levels for some laparoscopic tasks, but no benefit in the speed of task performance. Robotic assistance may provide some benefit in precision of surgical task performance.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos
5.
J Am Coll Surg ; 226(4): 425-431, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Flexibility in Surgical Training (FIST) consortium project was designed to evaluate the feasibility and resident outcomes of optional subspecialty-focused training within general surgery residency training. STUDY DESIGN: After approval by the American Board of Surgery, R4 and R5 residents were permitted to customize up to 12 of the final 24 months of residency for early tracking into 1 of 9 subspecialty tracks. A prospective IRB-approved study was designed across 7 institutions to evaluate the impact of this option on operative experience, in-service exam (American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination [ABSITE]) and ACGME milestone performance, and resident and program director (PD) perceptions. The FIST residents were compared with chief residents before FIST initiation (controls) as well as residents during the study period who did not participate in FIST (no specialization track, NonS). RESULTS: From 2013 to 2017, 122 of 214 chief residents (57%) completed a FIST subspecialty track. There were no differences in median ABSITE scores between FIST, NonS residents, and controls. The ACGME milestones at the end of the R5 year favored the FIST residents in 13 of 16 milestones compared with NonS. Case logs demonstrated an increase in track-specific cases compared with NonS residents. Resident and PD surveys reported a generally favorable experience with FIST. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study, FIST is a feasible option in participating institutions. All FIST residents, regardless of track, met requirements for ABS Board eligibility, despite modifications to rotations and case experience. Future studies will assess the impact of FIST on ABS exam results and fellowship success.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Carga de Trabalho
6.
J Surg Educ ; 74(6): e51-e54, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28756968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) was developed by the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons to teach the physiology, fundamental knowledge, and technical skills required for basic laparoscopic surgery. We hypothesize that residents are doing more laparoscopic surgery earlier in residency, and therefore would benefit from an earlier assessment of basic laparoscopic skills. Here, we examine FLS test results and ACGME case logs to determine whether it is practical to administer FLS earlier in residency. DESIGN: FLS test results were reviewed for the 42 residents completing FLS between July 2011 and July 2016. ACGME case logs for current and former residents were reviewed for laparoscopic cases logged by each postgraduate year. Basic and complex laparoscopic cases were determined by ACGME General Surgery Defined Category and Minimums Report. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. SETTING: Academic general surgery residency, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: Current and former general surgery residents. RESULTS: A total of 42 residents took and passed FLS between July 2011 and July 2016. All residents successfully passed the FLS knowledge and skills examinations on the first attempt regardless of their postgraduate year (PGY 3n = 13, PGY 4n = 15, and PGY 5n = 14). Total laparoscopic case volume has increased over time. Residents who graduated in 2012 or 2013 completed 229 laparoscopic cases compared to 267 laparoscopic cases for those who graduated from 2014 to 2016 (p = 0.02). Additionally, current residents completed more laparoscopic cases in the first 2 years of residency than residents who graduated from 2012 to 2016 (median current = 38; former = 22; p < 0.001). Examining laparoscopic case numbers for current residents by PGY demonstrated that the number of total and complex laparoscopic cases increased in each of the first 3 years of residency with the largest increase occurring between the PGY 2 and PGY 3 years. In the PGY 4 and PGY 5 years, most laparoscopic cases were complex. CONCLUSION: Increased use of laparoscopic surgery has led to a corresponding increase in laparoscopic case volume among general surgery residents. We would advocate for FLS testing to serve as an early assessment of laparoscopic knowledge and skill and should be performed before a significant increase in complex laparoscopic surgery during training.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/ética , Laparoscopia/educação , Laparoscopia/normas , Educação Baseada em Competências , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Estados Unidos
7.
Surg Endosc ; 31(8): 3286-3290, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27924389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing awareness of potential ergonomic challenges experienced by the laparoscopic surgeon. The purpose of this study is to quantify and compare the ergonomic stress experienced by a surgeon while performing open versus laparoscopic portions of a procedure. We hypothesize that a surgeon will experience greater ergonomic stress when performing laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: We designed a study to measure upper-body muscle activation during the laparoscopic and open portions of sigmoid colectomies in a single surgeon. A sample of five cases was recorded over a two-month time span. Each case contained significant portions of laparoscopic and open surgery. We obtained whole-case electromyography (EMG) tracings from bilateral biceps, triceps, deltoid, and trapezius muscles. After normalization to a maximum voltage of contraction (%MVC), these EMG tracings were used to calculate average muscle activation during the open and laparoscopic segments of each procedure. Paired Student's t test was used to compare the average muscle activation between the two groups (*p < 0.05 considered statistically significant). RESULTS: Significant reductions in mean muscle activation in laparoscopic compared to open procedures were noted for the left triceps (4.07 ± 0.44% open vs. 2.65 ± 0.54% lap, 35% reduction), left deltoid (2.43 ± 0.45% open vs. 1.32 ± 0.16% lap, 46% reduction), left trapezius (9.93 ± 0.1.95% open vs. 4.61 ± 0.67% lap, 54% reduction), right triceps (2.94 ± 0.62% open vs. 1.85 ± 0.28% lap, 37% reduction), and right trapezius (10.20 ± 2.12% open vs. 4.69 ± 1.18% lap, 54% reduction). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to our hypothesis, the laparoscopic approach provided ergonomic benefit in several upper-body muscle groups compared to the open approach. This may be due to the greater reach of laparoscopic instruments and camera in the lower abdomen/pelvis. Patient body habitus may also have less of an effect in the laparoscopic compared to open approach. Future studies with multiple subjects and different types of procedures are planned to further investigate these findings.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Ergonomia , Laparoscopia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Doenças do Colo Sigmoide/cirurgia
10.
J Surg Res ; 206(1): 48-52, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27916374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) uses 3-dimensional visualization and wristed instruments that provide more degrees of freedom than rigid traditional laparoscopic (TLS) instrumentation. These features have been touted to improve accuracy and efficiency during surgical task performance. Little is known, however, about the transferability of skills between the two platforms or whether task performance on one platform primes surgeons for task performance on the other. METHODS: Twenty-six subjects naïve to RALS were recruited to perform three Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery tasks on both TLS and RALS platforms: peg transfer, pattern cutting (PC), and intracorporeal suturing. All tasks were performed within Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery testing parameters and repeated three times by each subject on each platform. Platform and task order were randomized. Errors in task performance were defined as drops in the peg transfer task, faults 5 mm or more from the defined pattern during PC, and faults greater than 1 mm in suture placement from the defined points in intracorporeal suturing. Mean completion times and mean errors per trial (EPT) were calculated for each task on both platforms. Results were compared between those who performed TLS first (LF) and those who performed RALS first (RF) using unpaired Student's t-test (P < 0.05 considered statistically significant). RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in task completion time were noted between the LF and RF groups. RF subjects had fewer errors during robotic PC than LF subjects (1.02 EPT versus 1.86 EPT, respectively; P = 0.02). No other differences in task quality were noted. CONCLUSIONS: In surgeon's naïve to RALS, there is no evidence that skills acquired on RALS or TLS platforms are transferable to the other platform or that performing tasks on one platform primes a subject for task performance on the other. Performing TLS PC may have had a negative impact on subsequent RALS PC performance. These findings suggest that distinct programs for skills acquisition are necessary for both the TLS and RALS platforms.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparoscopia/psicologia , Curva de Aprendizado , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/psicologia , Humanos , Laparoscopia/instrumentação , Laparoscopia/métodos , Missouri , Projetos Piloto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
11.
J Surg Res ; 203(2): 301-5, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27363636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery is associated with a high degree of ergonomic stress. However, the stress associated with surgical assisting is not known. In this study, we compare the ergonomic stress associated with primary and assistant surgical roles during laparoscopic surgery. We hypothesize that higher ergonomic stress will be detected in the primary operating surgeon when compared with the surgical assistant. METHODS: One right-hand dominant attending surgeon performed 698 min of laparoscopic surgery over 13 procedures (222 min primary and 476 min assisting), whereas electromyography data were collected from bilateral biceps, triceps, deltoids, and trapezius muscles. Data were analyzed in 1-min segments. Average muscle activation as quantified by maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) was calculated for each muscle group during primary surgery and assisting. We compared mean %MVC values with unpaired t-tests. RESULTS: Activation of right (R) biceps and triceps muscle groups is significantly elevated while operating when compared with assisting (R biceps primary: 5.47 ± 0.21 %MVC, assistant: 3.93 ± 0.11, P < 0.001; R triceps primary: 6.53 ± 0.33 %MVC, assistant: 5.48 ± 0.18, P = 0.002). Mean activation of the left trapezius muscle group is elevated during assisting (primary: 4.33 ± 0.26 %MVC, assistant: 5.70 ± 0.40, P = 0.024). No significance difference was noted in the other muscle groups (R deltoid, R trapezius, left [L] biceps, L triceps, and L deltoid). CONCLUSIONS: We used surface electromyography to quantify ergonomic differences between operating and assisting. Surgical assisting was associated with similar and occasionally higher levels of muscle activation compared with primary operating. These findings suggest that surgical assistants face significant ergonomic stress, just as operating surgeons do. Steps must be taken to recognize and mitigate this stress in both operating surgeons and assistants.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Laparoscopia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Cirurgiões , Eletromiografia , Humanos
12.
J Am Coll Surg ; 223(3): 440-51, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27238875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a complex syndrome of emotional distress that can disproportionately affect individuals who work in health care professions. STUDY DESIGN: For a national survey of burnout in US general surgery residents, we asked all ACGME-accredited general surgery program directors to email their general surgery residents an invitation to complete an anonymous, online survey. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory; total scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA) subscales were calculated. Burnout was defined as having a score in the highest tertile for EE or DP or lowest tertile for PA. Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA were used to test associations between burnout tertiles for each subscale and various resident and training-program characteristics as appropriate. RESULTS: From April to December 2014, six hundred and sixty-five residents actively engaged in clinical training had data for analysis; 69% met the criterion for burnout on at least one subscale. Higher burnout on each subscale was reported by residents planning private practice careers compared with academic careers. A greater proportion of women than men reported burnout on EE and PA. Higher burnout on EE and DP was associated with greater work hours per week. Having a structured mentoring program was associated with lower burnout on each subscale. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of burnout among general surgery residents are concerning, given the potential impact of burnout on the quality of patient care. Efforts to identify at-risk populations and to design targeted interventions to mitigate burnout in surgical trainees are warranted.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga de Trabalho
13.
Surgery ; 158(4): 962-9; discussion 969-71, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26283204

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that a proficiency-based curriculum administered early in the fourth year to senior medical students (MS4) would achieve outcomes comparable to a similar program administered during surgical internship. METHODS: MS4 (n = 18) entering any surgical specialty enrolled in a proficiency-based skills curriculum at the beginning of the fourth year that included suturing/knot-tying, on-call problems, laparoscopic, and other skills (urinary catheter, sterile prep/drape, IV placement, informed consent, electrosurgical use). Assessment was at 4-12 weeks after training by a modified Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Suturing and knot tying tasks were assessed by time and OSATS technical proficiency (TP) scores (1 [novice], 3 [proficient], 5 [expert]). Outcomes were compared with PGY-1 residents who received similar training at the beginning of internship and assessment 4-12 weeks later. Data are presented as mean values ± standard deviation; statistical significance was assessed by Student's t test. RESULTS: Fifteen of 18 MS4 (83%) reached proficiency on all 15 tasks, and 2 others were proficient on all but 1 laparoscopic task. Compared with PGY-1s, MS4 were significantly faster for 3 of 5 suturing and tying tasks and total task time (547 ± 63 vs 637 ± 127 s; P < .05). Mean TP scores were similar for both groups (MS4, 3.4 ± 0.5 vs PGY-1, 3.1 ± .57; P = NS). MS4 OSATS scores were higher for IV placement, informed consent, and urinary catheter placement, but lower for prep and drape and for management of on-call problems. CONCLUSION: MS4 who participate in a proficiency-based curriculum taught early in the fourth year are able to meet proficiency targets in a high percentage of cases. This approach should better prepare MS4 for surgical internship.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação , Adulto , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Estados Unidos
14.
Surg Endosc ; 28(12): 3379-84, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24928233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many laparoscopic surgeons report musculoskeletal symptoms that are thought to be related to the ergonomic stress of performing laparoscopy. Robotic surgical systems may address many of these limitations. To date, however, there have been no studies exploring the quantitative ergonomics of robotic surgery. In this study, we sought to compare the activation of bilateral biceps, triceps, deltoid, and trapezius muscle groups during traditional laparoscopic surgery (TLS) and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) procedures, as quantified by surface electromyography (sEMG). METHODS: One surgeon with expertise in TLS and RALS performed 18 operative procedures (13 TLS, 5 RALS) while sEMG measurements were obtained from bilateral biceps, triceps, deltoid, and trapezius muscles. sEMG measurements were normalized to the maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle (%MVC). We compared mean %MVC values for each muscle group during TLS and RALS with unpaired t-tests and considered differences with a p value <0.05 to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Muscle activation was higher during TLS compared to RALS in bilateral biceps (L Biceps RALS:1.01%MVC, L Biceps TLS:3.14, p = 0.01; R Biceps RALS:1.81%MVC, R Biceps TLS:4.53, p = 0.0002). Muscle activation was higher during TLS compared to RALS in bilateral triceps (L Triceps RALS:1.73%MVC, L Triceps TLS:3.58, p = 0.04; R Triceps RALS:1.59%MVC, R Triceps TLS:5.11, p = 0.02). Muscle activation was higher during TLS compared to RALS in bilateral deltoids (L Deltoid RALS:1.50%MVC, L Deltoid TLS:3.68, p = 0.03; R Deltoid RALS:1.19%MVC, R Deltoid TLS:2.57, p = 0.01). Significant differences were not detected in the bilateral trapezius muscles (L Trapezius RALS:1.50 %MVC, L Trapezius TLS:3.68, p = 0.03; R Trapezius RALS:1.19%MVC, R Trapezius TLS:2.57, p = 0.01). DISCUSSION: We have quantitatively examined the ergonomics of TLS and RALS and shown that in a single surgeon, TLS procedures are associated with significantly elevated biceps, triceps, and deltoid activation bilaterally when compared to RALS procedures.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Ergonomia , Laparoscopia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Robótica , Eletromiografia , Humanos
15.
J Am Coll Surg ; 219(2): 280-4, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24795266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The national pass rate for the American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination has decreased in the past 5 years. An individual's ability to pass might be as dependent on his or her handling of the psychology of the examination-the "examanship" -because it is about clinical knowledge and judgment. To assess this, we implemented the Advanced Certifying Examination Simulation (ACES) program. The ACES was created as a novel method to simulate the stress of the Certifying Examination and focuses on the examanship of the test. STUDY DESIGN: We compared the outcomes of the ACES program with its predecessor, a conventional mock oral program, as measured by residents' first-time pass rates on the Certifying Examination. First-time Certifying Examination pass rates of 26 residents who went through the ACES program were compared with 30 residents who completed the conventional mock oral program. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in passage rates for residents taking part in the ACES program (100%) compared with residents taking part in the conventional mock oral group (83.3%). The groups were equivalent based on previously determined predictive factors of Certifying Examination success, such as in-training and licensing examination scores. CONCLUSIONS: The ACES program provides feedback on the qualities of examanship: controlling anxiety, expressing a positive attitude, and maintaining a strong and confident voice. By providing a structured, simulated venue where residents can safely gain experience, we believe that ACES might lead to increased first-time passage rates on the American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination.


Assuntos
Certificação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Competência Clínica , Escolaridade , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Estados Unidos
16.
Surg Endosc ; 28(8): 2459-65, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24619332

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Robotic surgery may result in ergonomic benefits to surgeons. In this pilot study, we utilize surface electromyography (sEMG) to describe a method for identifying ergonomic differences between laparoscopic and robotic platforms using validated Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) tasks. We hypothesize that FLS task performance on laparoscopic and robotic surgical platforms will produce significant differences in mean muscle activation, as quantified by sEMG. METHODS: Six right-hand-dominant subjects with varying experience performed FLS peg transfer (PT), pattern cutting (PC), and intracorporeal suturing (IS) tasks on laparoscopic and robotic platforms. sEMG measurements were obtained from each subject's bilateral bicep, tricep, deltoid, and trapezius muscles. EMG measurements were normalized to the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of each muscle of each subject. Subjects repeated each task three times per platform, and mean values used for pooled analysis. Average normalized muscle activation (%MVC) was calculated for each muscle group in all subjects for each FLS task. We compared mean %MVC values with paired t tests and considered differences with a p value less than 0.05 to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Mean activation of right bicep (2.7 %MVC lap, 1.3 %MVC robotic, p = 0.019) and right deltoid muscles (2.4 %MVC lap, 1.0 %MVC robotic, p = 0.019) were significantly elevated during the laparoscopic compared to the robotic IS task. The mean activation of the right trapezius muscle was significantly elevated during robotic compared to the laparoscopic PT (1.6 %MVC lap, 3.5 %MVC robotic, p = 0.040) and PC (1.3 %MVC lap, 3.6 %MVC robotic, p = 0.0018) tasks. CONCLUSIONS: FLS tasks are validated, readily available instruments that are feasible for use in demonstrating ergonomic differences between surgical platforms. In this study, we used FLS tasks to compare mean muscle activation of four muscle groups during laparoscopic and robotic task performance. FLS tasks can serve as the basis for larger studies to further describe ergonomic differences between laparoscopic and robotic surgery.


Assuntos
Ergonomia , Laparoscopia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto
17.
Ann Surg ; 258(3): 440-9, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24022436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess readiness of general surgery graduate trainees entering accredited surgical subspecialty fellowships in North America. METHODS: A multidomain, global assessment survey designed by the Fellowship Council research committee was electronically sent to all subspecialty program directors. Respondents spanned minimally invasive surgery, bariatric, colorectal, hepatobiliary, and thoracic specialties. There were 46 quantitative questions distributed across 5 domains and 1 or more reflective qualitative questions/domains. RESULTS: There was a 63% response rate (n = 91/145). Of respondent program directors, 21% felt that new fellows arrived unprepared for the operating room, 38% demonstrated lack of patient ownership, 30% could not independently perform a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and 66% were deemed unable to operate for 30 unsupervised minutes of a major procedure. With regard to laparoscopic skills, 30% could not atraumatically manipulate tissue, 26% could not recognize anatomical planes, and 56% could not suture. Furthermore, 28% of fellows were not familiar with therapeutic options and 24% were unable to recognize early signs of complications. Finally, it was felt that the majority of new fellows were unable to conceive, design, and conduct research/academic projects. Thematic clustering of qualitative data revealed deficits in domains of operative autonomy, progressive responsibility, longitudinal follow-up, and scholarly focus after general surgery education.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Bolsas de Estudo , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/normas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/normas , Humanos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/educação , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
19.
HPB (Oxford) ; 9(5): 357-62, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18345319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thermal ablative techniques have gained increasing popularity in recent years as safe and effective options for patients with unresectable solid malignancies. Microwave ablation has emerged as a relatively new technique with the promise of larger and faster burns without some of the limitations of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Here we study a new microwave ablation device in a living porcine model using gross, histologic, and radiographic analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The size and shape of ablated lesions were assessed using six pigs in a non-survival study. Liver tissue was ablated using 2, 4, and 8 min burns, in both peripheral and central locations, with and without vascular inflow occlusion. To characterize the post-ablation appearance, three additional pigs underwent several 4 min ablations each followed by serial computed tomography (CT) imaging at 7, 14, and 28 days postoperatively. RESULTS: The 2 and 4 min ablations resulted in lesions that were similar in size, 33.5 cm(3) and 37.5 cm(3), respectively. Ablations lasting 8 min produced lesions that were significantly larger, 92.0 cm(3) on average. Proximity to hepatic vasculature and inflow occlusion did not significantly change lesion size or shape. In follow-up studies, CT imaging showed a gradual reduction in lesion volume over 28 days to 25-50% of the original volume. DISCUSSION: Microwave ablation with a novel device results in consistently sized and shaped lesions. Importantly, we did not observe any significant heat-sink effect using this device, a major difference from RFA techniques. This system offers a viable alternative for creating fast, large ablation volumes for treatment in liver cancer.

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