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1.
Environ Pollut ; 298: 118831, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032603

RESUMO

Biochar is a stable carbon-rich product loaded with upgraded properties obtained by thermal cracking of biomasses in an oxygen-free atmosphere. The pristine biochar is further modified to produce engineered biochar via various physical, mechanical, and chemical methods. The hasty advancement in engineered biochar synthesis via different technologies and their application in the field of energy and environment is a topical issue that required an up-to-date review. Therefore, this review deals with comprehensive and recent mechanistic approaches of engineered biochar synthesis and its further application in the field of energy and the environment. Synthesis and activation of engineered biochar via various methods has been deliberated in brief. Furthermore, this review systematically covered the impacts of engineered biochar amendment in the composting process, anaerobic digestion (AD), soil microbial community encouragement, and their enzymatic activities. Finally, this review provided a glimpse of the knowledge gaps and challenges associated with application of engineered biochar in various fields, which needs urgent attention in future research.

2.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126300, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752882

RESUMO

The prominent characteristics of the biochar, high porosity, sorption capacity with low density improve the aeration, making it a desirable amendment material for composting process. The composting efficiency was analysed by the impact of rice husk biochar amendment (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) in the presence of salts for the co-composting of food waste and swine manure, in composting reactors for 50 days. Results revealed that biochar amendment had improved the degradation rates by microbial activities in comparison with control. The final compost quality was improved by reducing the bulk density (29-53%), C/N ratio (29-57%), gaseous emissions (CO2, CH4, and NH3) and microbial pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.). However, 6% biochar amendment had significant improvement in compost quality, degradation rates and nutritional value which is recommended as the ideal ratio for obtaining mature compost from the feedstock, food waste and swine manure.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Alimentos , Gases , Esterco , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Sais , Solo , Suínos
3.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132404, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597634

RESUMO

The grass-waste management model affects soil organic carbon (SOC) and the microorganism community structure; however, studies on the relationship between the fungal community structure and the SOC chemical component at the aggregate level are poor. Solid-state 13C NMR and 18 S rDNA methods were used to evaluate the relationship between the SOC chemical composition and fungal community abundance at the aggregate level. Grass mulching significantly increased the percentage of labile carbon O-alkyl C (5.19%-11.79%) and decreased the instability of SOC (1.38-0.69). Microaggregates contained higher alkyl C (33.77%) and lower aromatic C (18.31%), and the A/O-A ratio (1.03) was higher than that of macroaggregates (0.89-0.96). Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota dominated the fungal community at the phylum level, and their abundance increased after grass mulching. Microaggregates supported more microbial diversity and richness and were rich in the Ascomycota (36.69%-67.49%) phylum, while LM aggregates were rich in Basidiomycota (5.62%-39.84%). We proved that changes in the O-alkyl C, carbonyl C, aromatic C and alkyl C of SOC chemical components were closely connected to fungal community composition, which together explained the change in fungal composition by 63.81%-71.99% among aggregates. We concluded that alterations in the chemical form of organic carbon were closely related to a change in the soil fungal community. This connection has a positive impact on soil nutrient utilization and SOC conversion in fruit-grass composite ecosystems and promotes the understanding of the relationship between the soil microbial community and nutrient cycling during long-term grass waste utilization.


Assuntos
Malus , Microbiota , Micobioma , Carbono/análise , China , Poaceae , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132454, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610376

RESUMO

This study aimed to clarify that long-term leguminous grass mulching (crown vetch (CV) and white clover (WC)) and gramineous grass (orchardgrass (OG)) drive the distribution of soil aggregates and are associated with dissolved organic matter (DOM) components. Excitation emission spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) were used to evaluate the influence of different grass mulches among aggregates. The results indicated that legumes had a more significant impact on the distribution of aggregates and DOM content than gramineae grass mulching. Leguminous grass mulching significantly increased the proportion of macroaggregates >250 µm (74.65%-83.50%) and aggregates associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), especially in microaggregates <250 µm (172.27 mg kg-1 to 391.55 mg kg-1). In addition, leguminous grass mulching (CV and WC) contributed more to the increase in soil total nitrogen (TN) and three identified fluorescent components (UVC humic-like, UVA humic-like and protein-like). The component of UVC humic-like relative abundance decreased (48.66%-36.57%), and the protein-like component increased (21.88%-36.50%) as the aggregate size decreased, but the DOM three compositions did not change. The DOM of macroaggregates had higher aromaticity and lower molecular weight than microaggregates, and the highest abundance of UVC humic-like component (54.52%) was found in the gramineous (OG) large macroaggregates, while the higher abundance of protein-like components (31.07%-36.50%) occurs in leguminous mulching (CV and WC) microaggregates. The results contribute to a further understanding of the dynamic process by which grass mulching mediates aggregate formation and DOM component transformation in semiarid apple orchards under grass waste management.


Assuntos
Carbono , Substâncias Húmicas , Análise Fatorial , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Poaceae , Solo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt B): 127516, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689089

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution generated by urban and industrial activities has become a major global concern due to its high toxicity, minimal biodegradability, and persistence in the food chain. These are the severe pollutants that have the potential to harm humans and the environment as a whole. Mercury, chromium, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel are the most often discharged hazardous heavy metals. Nanocellulose, reminiscent of many other sustainable nanostructured materials, is gaining popularity for application in bioremediation technologies owing to its many unique features and potentials. The adsorption of heavy metals from wastewaters is greatly improved when cellulose dimension is reduced to nanometric levels. For instance, the adsorption efficiency of Cr3+ and Cr6+ is found to be 42.02% and 5.79% respectively using microcellulose, while nanocellulose adsorbed 62.40% of Cr3+ ions and 5.98% of Cr6+ ions from contaminated water. These nanomaterials are promising in terms of their ease and low cost of regeneration. This review addresses the relevance of nanocellulose as biosorbent, scaffold, and membrane in various heavy metal bioremediation, as well as provides insights into the challenges, future prospects, and updates. The methods of designing better nanocellulose biosorbents to improve adsorption efficiency according to contaminant types are focused.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149823, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454140

RESUMO

Rising level of micro-nano plastics (MNPs) in the natural ecosystem adversely impact the health of the environment and living organisms globally. MNPs enter in to the agro-ecosystem, flora and fauna, and human body via trophic transfer, ingestion and inhalation, resulting impediment in blood vessel, infertility, and abnormal behaviors. Therefore, it becomes indispensable to apply a novel approach to remediate MNPs from natural environment. Amongst the several prevailing technologies of MNPs remediation, microbial remediation is considered as greener technology. Microbial degradation of plastics is typically influenced by several biotic as well as abiotic factors, such as enzymatic mechanisms, substrates and co-substrates concentration, temperature, pH, oxidative stress, etc. Therefore, it is pivotal to recognize the key pathways adopted by microbes to utilize plastic fragments as a sole carbon source for the growth and development. In this context, this review critically discussed the role of various microbes and their enzymatic mechanisms involved in biodegradation of MNPs in wastewater (WW) stream, municipal sludge, municipal solid waste (MSW), and composting starting with biological and toxicological impacts of MNPs. Moreover, this review comprehensively discussed the deployment of various MNPs remediation technologies, such as enzymatic, advanced molecular, and bio-membrane technologies in fostering the bioremediation of MNPs from various environmental compartments along with their pros and cons and prospects for future research.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150699, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600993

RESUMO

Rapid composting by black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) may be insufficient to maturation and humification of composting and further composting is necessary. The purpose of this study was to explore cornstalk addition on toxic metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd), toxic metals resistance bacterial (TMRB) destiny and their relationship with physicochemical factors during BSFL manure composting. High-throughput sequencing was performed by six treatments, namely T1 to T6, where T1 to T3 were BSFL manures from chicken, pig and dairy manure, respectively, and T4 to T6 were same manures and utilized cornstalk to adjust C/N to 25. The results showed that cornstalk amendment could enhance the toxic metals immobilization rate compared to control treatments in the ultimate product. TMRB indicated that the major potential hosts bacteria were Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteriota and Actinobacteriota, and the sum relative abundance were 63.33%, 90.62%, 83.62%, 69.38%, 50.66% and 90.52% in T1 to T6 at the end of composting. Bacteria diversity and heat map revealed composting micro-ecology with additive cornstalk to remarkably effect main resistant bacterial distribution via adjusting environmental factors and potential hosts bacterial. Finally, T5 treatment was able to greatly decrease the TMRB abundance, and improve the ability of composting and ultimate product quality.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Dípteros , Animais , Bactérias , Larva , Esterco , Suínos
8.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131693, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358886

RESUMO

Based on the sustainable development practice-zero growth in chemical fertilizer application, this article used bagasse organic fertilizer and rice husk derived biochar to investigate the response of soil bacterial community in apple orchard. Aimed at realize the soil quality improvement and biomass resource recovery to contribute agricultural and environmental sustainability. The co-trophic Proteobacteria was predominant in all the treatments (29-36 %) and enriched in non-nitrifying Alphaproteobacteria (9-11 %) and ammonia oxidant Betaproteobacteria (8-10 %), especially richest in bagasse fertilizer combine biochar treated soil. In addition, bacterial community variation was assessed by alpha and beta diversity, four treatments dispersed distribution and richer abundance observed in combined apply bagasse fertilizer and biochar treatment (3909.22 observed-species) than single application (3729.88 and 3646.58 observed-species). Biochar as microbial carrier combined organic fertilizer were established synergistic interaction and favorable to organic matter availability during sustainable agriculture. Finally, integrated biochar-bagasse fertilizer was richer than single organic or biochar fertilization in improving soil bacterial diversity, notably by promoting the metabolism of copiotrophic bacteria, nutrient cycling, plant growth and disease inhibit-related bacteria.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Malus , Agricultura , Bactérias/genética , Celulose , Carvão Vegetal , Fertilizantes/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
Chemosphere ; 290: 133310, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919909

RESUMO

Poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable and compostable polyesters. This review is aimed to provide a unique approach that can help think tanks to frame strategies aiming for clean technology by utilizing cutting edge biotechnological advances to convert fruit and vegetable waste to biopolymer. A PHA manufacturing method based on watermelon waste residue that does not require extensive pretreatment provides a more environmentally friendly and sustainable approach that utilizes an agricultural waste stream. Incorporating fruit processing industry by-products and water, and other resource conservation methods would not only make the manufacturing of microbial bio-plastics like PHA more eco-friendly, but will also help our sector transition to a bioeconomy with circular product streams. The final and most critical element of this review is an in-depth examination of the several hazards inherent in PHA manufacturing.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Biopolímeros , Biotecnologia , Poliésteres
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 345: 126485, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871725

RESUMO

Production of high-quality grass-based silages by microbial-mediated anaerobic fermentation is an effective strategy in livestock farms. In the present study, an ensiling process was used to preserve and enhance fermentative metabolites in triticale silages with novel inoculants of Lactobacillus rhamanosus -52 and, Lactobacillus rhamanosus-54. Triticale silages treated with LAB predominantly had lower pH values than control silages due to rapid changes of microbial counts. LAB addition improved anaerobic fermentation profiles showing higher lactic acid, but lower acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations. A background microbial dynamic study indicated that the addition of L. rhamanosus-52 and L. rhamanosus-54 improved silage fermentation, enriched Lactobacillus spp., and decreased microbial richness with diversity, leading to increased efficiency of lactic acid fermentation. In conclusion, LAB treatment can increase silage quality by enhancing the dominance of desirable Lactobacillus while inhibiting the growth of undesirable microbes.

11.
Bioresour Technol ; : 126442, 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848334

RESUMO

The present study proposes a system for co-composting food waste and poultry manure amended with rice husk biochar at different doses (0, 3, 5, 10%, w/w), saw dust, and salts. The effect of rice husk biochar on the characteristics of final compost was evaluated through stabilization indices such as electrical conductivity, bulk density, total porosity, gaseous emissions and nitrogen conservation. Results indicated that when compared to control, the biochar amendment extended the thermophilic stage of the composting, accelerated the biodegradation and mineralization of substrate mixture and helped in the maturation of the end product. Carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia emissions were reduced and the nitrogen conservation was achieved at a greater level in the 10% (w/w) biochar amended treatments. This study implies that the biochar and salts addition for co-composting food waste and poultry manure is beneficial to enhance the property of the compost.

12.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 12308-12321, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927549

RESUMO

Fermentation-derived alcohols have gained much attention as an alternate fuel due to its minimal effects on atmosphere. Besides its application as biofuel it is also used as raw material for coating resins, deicing fluid, additives in polishes, etc. Among the liquid alcohol type of fuels, isobutanol has more advantage than ethanol. Isobutanol production is reported in native yeast strains, but the production titer is very low which is about 200 mg/L. In order to improve the production, several genetic and metabolic engineering approaches have been carried out. Genetically engineered organism has been reported to produce maximum of 50 g/L of isobutanol which is far more than the native strain without any modification. In bacteria mostly last two steps in Ehrlich pathway, catalyzed by enzymes ketoisovalerate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase, are heterologously expressed to improve the production. Native Saccharomyces cerevisiae can produce isobutanol in negligible amount since it possesses the pathway for its production through valine degradation pathway. Further modifications in the existing pathways made the improvement in isobutanol production in many microbial strains. Fermentation using cost-effective lignocellulosic biomass and an efficient downstream process can yield isobutanol in environment friendly and sustainable manner. The present review describes the various genetic and metabolic engineering practices adopted to improve the isobutanol production in microbial strains and its downstream processing.

13.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 11463-11483, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818969

RESUMO

Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) has been emerging as a biomaterial of considerable significance in a number of industrial sectors because of its remarkable physico-chemical and biological characteristics. High capital expenses, manufacturing costs, and a paucity of some well-scalable methods, all of which lead to low BNC output in commercial scale, are major barriers that must be addressed. Advances in production methods, including bioreactor technologies, static intermittent, and semi-continuous fed batch technologies, and innovative outlay substrates, may be able to overcome the challenges to BNC production at the industrial scale. The novelty of this review is that it highlights genetic modification possibilities in BNC production to overcome existing impediments and open up viable routes for large-scale production, suitable for real-world applications. This review focuses on various production routes of BNC, its properties, and applications, especially the major advancement in food, personal care, biomedical and electronic industries.

14.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775906

RESUMO

According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), soil health is declining over the decades and it has an adverse impact on human health as well as food security. Hence, soil health restoration is a need of the hour. It is known that microorganisms play a vital role in remediation of soil pollutants like heavy metals, pesticides, hydrocarbons etc. However, the indigenous microbes have a limited capacity to degrade these pollutants and it will be a slow process. Genetically modified organisms (GMO) can catalyse the degradation process as their altered metabolic pathways lead to hyper secretions of various biomolecules that favours the bioremediation process. This review provides an overview on the application of bioengineered microorganisms for the restoration of soil health by degradation of various pollutants. It also sheds light on the challenges of using GMOs in environmental application as their introduction may affect the normal microbial community in soil. Since, soil health also refers to the potential for native organisms to survive; the possible changes in native microbial community with the introduction of GMOs are also discussed. Finally, the future prospects of using bioengineered microorganisms in the environmental engineering applications to make the soil fertile and healthy has been deciphered. With the alarming rates of soil health loss, the treatment of soil and soil health restoration needs to fastened to a greater pace and the combinatorial efforts unifying GMOs, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and other soil amendments will provide an effective solution to soil heath restoration ten years ahead.

15.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 8247-8258, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814795

RESUMO

Animal derived waste, if not disposed properly, could pose a threat to the environment and its inhabitants. Recent advancements in biotechnological and biomedical interventions have enabled us to bioengineer these valuable waste substrates into biomaterials with diversified applications. Rearing and processing of poultry, cattle, sheep, goat, pig, and slaughterhouse waste can aid in effective waste valorization for the fabrication of biopolymers, composites, heart valves, collagen, scaffolds, pigments and lipids, among other industrially important biomaterials. Feathers and eggshell waste from the poultry industry can be used for producing keratinous proteins and biocomposites, respectively. Cattle dung, hoofs and cattle hide can be used for producing hydroxyapatite for developing scaffolds and drug delivery systems. Porcine derived collagen can be used for developing skin grafts, while porcine urinary bladder has antiangiogenic, neurotrophic, tumor-suppressive and wound healing properties. Sheep teeth can be used for the production of low-cost hydroxyapatite while goat tissue is still underutilized and requires more in-depth investigation. However, hydrolyzed tannery fleshings show promising potential for antioxidant rich animal feed production. In this review, the recent developments in the production and application of biomaterials from animal waste have been critically analyzed. Standardized protocols for biomaterial synthesis on a pilot scale, and government policy framework for establishing an animal waste supply chain for end users seem to be lacking and require urgent attention. Moreover, circular bioeconomy concepts for animal derived biomaterial production need to be developed for creating a sustainable system.

16.
Environ Res ; : 112202, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655607

RESUMO

Nowadays, nanoparticles (NPs) and nanomaterials (NMs) are used extensively in various streams such as medical science, solar energy, drug delivery, water treatment, and detection of persistent pollutants. Intensive synthesis of NPs/NMs carried out via physico-chemical technologies is deteriorating the environment globally. Therefore, an urgent need to adopt cost-effective and green technologies to synthesize NPs/NMs by recycling of secondary waste resources is highly required. Environmental wastes such as metallurgical slag, electronics (e-waste), and acid mine drainage (AMD) are rich sources of metals to produce NPs. This concept can remediate the environment on the one hand and the other hand, it can provide a future roadmap for economic benefits at industrial scale operations. The waste-derived NPs will reduce the industrial consumption of limited primary resources. In this review article, green emerging technologies involving lignocellulosic waste to synthesize the NPs from the waste streams and the role of potential microorganisms such as microalgae, fungi, yeast, bacteria for the synthesis of NPs have been discussed. A critical insight is also given on use of recycling technologies and the incorporation of NMs in the membrane bioreactors (MBRs) to improve membrane functioning and process performance. Finally, this study aims to mitigate various persisting scientific and technological challenges for the safe disposal and recycling of organic and inorganic waste for future use in the circular economy.

17.
J Biotechnol ; 341: 63-75, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537253

RESUMO

Modification of structural components, especially the cell wall, through adequate pretreatment strategies is critical to the bioconversion efficiency of algal biomass to biorefinery products. Over the years, several physical, physicochemical, chemical and green pretreatment methods have been developed to achieve maximum productivity of desirable by-products to sustain a circular bioeconomy. The effectiveness of the pretreatment methods is however, species specific due to diversity in the innate nature of the microalgal cell wall. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most notable and promising pretreatment strategies for several microalgae species. Methods including the application of stress, ultrasound, electromagnetic fields, pressure, heat as well as chemical solvents (ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, deep eutectic solvents etc.) have been detailed and analyzed. Enzyme and hydrolytic microorganism based green pretreatment methods have also been reviewed. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for product specificity and lower inhibitors can be a future breakthrough in microalgal pretreatment.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos , Microalgas , Biomassa , Parede Celular , Solventes
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 420: 126562, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252662

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the heavy metal resistant bacteria (HMRB) community succession and bacterial activity in poultry manure (PM) composting. Five different concentration of chicken manure biochar (CMB) at 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 10% on a dry weight basis was applied with initial feedstock (poultry manure + wheat straw) and indicated with T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. In addition, high-throughput sequencing, principal coordinate analysis, and correlation analysis were used to analyze the evolution of HMRB communities during composting. The study indicated that crucial phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The bacterial diversity in the CMB amendment treatment was higher than in the control treatment, and T4 treatment has the highest among all CMB applied treatments. Moreover, results from CCA indicated that T4 and T5 treatments quickly enters the high-temperature period which is maintained for 5 days, and is significantly positively correlated with Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. These findings offer insight into potential strategies to understand the succession of HMRBs during PM reuse. Overall, the above results show the addition of 6% biochar (T4) was potentially beneficial to enrich the abundance of bacterial community to improve composting environment quality and composting efficiency. In addition, effective to immobilized the heavy metals and HMRB in the end product.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Carvão Vegetal , Esterco , Aves Domésticas , Solo
19.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131427, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323796

RESUMO

Apple pomace, the residue which is left out after processing of apple serves as a potential carbon source for the production of biopolymer, PHA (poly-hydroxyalkanoates). It is rich in carbohydrates, fibers and polyphenols. Utilization of these waste resources has dual societal benefit-waste management and conversion of waste to an eco-friendly biopolymer. This will lower the overall economics of the process. A major limitation for the commercialization of biopolymer in comparison with petroleum derived polymer is the high cost. This article gives an overview of valorization of apple pomace for the production of biopolymer, various strategies adopted, limitations as well as future perspectives.


Assuntos
Malus , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Biopolímeros , Carbono , Resíduos Industriais
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 420: 126676, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329091

RESUMO

The gut microbiome, often referred to as "super organ", comprises up to a hundred trillion microorganisms, and the species diversity may vary from person to person. They perform a decisive role in diverse biological functions related to metabolism, immunity and neurological responses. However, the microbiome is sensitive to environmental pollutants, especially heavy metals. There is continuous interaction between heavy metals and the microbiome. Heavy metal exposure retards the growth and changes the structure of the phyla involved in the gut microbiome. Meanwhile, the gut microbiome tries to detoxify the heavy metals by altering the physiological conditions, intestinal permeability, enhancing enzymes for metabolizing heavy metals. This review summarizes the effect of heavy metals in altering the gut microbiome, the mechanism by which gut microbiota detoxifies heavy metals, diseases developed due to heavy metal-induced dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, and the usage of probiotics along with advancements in developing improved recombinant probiotic strains for the remediation of heavy metal toxicity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Probióticos , Disbiose , Humanos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
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