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1.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(8)2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436184

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated aqueous extracts of three edible mushrooms: Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom), Pleurotus columbinus (oyster mushroom), and Pleurotus sajor-caju (grey oyster mushroom). The extracts were biochemically characterized for total carbohydrate, phenolic, flavonoid, vitamin, and protein contents besides amino acid analysis. Triple TOF proteome analysis showed 30.1% similarity between proteomes of the two Pleurotus spp. All three extracts showed promising antiviral activities. While Pleurotus columbinus extract showed potent activity against adenovirus (Ad7, selectivity index (SI) = 4.2), Agaricus bisporus showed strong activity against herpes simplex II (HSV-2; SI = 3.7). The extracts showed low cytotoxicity against normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and moderate cytotoxicity against prostate (PC3, DU-145); colorectal (Colo-205); cecum carcinoma (LS-513); liver carcinoma (HepG2); cervical cancer (HeLa); breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) as well as leukemia (CCRF-CEM); acute monocytic leukemia (THP1); acute promyelocytic leukemia (NB4); and lymphoma (U937) cell lines. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-Ethylbenzthiazolin-6-Sulfonic Acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The three extracts showed potential antioxidant activities with the maximum activity recorded for Pleurotus columbinus (IC50 µg/mL) = 35.13 ± 3.27 for DPPH, 13.97 ± 4.91 for ABTS, and 29.42 ± 3.21 for ORAC assays.

2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361776

RESUMO

In this study, we examined aqueous extracts of the edible mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom). Proteome analysis was conducted using LC-Triple TOF-MS and showed the expression of 753 proteins by Pleurotus ostreatus, and 432 proteins by Lentinula edodes. Bioactive peptides: Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin reductase, serine proteinase and lectin, were identified in both mushrooms. The extracts also included promising bioactive compounds including phenolics, flavonoids, vitamins and amino acids. The extracts showed promising antiviral activities, with a selectivity index (SI) of 4.5 for Pleurotus ostreatus against adenovirus (Ad7), and a slight activity for Lentinula edodes against herpes simplex-II (HSV-2). The extracts were not cytotoxic to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). On the contrary, they showed moderate cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. Additionally, antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical cation scavenging and ORAC assays. The two extracts showed potential antioxidant activities, with the maximum activity seen for Pleurotus ostreatus (IC50 µg/mL) = 39.46 ± 1.27 for DPPH; 11.22 ± 1.81 for ABTS; and 21.40 ± 2.20 for ORAC assays. This study encourages the use of these mushrooms in medicine in the light of their low cytotoxicity on normal PBMCs vis à vis their antiviral, antitumor and antioxidant capabilities.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antivirais/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Pleurotus/química , Proteoma/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/classificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteoma/classificação , Proteoma/isolamento & purificação , Serina Proteases/química , Serina Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Superóxido Dismutase/isolamento & purificação , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/química , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/isolamento & purificação , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/isolamento & purificação , Água/química
3.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301067

RESUMO

The unique properties and advantages of edible films over conventional food packaging have led the way to their extensive exploration in recent years. Moreover, the incorporation of bioactive components during their production has further enhanced the intrinsic features of packaging materials. This study was aimed to develop edible and bioactive food packaging films comprising yeast incorporated into bacterial cellulose (BC) in conjunction with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and glycerol (Gly) to extend the shelf life of packaged food materials. First, yeast biomass and BC hydrogels were produced by Meyerozyma guilliermondii (MT502203.1) and Gluconacetobacter xylinus (ATCC53582), respectively, and then the films were developed ex situ by mixing 30 wt.% CMC, 30 wt.% Gly, 2 wt.% yeast dry biomass, and 2 wt.% BC slurry. FE-SEM observation showed the successful incorporation of Gly and yeast into the fibrous cellulose matrix. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the development of composite films through chemical interaction between BC, CMC, Gly, and yeast. The developed BC/CMC/Gly/yeast composite films showed high water solubility (42.86%). The yeast-incorporated films showed antimicrobial activities against three microbial strains, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Saccharomyces aureus, by producing clear inhibition zones of 16 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm, respectively, after 24 h. Moreover, the films were non-toxic against NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells. Finally, the coating of oranges and tomatoes with BC/CMC/Gly/yeast composites enhanced the shelf life at different storage temperatures. The BC/CMC/Gly/yeast composite film-coated oranges and tomatoes demonstrated acceptable sensory features such as odor and color, not only at 6 °C but also at room temperature and further elevated temperatures at 30 °C and 40 °C for up to two weeks. The findings of this study indicate that the developed BC/CMC/Gly/yeast composite films could be used as edible packaging material with high nutritional value and distinctive properties related to the film component, which would provide protection to foods and extend their shelf life, and thus could find applications in the food industry.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065835

RESUMO

The discovery of eco-friendly, rapid, and cost-effective compounds to control diseases caused by microbes and insects are the main challenges. Herein, the magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO-NPs) are successfully fabricated by harnessing the metabolites secreted by Penicillium chrysogenum. The fabricated MgO-NPs were characterized using UV-Vis, XRD, TEM, DLS, EDX, FT-IR, and XPS analyses. Data showed the successful formation of crystallographic, spherical, well-dispersed MgO-NPs with sizes of 7-40 nm at a maximum wavelength of 250 nm. The EDX analysis confirms the presence of Mg and O ions as the main components with weight percentages of 13.62% and 7.76%, respectively. The activity of MgO-NPs as an antimicrobial agent was investigated against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans, and exhibited zone of inhibitions of 12.0 ± 0.0, 12.7 ± 0.9, 23.3 ± 0.8, 17.7 ± 1.6, and 14.7 ± 0.6 mm respectively, at 200 µg mL-1. The activity is decreased by decreasing the MgO-NPs concentration. The biogenic MgO-NPs exhibit high efficacy against different larvae instar and pupa of Anopheles stephensi, with LC50 values of 12.5-15.5 ppm for I-IV larvae instar and 16.5 ppm for the pupa. Additionally, 5 mg/cm2 of MgO-NPs showed the highest protection percentages against adults of Anopheles stephensi, with values of 100% for 150 min and 67.6% ± 1.4% for 210 min.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Óxido de Magnésio/farmacologia , Penicillium chrysogenum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido de Magnésio/química , Óxido de Magnésio/isolamento & purificação , Metabolômica , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Penicillium chrysogenum/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802973

RESUMO

Herein, CuO-NPs were fabricated by harnessing metabolites of Aspergillus niger strain (G3-1) and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDX, FT-IR, and XPS. Spherical, crystallographic CuO-NPs were synthesized in sizes ranging from 14.0 to 47.4 nm, as indicated by TEM and XRD. EDX and XPS confirmed the presence of Cu and O with weight percentages of 62.96% and 22.93%, respectively, at varied bending energies. FT-IR spectra identified functional groups of metabolites that could act as reducing, capping, and stabilizing agents to the CuO-NPs. The insecticidal activity of CuO-NPs against wheat grain insects Sitophilus granarius and Rhyzopertha dominica was dose- and time-dependent. The mortality percentages due to NP treatment were 55-94.4% (S. granarius) and 70-90% (R. dominica). A botanical experiment was done in a randomized block design. Low CuO-NP concentration (50 ppm) caused significant increases in growth characteristics (shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, and leaves number), photosynthetic pigments (total chlorophylls and carotenoids), and antioxidant enzymes of wheat plants. There was no significant change in carbohydrate or protein content. The use of CuO-NPs is a promising tool to control grain insects and enhance wheat growth performance.

6.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803129

RESUMO

Twenty-one fungal strains were isolated from dye-contaminated soil; out of them, two fungal strains A2 and G2-1 showed the highest decolorization capacity for real textile effluent and were, hence, identified as Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporium based on morphological and molecular methods. The highest decolorization percentage of 78.12 ± 2.1% was attained in the biotreatment with fungal consortium followed by A. flavus and F. oxysporium separately with removal percentages of 54.68 ± 1.2% and 52.41 ± 1.0%, respectively. Additionally, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of the treated effluent showed that a maximum peak (λmax) of 415 nm was reduced as compared with the control. The indicators of wastewater treatment efficacy, namely total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, conductivity, biological oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand with removal percentages of 78.2, 78.4, 58.2, 78.1, and 77.6%, respectively, demonstrated a considerable decrease in values due to fungal consortium treatment. The reduction in peak and mass area along with the appearance of new peaks in GC-MS confirms a successful biodegradation process. The toxicity of treated textile effluents on the seed germination of Vicia faba was decreased as compared with the control. The shoot length after irrigation with effluents treated by the fungal consortium was 15.12 ± 1.01 cm as compared with that treated by tap-water, which was 17.8 ± 0.7 cm. Finally, we recommended the decrease of excessive uses of synthetic dyes and utilized biological approaches for the treatment of real textile effluents to reuse in irrigation of uneaten plants especially with water scarcity worldwide.

7.
Int Microbiol ; 24(2): 169-181, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389217

RESUMO

L-Glutaminase is an amidohydrolase which can act as a vital chemotherapeutic agent against various malignancies. In the present work, L-glutaminase productivity from Aspergillus versicolor Faesay4 was significantly increased by 7.72-fold (from 12.33 ± 0.47 to 95.15 ± 0.89 U/mL) by optimizing submerged fermentation parameters in Czapek's Dox (CZD) medium including an incubation period from 3 (12.33 ± 0.47 U/mL) to 6 days (23.36 ± 0.58 U/mL), an incubation temperature from 30 °C (23.36 ± 0.49 U/mL) to 25 °C (31.08 ± 0.60 U/mL), initial pH from pH 5.0 (8.49 ± 0.21 U/mL)  to pH 7.0 (32.18 ± 0.57 U/mL), replacement of glucose (30.19 ± 0.52 U/mL) by sucrose (48.97 ± 0.67 U/mL) as the carbon source at a concentration of 2.0% (w/v), increasing glutamine concentration as the nitrogen source from 1.0% (w/v, 48.54 ± 0.48 U/mL) to 1.5% (w/v, 63.01 ± 0.60 U/mL), and addition of a mixture of KH2PO4 and NaCl (0.5% w/v for both) to SZD as the metal supplementation (95.15 ± 0.89 U/mL). Faesay4 L-glutaminase was purified to yield total activity 13,160 ± 22.76 (U), specific activity 398.79 ± 9.81 (U/mg of protein), and purification fold 2.1 ± 3.18 with final enzyme recovery 57.22 ± 2.17%. The pure enzyme showed a molecular weight of 61.80 kDa, and it was stable and retained 100.0% of its activity at a temperature ranged from 10 to 40 °C and pH 7.0. In our trials, to increase the enzyme activity by optimizing the assay conditions (which were temperature 60 °C, pH 7.0, substrate glutamine, substrate concentration 1.0%, and reaction time 60 min), the enzyme activity increased by 358.8% after changing the assay temperature from 60 to 30 °C and then increased by 138% after decreasing the reaction time from 60 to 40 min. However, both pH 7.0 and glutamine as the substrate remain the best assay parameters for the L-glutaminase activity. When the glutamine in the assay as the reaction substrate was replaced by asparagine, lysine, proline, methionine, cysteine, glycine, valine, phenylalanine, L-alanine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, and serine, the enzyme lost 23.86%, 29.0%, 31.0%, 48.3%, 50.0%, 73.6%, 74.51%, 80.42%, 82.5%, 83.43%, 88.36%, and 89.78% of its activity with glutamine, respectively. Furthermore, Mn2+, K+, Na+, and Fe3+ were enzymatic activators that increased the L-glutaminase activity by 25.0%, 18.05%, 10.97%, and 8.0%, respectively. Faesay4 L-glutaminase was characterized as a serine protease enzyme as a result of complete inhibition by all serine protease inhibitors (PMSF, benzamidine, and TLCK). Purified L-glutaminase isolated from Aspergillus versicolor Faesay4 showed potent DPPH scavenging activities with IC50 = 50 µg/mL and anticancer activities against human liver (HepG-2), colon (HCT-116), breast (MCF-7), lung (A-549), and cervical (Hela) cancer cell lines with IC50 39.61, 12.8, 6.18, 11.48, and 7.25 µg/mL, respectively.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Glutaminase/química , Glutaminase/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspergillus/química , Aspergillus/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Enzimática , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia , Glutaminase/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Peso Molecular , Especificidade por Substrato
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(12): 1907-1911, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Aspergillus keratitis are in the increasing trend and reported as the second most common cause of mycotic keratitis in developing countries. The present study was designed to isolate, identify Aspergillus spp. from the keratits/corneal ulcer patients attending a tertiary care eye hospital, Coimbatore, South India and to assess the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against ten clinically used first-line antifungal drugs. METHODS: A total of seventy-three Aspergillus strains isolated from corneal scrapings were included and assessed for a period of one year. All isolates were identified up to the species level by morphological observations. Antifungal drug susceptibilities were determined against a standard panel of antifungal agents. CONCLUSIONS: Five different species of aspergilli, A. flavus (n=53), A. fumigatus (n=14), A. terreus (n=9), A. tamarii (n=6) and A. niger (n=3) were identified based on morphological features. Minimum inhibitory concentration analyses indicated that, voriconazole, natamycin, itraconazole, clotrimazole, econazole followed by ketoconazole shall be the order of choices for the effective treatment for Aspergillus keratitis.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Córnea , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergillus , Úlcera da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Níger
9.
Can J Microbiol ; 57(8): 693-8, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21823978

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of fungi in aerobic and anoxic activated sludge from membrane bioreactors. Thirty-six samples from each aerobic and anoxic activated sludge were taken from two membrane bioreactors treating domestic wastewater. Over a period of 9 months, four samples from each plant were taken per month. The samples were prepared for count and identification of fungi. Sixty species belonging to 30 genera were collected from activated sludge samples under aerobic and anoxic conditions. In terms of fungal identification, under aerobic conditions Geotrichum candidum was found at 94.4% followed by Penicillium species at 80.6%, yeasts at 75.0%, and Trichoderma species at 50.0%; under anoxic conditions G. candidum at 86.1%, yeasts at 66.6%, and Penicillium species at 61.1% were the most prevalent. The results indicate that activated sludge is a habitat for growth and sporulation of different groups of fungi, both saprophytic and pathogenic.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Fungos Mitospóricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esgotos/microbiologia , Aerobiose , Anaerobiose , Berlim , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
10.
Mycoses ; 54(5): e493-8, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21554420

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to conduct a survey of fungi in activated sludge plants with membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Thirty-six samples of both aerobic and anoxic activated sludge were taken from two plants with MBRs treating domestic wastewater. Over a period of 8 months, two samples from each plant were taken per month. The samples were prepared for count and identification of fungi. The obtained data show that 61 species belonging to 30 genera were identified from activated sludge samples, under aerobic conditions (27 genera and 54 species) and anoxic conditions (21 genera and 39 species), by culturing at 30 °C for 15 days. In aerobic activated sludge samples, the prevalence of Geotrichum candidum was 100% followed by Fusarium (72.2%), yeast (61.1%), Aspergillus (50.0%), Penicillium (50.0%) and Trichoderma (41.6%), while in anoxic activated sludge, G. candidum (94.4%), Fusarium (91.6%), Aspergillus (77.7%), yeast (63.8%), Penicillium (50.0%) and Trichoderma (50.0%) species were the most prevalent. In addition, the other genera found included Chaetomum, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Doratomyces, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Gymnoascus, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Phialophora, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Stachybotrys, Stemphylium and others. The results indicate that aerobic and anoxic activated sludge provides a suitable habitat for the growth and sporulation of different groups of fungi, both saprophytic and pathogenic.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Humanos , Purificação da Água
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