Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 32
Filtrar
1.
Anesth Analg ; 132(4): 1138-1145, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidural block are often used for analgesia after open nephrectomy surgery. Subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block may be an alternative. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the continuous subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block is noninferior to epidural block for analgesia in patients having open partial nephrectomies. METHODS: Adults having open partial nephrectomies were randomly allocated to epidural or unilateral subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block. The joint primary outcomes were opioid consumption measured in morphine equivalents and pain measured on a numeric rating scale (0-10) from postanesthesia care unit (PACU) until 72 hours after surgery. The noninferiority deltas were 30% for opioid consumption and 1 point on a 0-10 scale for pain. Secondary outcomes included patient global assessment of pain management on the third postoperative day, the number of antiemetic medication doses through the third postoperative day, duration of PACU stay, and postoperative duration of hospitalization. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were randomized to anterior quadratus lumborum block and 29 to epidural analgesia. Neither pain scores nor opioid consumption in the quadratus lumborum patients were noninferior to epidural analgesia. At 72 hours, mean ± standard deviation pain scores in subcoastal anterior quadratus lumborum block and epidural group were 4.7 ± 1.8 and 4.1 ± 1.7, with an estimated difference in pain scores of 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-1.99; noninferiority P = .21). The median [Q1, Q3] opioid consumption was more than doubled in quadratus lumborum patients at 70 mg [43, 125] versus 30 mg [18, 75] in the epidural group with an estimated ratio of geometric means of 1.69 (95% CI, 0.66-4.33; noninferiority P = .80). Patient global assessment and duration of PACU and hospital stays did not differ significantly in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to show that subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block are noninferior to epidural analgesia in terms of pain scores and opioid consumption for open partial nephrectomies. Effectiveness of novel blocks should be rigorously tested in specific surgical setting before widespread adoption.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural , Nefrectomia , Bloqueio Nervoso , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Ohio , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(12): 2325-2332, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305126

RESUMO

Introduction: Nearly one-third of patients undergoing cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) experience cardiac surgery-associated (CSA) acute kidney injury (AKI); 5% require renal replacement therapy. ANG-3777 is a hepatocyte growth factor mimetic. In vitro, ANG-3777 reduces apoptosis and increases cell proliferation, migration, morphogenesis, and angiogenesis in injured kidneys. In animal models, ANG-3777 mitigates the effects of renal damage secondary to ischemia reperfusion injury and nephrotoxic chemicals. Phase 2 data in AKI of renal transplantation have shown improved renal function and comparable safety relative to placebo. The Guard Against Renal Damage (GUARD) study is a phase 2 proof of concept trial of ANG-3777 in CSA-AKI. Methods: GUARD is a 240-patient, multicenter, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of ANG-3777 in patients at elevated pre-surgery risk for AKI undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or heart valve repair/replacement requiring CPB. Subjects are randomized 1:1 to receive ANG-3777 (2 mg/kg) or placebo. Study drug is dosed via 4 daily intravenous 30-minute infusions. The first dose is administered less than 4 hours after completing CPB, second at 24 ± 2 hours post-CPB, with two subsequent doses at 24 ± 2 hours after the previous dose. Results: The primary efficacy endpoint is percent change from baseline serum creatinine to mean area under the curve from days 2 through 6. Secondary endpoints include change in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to day 30, the proportion of patients diagnosed with AKI by stage through day 5, and the length of CSA-AKI hospitalization. Safety will include adverse events and laboratory measures. Conclusion: This phase 2 study of ANG-3777 provides data to develop a phase 3 registrational study in this medically complex condition.

4.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11341, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304677

RESUMO

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is considered a safe technique, but not without complications, though the vast majority are minor complications. We describe a rare case of splenic injury after ESWL. A 33-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) after three weeks experiencing severe intermittent left-sided flank pain that he contributed to a previous motor vehicle accident. Then computerized tomography (CT) revealed a left renal stone. ESWL was performed after three weeks. After being discharged home, he returned the same day to the ED with persistent, worsening abdominal pain, hypotension, and multiple syncopes. CT demonstrated the presence of active contrast extravasation from the spleen likely due to active bleeding. Initial resuscitation was with intravenous fluids and blood products. The following day, the embolization of the splenic artery was done. The patient was discharged home after nine days of conservative management. After one month, he had shortness of breath due to a large left-sided pleural effusion and lung collapse managed with thoracocentesis and thoracoscopic surgery. Subsequent follow-up reveals much improvement and successful conservative management. Splenic injury is a rare complication of ESWL, and all of the 11 reported cases in the literature were managed with splenectomy. Our case is unique in being successfully managed conservatively.

5.
Anesthesiology ; 133(6): 1214-1222, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hypotension Prediction Index is a commercially available algorithm, based on arterial waveform features, that predicts hypotension defined as mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg for at least 1 min. We therefore tested the primary hypothesis that index guidance reduces the duration and severity of hypotension during noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We enrolled adults having moderate- or high-risk noncardiac surgery with invasive arterial pressure monitoring. Participating patients were randomized to hemodynamic management with or without index guidance. Clinicians caring for patients assigned to guidance were alerted when the index exceeded 85 (range, 0 to 100) and a treatment algorithm based on advanced hemodynamic parameters suggested vasopressor administration, fluid administration, inotrope administration, or observation. Primary outcome was the amount of hypotension, defined as time-weighted average mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg. Secondary outcomes were time-weighted mean pressures less than 60 and 55 mmHg. RESULTS: Among 214 enrolled patients, guidance was provided for 105 (49%) patients randomly assigned to the index guidance group. The median (first quartile, third quartile) time-weighted average mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg was 0.14 (0.03, 0.37) in guided patients versus 0.14 (0.03, 0.39) mmHg in unguided patients: median difference (95% CI) of 0 (-0.03 to 0.04), P = 0.757. Index guidance therefore did not reduce amount of hypotension less than 65 mmHg, nor did it reduce hypotension less than 60 or 55 mmHg. Post hoc, guidance was associated with less hypotension when analysis was restricted to episodes during which clinicians intervened. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot trial, index guidance did not reduce the amount of intraoperative hypotension. Half of the alerts were not followed by treatment, presumably due to short warning time, complex treatment algorithm, or clinicians ignoring the alert. In the future we plan to use a lower index alert threshold and a simpler treatment algorithm that emphasizes prompt treatment.

6.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1012-1024, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid-related adverse events are a serious problem in hospitalized patients. Little is known about patients who are likely to experience opioid-induced respiratory depression events on the general care floor and may benefit from improved monitoring and early intervention. The trial objective was to derive and validate a risk prediction tool for respiratory depression in patients receiving opioids, as detected by continuous pulse oximetry and capnography monitoring. METHODS: PRediction of Opioid-induced respiratory Depression In patients monitored by capnoGraphY (PRODIGY) was a prospective, observational trial of blinded continuous capnography and oximetry conducted at 16 sites in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Vital signs were intermittently monitored per standard of care. A total of 1335 patients receiving parenteral opioids and continuously monitored on the general care floor were included in the analysis. A respiratory depression episode was defined as respiratory rate ≤5 breaths/min (bpm), oxygen saturation ≤85%, or end-tidal carbon dioxide ≤15 or ≥60 mm Hg for ≥3 minutes; apnea episode lasting >30 seconds; or any respiratory opioid-related adverse event. A risk prediction tool was derived using a multivariable logistic regression model of 46 a priori defined risk factors with stepwise selection and was internally validated by bootstrapping. RESULTS: One or more respiratory depression episodes were detected in 614 (46%) of 1335 general care floor patients (43% male; mean age, 58 ± 14 years) continuously monitored for a median of 24 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 17-26). A multivariable respiratory depression prediction model with area under the curve of 0.740 was developed using 5 independent variables: age ≥60 (in decades), sex, opioid naivety, sleep disorders, and chronic heart failure. The PRODIGY risk prediction tool showed significant separation between patients with and without respiratory depression (P < .001) and an odds ratio of 6.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.44-8.30; P < .001) between the high- and low-risk groups. Compared to patients without respiratory depression episodes, mean hospital length of stay was 3 days longer in patients with ≥1 respiratory depression episode (10.5 ± 10.8 vs 7.7 ± 7.8 days; P < .0001) identified using continuous oximetry and capnography monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: A PRODIGY risk prediction model, derived from continuous oximetry and capnography, accurately predicts respiratory depression episodes in patients receiving opioids on the general care floor. Implementation of the PRODIGY score to determine the need for continuous monitoring may be a first step to reduce the incidence and consequences of respiratory compromise in patients receiving opioids on the general care floor.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Capnografia/métodos , Oximetria/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa Respiratória , Fatores de Risco
7.
Cureus ; 12(6): e8891, 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742858

RESUMO

Septic sacroiliitis is sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation secondary to microbial invasion of the synovial space characterized by tenderness over the sacroiliac joint, difficulty walking, and lower back pain that can radiate to the buttocks. Clinicians can easily overlook septic sacroiliitis as a potential diagnosis due to its rare occurrence and non-specific symptoms. A 30-year-old female (G2P2A0) who presented acutely to the ED nine days after an uncomplicated Cesarean section performed under spinal anesthesia. The patient experienced progressive lancinating, electric-shock pain originating from the coccyx radiating to the right buttock and lower back with the inability to bear weight. MRI pelvis demonstrated edematous changes of the right SI joint, indicative of septic sacroiliitis. Patient's condition improved after empiric intravenous antibiotics and was discharged home on the continued intravenous course. Rapid empiric administration of intravenous antibiotics may have prevented the onset of severe complications of an infective SI joint.

8.
JAMA ; 324(4): 350-358, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721009

RESUMO

Importance: Opioid-induced ventilatory depression and hypoxemia is common, severe, and often unrecognized in postoperative patients. To the extent that nonopioid analgesics reduce opioid consumption, they may decrease postoperative hypoxemia. Objective: To test the hypothesis that duration of hypoxemia is less in patients given intravenous acetaminophen than those given placebo. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted at 2 US academic hospitals among 570 patients who were undergoing abdominal surgery, enrolled from February 2015 through October 2018 and followed up until February 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive either intravenous acetaminophen, 1 g (n = 289), or normal saline placebo (n = 291) starting at the beginning of surgery and repeated every 6 hours until 48 postoperative hours or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the total duration of hypoxemia (hemoglobin oxygen saturation [Spo2] <90%) per hour, with oxygen saturation measured continuously for 48 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes were postoperative opioid consumption, pain (0- 10-point scale; 0: no pain; 10: the most pain imaginable), nausea and vomiting, sedation, minimal alveolar concentration of volatile anesthetic, fatigue, active time, and respiratory function. Results: Among 580 patients randomized (mean age, 49 years; 48% women), 570 (98%) completed the trial. The primary outcome, median duration with Spo2 of less than 90%, was 0.7 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.1-5.1) minutes per hour among patients in the acetaminophen group and 1.1 (IQR, 0.1-6.6) minutes per hour among patients in the placebo group (P = .29), with an estimated median difference of -0.04 (95% CI,-0.18 to 0.11) minutes per hour. None of the 8 secondary end points differed significantly between the acetaminophen and placebo groups. Mean pain scores within initial 48 postoperative hours were 4.2 (SD, 1.8) in the acetaminophen group and 4.4 (SD, 1.8) in the placebo group (difference, -0.28; 95% CI, -0.71 to 0.15); median opioid use in morphine equivalents was 50 mg (IQR, 18-122 mg) and 58 mg (IQR, 24-151 mg) , respectively, with a ratio of geometric means of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.61-1.21). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients who underwent abdominal surgery, use of postoperative intravenous acetaminophen, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the duration of postoperative hypoxemia over 48 hours. The study findings do not support the use of intravenous acetaminophen for this purpose. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02156154.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Falha de Tratamento
9.
Lancet ; 396(10245): 177-185, 2020 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation and delirium are common consequences of cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine has unique properties as sedative agent and might reduce the risk of each complication. This study coprimarily aimed to establish whether dexmedetomidine reduces the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation and the incidence of delirium. METHODS: A randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done at six academic hospitals in the USA. Patients who had had cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1, stratified by site, to dexmedetomidine or normal saline placebo. Randomisation was computer generated with random permuted block size 2 and 4, and allocation was concealed by a web-based system. Patients, caregivers, and evaluators were all masked to treatment. The study drug was prepared by the pharmacy or an otherwise uninvolved research associate so that investigators and clinicians were fully masked to allocation. Participants were given either dexmedetomidine infusion or saline placebo started before the surgical incision at a rate of 0·1 µg/kg per h then increased to 0·2 µg/kg per h at the end of bypass, and postoperatively increased to 0·4 µg/kg per h, which was maintained until 24 h. The coprimary outcomes were atrial fibrillation and delirium occurring between intensive care unit admission and the earlier of postoperative day 5 or hospital discharge. All analyses were intention-to-treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02004613 and is closed. FINDINGS: 798 patients of 3357 screened were enrolled from April 17, 2013, to Dec 6, 2018. The trial was stopped per protocol after the last designated interim analysis. Among 798 patients randomly assigned, 794 were analysed, with 400 assigned to dexmedetomidine and 398 assigned to placebo. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was 121 (30%) in 397 patients given dexmedetomidine and 134 (34%) in 395 patients given placebo, a difference that was not significant: relative risk 0·90 (97·8% CI 0·72, 1·15; p=0·34). The incidence of delirium was non-significantly increased from 12% in patients given placebo to 17% in those given dexmedetomidine: 1·48 (97·8% CI 0·99-2·23). Safety outcomes were clinically important bradycardia (requiring treatment) and hypotension, myocardial infarction, stroke, surgical site infection, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and death. 21 (5%) of 394 patients given dexmedetomidine and 8 (2%) of 396 patients given placebo, had a serious adverse event as determined by clinicians. 1 (<1%) of 391 patients given dexmedetomidine and 1 (<1%) of 387 patients given placebo died. INTERPRETATION: Dexmedetomidine infusion, initiated at anaesthetic induction and continued for 24 h, did not decrease postoperative atrial arrhythmias or delirium in patients recovering from cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine should not be infused to reduce atrial fibrillation or delirium in patients having cardiac surgery. FUNDING: Hospira Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Clin Drug Investig ; 40(8): 755-764, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) is a potentially fatal complication associated with conventional opioids. Currently, there is a paucity of validated endpoints available to measure respiratory safety. Oliceridine, an investigational intravenous (IV) opioid, is a G-protein selective µ-agonist with limited activity on ß-arrestin2, a signaling pathway associated with adverse events including OIRD. In controlled phase III trials, oliceridine 0.35 mg and 0.5 mg demand doses demonstrated comparable analgesia to morphine 1 mg with favorable improvements in respiratory safety. In this exploratory analysis, we report dosing interruption (DI) and average cumulative duration of DI (CDDI) for both oliceridine and morphine. METHODS: Patients requiring analgesia after bunionectomy or abdominoplasty were randomized to IV demand doses of placebo, oliceridine (0.1 mg, 0.35 mg, or 0.5 mg), or morphine (1 mg), administered via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), following a loading dose (oliceridine 1.5 mg, morphine 4 mg, volume-matched placebo) with a 6-min lockout interval. Certified nurse anesthetists monitored each patient and withheld study medication according to the patient's respiratory status. For each patient, the duration of all DIs was summed and reported as CDDI. A zero-inflated gamma mixture model was used to compute the mean CDDI for each treatment. RESULTS: Proportion of patients with DI was lower with oliceridine (0.1 mg: 3.2%, 0.35 mg: 13.9%, 0.5 mg: 15.1%) versus morphine (22%). The CDDI was also lower across all demand doses of oliceridine versus morphine. CONCLUSION: Using DI as a surrogate for OIRD indicates improved respiratory safety with oliceridine versus morphine that merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Compostos de Espiro/efeitos adversos , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem
11.
Anesth Analg ; 131(2): 411-448, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467512

RESUMO

This consensus statement presents a comprehensive and evidence-based set of guidelines for the care of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in both adult and pediatric populations. The guidelines are established by an international panel of experts under the auspices of the American Society of Enhanced Recovery and Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia based on a comprehensive search and review of literature up to September 2019. The guidelines provide recommendation on identifying high-risk patients, managing baseline PONV risks, choices for prophylaxis, and rescue treatment of PONV as well as recommendations for the institutional implementation of a PONV protocol. In addition, the current guidelines focus on the evidence for newer drugs (eg, second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 [5-HT3] receptor antagonists, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonists, and dopamine antagonists), discussion regarding the use of general multimodal PONV prophylaxis, and PONV management as part of enhanced recovery pathways. This set of guidelines have been endorsed by 23 professional societies and organizations from different disciplines (Appendix 1).Guidelines currently available include the 3 iterations of the consensus guideline we previously published, which was last updated 6 years ago; a guideline published by American Society of Health System Pharmacists in 1999; a brief discussion on PONV management as part of a comprehensive postoperative care guidelines; focused guidelines published by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada, the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain & Ireland and the Association of Perianesthesia Nursing; and several guidelines published in other languages.The current guideline was developed to provide perioperative practitioners with a comprehensive and up-to-date, evidence-based guidance on the risk stratification, prevention, and treatment of PONV in both adults and children. The guideline also provides guidance on the management of PONV within enhanced recovery pathways.The previous consensus guideline was published 6 years ago with a literature search updated to October 2011. Several guidelines, which have been published since, are either limited to a specific populations or do not address all aspects of PONV management. The current guideline was developed based on a systematic review of the literature published up through September 2019. This includes recent studies of newer pharmacological agents such as the second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, a dopamine antagonist, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonists as well as several novel combination therapies. In addition, it also contains an evidence-based discussion on the management of PONV in enhanced recovery pathways. We have also discussed the implementation of a general multimodal PONV prophylaxis in all at-risk surgical patients based on the consensus of the expert panel.


Assuntos
Consenso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/diagnóstico
12.
Pain Med ; 21(2): 387-400, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The utility of single-injection and continuous peripheral nerve blocks is limited by short duration of analgesia and catheter-related complications, respectively. This double-blind, multicenter trial evaluated the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of single-injection, ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block (BPB) with liposomal bupivacaine (LB) added to a standardized pain management protocol for shoulder surgery. METHODS: Adults undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty or rotator cuff repair were randomized to receive LB 133 mg, LB 266 mg (pharmacokinetic and safety analyses only), or placebo, added to a standardized analgesia protocol. The primary end point was area under the curve (AUC) of visual analog scale pain intensity scores through 48 hours postsurgery. Secondary end points were total opioid consumption, percentage of opioid-free patients, and time to first opioid rescue through 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected through 120 hours and on days 7 and 10. Adverse events were documented. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-five patients received treatment (LB 133 mg, N = 69; LB 266 mg, N = 15; placebo, N = 71). BPB with LB 133 mg was associated with significantly improved AUC of pain scores (least squares mean [SE] = 136.4 [12.09] vs 254.1 [11.77], P < 0.0001), opioid consumption (least squares mean [SE] = 12.0 [2.27] vs 54.3 [10.05] mg, P < 0.0001), median time to opioid rescue (4.2 vs 0.6 h, P < 0.0001), and percentage of opioid-free patients (treatment difference = 0.166, 95% confidence interval = 0.032-0.200, P = 0.008) through 48 hours vs placebo. Adverse event incidence was comparable between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Single-injection BPB with LB 133 mg provided analgesia through 48 hours postsurgery with reduced opioid use compared with placebo after shoulder surgery.

13.
Lancet ; 394(10211): 1807-1815, 2019 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three perioperative factors impair host defence against recurrence during cancer surgery: the surgical stress response, use of volatile anaesthetic, and opioids for analgesia. All factors are ameliorated by regional anaesthesia-analgesia. We tested the primary hypothesis that breast cancer recurrence after potentially curative surgery is lower with regional anaesthesia-analgesia using paravertebral blocks and the anaesthetic propofol than with general anaesthesia with the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane and opioid analgesia. A second hypothesis was that regional anaesthesia-analgesia reduces persistent incisional pain. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial at 13 hospitals in Argentina, Austria, China, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, and the USA. Women (age <85 years) having potentially curative primary breast cancer resections were randomised by computer to either regional anaesthesia-analgesia (paravertebral blocks and propofol) or general anaesthesia (sevoflurane) and opioid analgesia. The primary outcome was local or metastatic breast cancer recurrence. The secondary outcome was incisional pain at 6 months and 12 months. Primary analyses were done under intention-to-treat principles. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00418457. The study was stopped after a preplanned futility boundary was crossed. FINDINGS: Between Jan 30, 2007, and Jan 18, 2018, 2132 women were enrolled to the study, of whom 24 were excluded before surgery. 1043 were assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 1065 were allocated to general anaesthesia. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between study groups. Median follow-up was 36 (IQR 24-49) months. Among women assigned regional anaesthesia-analgesia, 102 (10%) recurrences were reported, compared with 111 (10%) recurrences among those allocated general anaesthesia (hazard ratio 0·97, 95% CI 0·74-1·28; p=0·84). Incisional pain was reported by 442 (52%) of 856 patients assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 456 (52%) of 872 patients allocated to general anaesthesia at 6 months, and by 239 (28%) of 854 patients and 232 (27%) of 852 patients, respectively, at 12 months (overall interim-adjusted odds ratio 1·00, 95% CI 0·85-1·17; p=0·99). Neuropathic breast pain did not differ by anaesthetic technique and was reported by 87 (10%) of 859 patients assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 89 (10%) of 870 patients allocated to general anaesthesia at 6 months, and by 57 (7%) of 857 patients and 57 (7%) of 854 patients, respectively, at 12 months. INTERPRETATION: In our study population, regional anaesthesia-analgesia (paravertebral block and propofol) did not reduce breast cancer recurrence after potentially curative surgery compared with volatile anaesthesia (sevoflurane) and opioids. The frequency and severity of persistent incisional breast pain was unaffected by anaesthetic technique. Clinicians can use regional or general anaesthesia with respect to breast cancer recurrence and persistent incisional pain. FUNDING: Sisk Healthcare Foundation (Ireland), Eccles Breast Cancer Research Fund, British Journal of Anaesthesia International, College of Anaesthetists of Ireland, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Science Fund for Junior Faculty 2016, Central Bank of Austria, and National Healthcare Group.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática , Mastectomia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos
14.
Cureus ; 11(6): e4822, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404378

RESUMO

Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state that increases the risk of thrombotic complications. A 32-year-old gravida 4 para 3 (G4P3) had a dural puncture during epidural catheter placement for labor analgesia. A positional headache started after delivery and continued for several days. A week after the delivery, she developed non-positional headaches along with seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) lead to the diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). A factor V Leiden mutation was also found; that was suspected to contribute to the development of CVT along with dural puncture and pregnancy. CVT can present with non-positional headaches a week after the dural puncture.

15.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(3): 378-391, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331649

RESUMO

Respiratory depression is common in patients recovering from surgery and anaesthesia. Failure to recognise and lack of timely institution of intervention can lead to catastrophic cardiorespiratory arrest, anoxic brain injury, and mortality. Opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) is a common and often under-diagnosed cause of postoperative respiratory depression. Other causes include residual anaesthesia, residual muscle paralysis, concurrent use of other sedatives, splinting from inadequate pain control, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Currently used methods to identify and monitor respiratory safety events in the post-surgical setting have serious limitations leading to lack of universal adoption. New tools and technologies currently under development are expected to improve the prediction of respiratory depression especially in patients requiring opioids to alleviate acute postoperative pain. In this narrative review, we discuss the various causes of postoperative respiratory depression, and highlight the advances in monitoring and early recognition of patients who develop this condition with an emphasis on OIRD.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/tendências , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
16.
Cureus ; 11(5): e4602, 2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309025

RESUMO

Otorrhagia during cardiac surgery is rare. Otorrhagia combined with other signs of increased venous pressure in the upper body indicates the development of superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome. In this case, ear bleeding, facial engorgement, and conjunctival edema were noticed. The SVC cannula was displaced, leading to SVC syndrome. Repositioning of the cannula led to rapid recovery of the symptoms and an uneventful postoperative course. Providers should be vigilant about signs of SVC obstruction. Transparent coverings and surgical shelves should be used for constant examination of the head and neck to immediately detect changes.

17.
Anesth Analg ; 128(6): 1098-1105, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs commonly in surgical patients despite widespread prophylactic antiemetic use. Rescue options are currently limited. 5HT3 antagonists are most frequently used for prophylaxis, but if they fail, additional doses are not effective as rescue medication. Intravenous (IV) amisulpride, a well-studied D2/D3 antagonist, has been shown in trials to prevent PONV. This study was designed to determine if amisulpride could be used to treat established PONV in patients at low-to-moderate risk of PONV who had not received any prior prophylaxis. METHODS: Men and women aged over 18 years were permitted to enroll if they were to undergo general inhalational anesthesia, expected to last at least 1 hour, for an outpatient or inpatient surgical procedure. Patients who then suffered PONV were randomized equally to 1 of 3 single-dose IV regimens: placebo or 5 or 10 mg amisulpride. The primary end point was complete response, defined as no emesis in the period 30 minutes to 24 hours after study drug treatment and no use of rescue medication in the entire 24-hour period. RESULTS: One thousand nine hundred eighty-eight patients were enrolled preoperatively, of whom 560 were randomized to a treatment arm. Complete response occurred in 39 of 181 patients (21.5%) in the placebo group compared to 60 of 191 patients (31.4%; P = .016) and 59 of 188 patients (31.4%; P = .016) in the amisulpride 5 and 10 mg groups, respectively. The adverse event profile of amisulpride at either dose was similar to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: IV amisulpride at 5 and 10 mg was safe and efficacious in the treatment of established PONV in surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with no prior PONV prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Amissulprida/administração & dosagem , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Amissulprida/efeitos adversos , Antieméticos/efeitos adversos , Canadá , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
18.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 8(8): 1062-1072, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786162

RESUMO

An intravenous (IV) formulation of meloxicam is being studied for moderate to severe pain management. This phase 3, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the safety of once-daily meloxicam IV 30 mg in subjects following major elective surgery. Eligible subjects were randomized (3:1) to receive meloxicam IV 30 mg or placebo administered once daily. Safety was evaluated via adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, wound healing, and opioid consumption. The incidence of adverse events was similar between meloxicam IV- and placebo-treated subjects (63.0% versus 65.0%). Investigators assessed most adverse events as mild or moderate in intensity and unrelated to treatment. Adverse events of interest (injection-site reactions, bleeding, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, thrombotic, and wound-healing events) were similar between groups. Over the treatment period, meloxicam IV was associated with a 23.6% (P = .0531) reduction in total opioid use (9.2 mg morphine equivalent) compared to placebo-treated subjects. The results suggest that meloxicam IV had a safety profile similar to that of placebo with respect to numbers and frequencies of adverse events and reduced opioid consumption in subjects with moderate to severe postoperative pain following major elective surgery.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Meloxicam/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Adulto Jovem
19.
Anesthesiology ; 130(2): 203-212, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although antiemetics are commonly used to prevent postoperative nausea or vomiting, the failure rate is appreciable and there is currently no generally accepted standard for rescue treatment of postoperative nausea or vomiting after failed prophylaxis. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was designed to test the hypothesis that intravenous amisulpride, a dopamine D2/D3-antagonist, is superior to placebo at treating established postoperative nausea or vomiting after failed prophylaxis. METHODS: A total of 2,285 adult patients undergoing surgery under general inhalational anesthesia and receiving standard antiemetic prophylaxis were enrolled at 23 sites in Canada, France, Germany, and the United States. Of these, 702 patients experienced postoperative nausea or vomiting in the 24-h period after surgery and were randomized to receive a single dose of 5 or 10 mg intravenous amisulpride or matching placebo. The primary endpoint was complete response, defined as no emesis or rescue antiemetic use for 24 h after study drug administration, excluding emesis in the first 30 min. Secondary endpoints included incidence of emesis and rescue medication use, nausea burden, time to treatment failure, and length of stay in postanesthesia care unit and hospital. RESULTS: Complete response occurred in significantly more patients receiving 10 mg amisulpride (96 of 230, 41.7%) than placebo (67 of 235, 28.5%), a 13.2% difference (95% CI, 4.6 to 21.8; odds ratio, 1.80; P = 0.006). A 5-mg dose of amisulpride did not show a significant benefit (80 of 237, 33.8%); the difference from placebo was 5.2% (95% CI, 3.1 to 13.6; odds ratio, 1.24; P = 0.109). The total number of adverse events recorded and proportion of patients with at least one adverse event were comparable between the placebo and amisulpride groups. No clinically relevant toxicities were observed. CONCLUSIONS: A single 10-mg dose of intravenous amisulpride was safe and more effective than placebo at treating established postoperative nausea or vomiting in patients failing postoperative nausea or vomiting prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Amissulprida/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amissulprida/administração & dosagem , Canadá , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cureus ; 10(9): e3263, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430052

RESUMO

Pseudo-pneumothorax occurs after inappropriately diagnosing a pneumothorax based on a chest X-ray. This can be attributed to skin folds, bed sheets, previous pneumothorax, heating blankets, clothes, and other circumstances that may mimic the radiographic findings of a pneumothorax. We present a case where a patient underwent a tube thoracostomy due to the diagnosis of a pneumothorax that was not, in fact, present. The unnecessary intervention was complicated by hemoptysis and cardiac arrest.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...