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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a putative risk phenotype for psychosis liability, but the overlap of its genetic architecture with schizophrenia is poorly understood. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that dimensions of schizotypy (assessed with the SPQ-B) are associated with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in a sample of 623 psychiatrically healthy, non-clinical subjects from the FOR2107 multi-centre study and a second sample of 1133 blood donors. RESULTS: We did not find correlations of schizophrenia PRS with either overall SPQ or specific dimension scores, nor with adjusted schizotypy scores derived from the SPQ (addressing inter-scale variance). Also, PRS for affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) were not significantly associated with schizotypy. CONCLUSIONS: This important negative finding demonstrates that despite the hypothesised continuum of schizotypy and schizophrenia, schizotypy might share less genetic risk with schizophrenia than previously assumed (and possibly less compared to psychotic-like experiences).

2.
Bioinformatics ; 36(3): 930-933, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393554

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses, at sufficient sample sizes and power, have successfully revealed biological insights for several complex traits. RICOPILI, an open-sourced Perl-based pipeline was developed to address the challenges of rapidly processing large-scale multi-cohort GWAS studies including quality control (QC), imputation and downstream analyses. The pipeline is computationally efficient with portability to a wide range of high-performance computing environments. RICOPILI was created as the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium pipeline for GWAS and adopted by other users. The pipeline features (i) technical and genomic QC in case-control and trio cohorts, (ii) genome-wide phasing and imputation, (iv) association analysis, (v) meta-analysis, (vi) polygenic risk scoring and (vii) replication analysis. Notably, a major differentiator from other GWAS pipelines, RICOPILI leverages on automated parallelization and cluster job management approaches for rapid production of imputed genome-wide data. A comprehensive meta-analysis of simulated GWAS data has been incorporated demonstrating each step of the pipeline. This includes all the associated visualization plots, to allow ease of data interpretation and manuscript preparation. Simulated GWAS datasets are also packaged with the pipeline for user training tutorials and developer work. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: RICOPILI has a flexible architecture to allow for ongoing development and incorporation of newer available algorithms and is adaptable to various HPC environments (QSUB, BSUB, SLURM and others). Specific links for genomic resources are either directly provided in this paper or via tutorials and external links. The central location hosting scripts and tutorials is found at this URL: https://sites.google.com/a/broadinstitute.org/RICOPILI/home. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Software , Algoritmos , Genoma , Genômica
3.
Cereb Cortex ; 30(4): 2707-2718, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828294

RESUMO

Recent large-scale, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of genetic loci associated with general intelligence. The cumulative influence of these loci on brain structure is unknown. We examined if cortical morphology mediates the relationship between GWAS-derived polygenic scores for intelligence (PSi) and g-factor. Using the effect sizes from one of the largest GWAS meta-analysis on general intelligence to date, PSi were calculated among 10 P value thresholds. PSi were assessed for the association with g-factor performance, cortical thickness (CT), and surface area (SA) in two large imaging-genetics samples (IMAGEN N = 1651; IntegraMooDS N = 742). PSi explained up to 5.1% of the variance of g-factor in IMAGEN (F1,1640 = 12.2-94.3; P < 0.005), and up to 3.0% in IntegraMooDS (F1,725 = 10.0-21.0; P < 0.005). The association between polygenic scores and g-factor was partially mediated by SA and CT in prefrontal, anterior cingulate, insula, and medial temporal cortices in both samples (PFWER-corrected < 0.005). The variance explained by mediation was up to 0.75% in IMAGEN and 0.77% in IntegraMooDS. Our results provide evidence that cumulative genetic load influences g-factor via cortical structure. The consistency of our results across samples suggests that cortex morphology could be a novel potential biomarker for neurocognitive dysfunction that is among the most intractable psychiatric symptoms.

4.
Neurol Genet ; 5(6): e364, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872049

RESUMO

Objective: To assess whether the polygenic risk score (PRS) for migraine is associated with acute and/or prophylactic migraine treatment response. Methods: We interviewed 2,219 unrelated patients at the Danish Headache Center using a semistructured interview to diagnose migraine and assess acute and prophylactic drug response. All patients were genotyped. A PRS was calculated with the linkage disequilibrium pred algorithm using summary statistics from the most recent migraine genome-wide association study comprising ∼375,000 cases and controls. The PRS was scaled to a unit corresponding to a twofold increase in migraine risk, using 929 unrelated Danish controls as reference. The association of the PRS with treatment response was assessed by logistic regression, and the predictive power of the model by area under the curve using a case-control design with treatment response as outcome. Results: A twofold increase in migraine risk associates with positive response to migraine-specific acute treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.49]). The association between migraine risk and migraine-specific acute treatment was replicated in an independent cohort consisting of 5,616 triptan users with prescription history (OR = 3.20 [95% CI = 1.26-8.14]). No association was found for acute treatment with non-migraine-specific weak analgesics and prophylactic treatment response. Conclusions: The migraine PRS can significantly identify subgroups of patients with a higher-than-average likelihood of a positive response to triptans, which provides a first step toward genetics-based precision medicine in migraine.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712720

RESUMO

Panic disorder (PD) has a lifetime prevalence of 2-4% and heritability estimates of 40%. The contributory genetic variants remain largely unknown, with few and inconsistent loci having been reported. The present report describes the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PD to date comprising genome-wide genotype data of 2248 clinically well-characterized PD patients and 7992 ethnically matched controls. The samples originated from four European countries (Denmark, Estonia, Germany, and Sweden). Standard GWAS quality control procedures were conducted on each individual dataset, and imputation was performed using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. A meta-analysis was then performed using the Ricopili pipeline. No genome-wide significant locus was identified. Leave-one-out analyses generated highly significant polygenic risk scores (PRS) (explained variance of up to 2.6%). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression analysis of the GWAS data showed that the estimated heritability for PD was 28.0-34.2%. After correction for multiple testing, a significant genetic correlation was found between PD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism. A total of 255 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < 1 × 10-4 were followed up in an independent sample of 2408 PD patients and 228,470 controls from Denmark, Iceland and the Netherlands. In the combined analysis, SNP rs144783209 showed the strongest association with PD (pcomb = 3.10 × 10-7). Sign tests revealed a significant enrichment of SNPs with a discovery p-value of <0.0001 in the combined follow up cohort (p = 0.048). The present integrative analysis represents a major step towards the elucidation of the genetic susceptibility to PD.

6.
Schizophr Res ; 212: 225-228, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395486

RESUMO

We tested whether a polygenic risk score integrating the effects of genes affecting neurodevelopment is associated to brain structural variation in healthy subjects. We acquired magnetic resonance imaging and genetic data of 167 healthy adults and computed a neurodevelopmental polygenic risk score (nPRS). We correlated the nPRS with local gyrification, cortical thickness and grey matter density and explored effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms included in the score. We did not find significant correlations of this nPRS with either measure. Individuals with the risk allele at rs11139497 show increases in cortical thickness (p < 0.05, FWE corrected) of the left superior temporal gyrus.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas Correpressoras/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 793-803, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043756

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Loci Gênicos , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Biologia de Sistemas
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 169, 2018 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166545

RESUMO

Genetic and environmental factors both contribute to cognitive test performance. A substantial increase in average intelligence test results in the second half of the previous century within one generation is unlikely to be explained by genetic changes. One possible explanation for the strong malleability of cognitive performance measure is that environmental factors modify gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic factors may help to understand the recent observations of an association between dopamine-dependent encoding of reward prediction errors and cognitive capacity, which was modulated by adverse life events. The possible manifestation of malleable biomarkers contributing to variance in cognitive test performance, and thus possibly contributing to the "missing heritability" between estimates from twin studies and variance explained by genetic markers, is still unclear. Here we show in 1475 healthy adolescents from the IMaging and GENetics (IMAGEN) sample that general IQ (gIQ) is associated with (1) polygenic scores for intelligence, (2) epigenetic modification of DRD2 gene, (3) gray matter density in striatum, and (4) functional striatal activation elicited by temporarily surprising reward-predicting cues. Comparing the relative importance for the prediction of gIQ in an overlapping subsample, our results demonstrate neurobiological correlates of the malleability of gIQ and point to equal importance of genetic variance, epigenetic modification of DRD2 receptor gene, as well as functional striatal activation, known to influence dopamine neurotransmission. Peripheral epigenetic markers are in need of confirmation in the central nervous system and should be tested in longitudinal settings specifically assessing individual and environmental factors that modify epigenetic structure.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/anatomia & histologia , Epigênese Genética , Inteligência/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Adolescente , Dopamina/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino
9.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 912-919, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942086

RESUMO

Intelligence is highly heritable1 and a major determinant of human health and well-being2. Recent genome-wide meta-analyses have identified 24 genomic loci linked to variation in intelligence3-7, but much about its genetic underpinnings remains to be discovered. Here, we present a large-scale genetic association study of intelligence (n = 269,867), identifying 205 associated genomic loci (190 new) and 1,016 genes (939 new) via positional mapping, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping, chromatin interaction mapping, and gene-based association analysis. We find enrichment of genetic effects in conserved and coding regions and associations with 146 nonsynonymous exonic variants. Associated genes are strongly expressed in the brain, specifically in striatal medium spiny neurons and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Gene set analyses implicate pathways related to nervous system development and synaptic structure. We confirm previous strong genetic correlations with multiple health-related outcomes, and Mendelian randomization analysis results suggest protective effects of intelligence for Alzheimer's disease and ADHD and bidirectional causation with pleiotropic effects for schizophrenia. These results are a major step forward in understanding the neurobiology of cognitive function as well as genetically related neurological and psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Inteligência/genética , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
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