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1.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(3): e220254, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218882
2.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(9): e223734, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218940
4.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(10): 539-542, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the proportion of Medicare Advantage (MA) enrollees who switched insurers or disenrolled to traditional Medicare (TM) in the years immediately after first choosing to join an MA health plan. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis using 2012-2017 Medicare enrollment data. METHODS: We studied enrollees who joined MA between 2012 and 2016 and identified all enrollees who changed insurers (switched insurance or disenrolled to TM) at least once between the start of enrollment and the end of the study period. We categorized each change as switching insurers or disenrollment to TM, and by whether the previous insurer had exited the market. RESULTS: Among 6,520,169 new MA enrollees, 15.6% had changed insurance within 1 year after enrollment in MA and 49.2% had changed insurance by 5 years. More enrollees switched insurers rather than disenrolled, and most enrollees who changed insurers did not do so as a result of insurer exits. CONCLUSIONS: New MA enrollees change insurers at a substantial rate when followed across multiple years. These changes may disincentivize insurers from investing in preventive care and chronic disease management and, as shown in several non-MA populations, may lead to discontinuities in care, increased expenditures, and inferior health outcomes.


Assuntos
Medicare Part C , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Seguradoras , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170056

RESUMO

Importance: Food insecurity is a risk factor for poor cardiovascular outcomes that occur disproportionately among individuals from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds who have cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: To assess long-term prevalence of food insecurity among those with CVD or cardiometabolic risk factors in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial cross-sectional study includes data for noninstitutionalized US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2018). Main Outcomes and Measures: Food insecurity was assessed using the US Department of Agriculture Adult Food Security Survey Module. We estimated prevalence of food insecurity among adults with prior CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure) and cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia) across racial and ethnic groups and prevalence of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation among those reporting food insecurity. Results: In the analytic sample of 57 517 adults, 6770 individuals (11.8%) reported food insecurity, which was more prevalent among Hispanic (1938 [24.0%]) and non-Hispanic Black (1202 [18.2%]) than non-Hispanic Asian (100 [8.0%]) and non-Hispanic White adults (3221 [8.5%]). Among 57 517 adults, 4527 (7.9%) had any CVD, 2933 (5.1%) coronary artery disease, 1536 (2.7%) stroke, 1363 (2.4%) heart failure, 28 528 (49.6%) hypertension, 17 979 (33.2%) obesity, 6418 (11.2%) diabetes, and 19 178 (30.8%) dyslipidemia. All CVD and cardiometabolic diseases except coronary artery disease were more prevalent among those with food insecurity. Food insecurity increased over time and was more frequent for patients with CVD but not for cardiometabolic risk factors. From 2011 to 2018, non-Hispanic Black adults with CVD had a decrease in food insecurity prevalence (36.6%; 95% CI, 23.9%-49.4%, to 25.4%; 95% CI, 21.4%-29.3%; P = .04 for trend), whereas adults of other races and ethnicities or data based on cardiometabolic risk factors had no significant change. For individuals who had food insecurity, SNAP participation was higher among those with CVD vs without CVD (54.2%; 95% CI, 46.6%-61.8%, vs 44.3%; 95% CI, 40.5%-48.1%; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: The prevalence of food insecurity among patients with CVD increased over time. Although members of non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic groups had the highest food insecurity, non-Hispanic Black individuals with CVD were the only group to have a significant decrease in food insecurity since 2011. Increased recognition of food insecurity and resources for treating it are needed to address the negative consequences of food insecurity on CVD outcomes.

7.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(3): e215281, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977290

RESUMO

This study uses Medicare and Medicare Advantage data to describe differences in quality care between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White patients and the association with double bonuses under Medicare Advantage.


Assuntos
Medicare Part C , Idoso , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos
8.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(10): 1044-1051, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994265

RESUMO

Importance: The bidirectional association between health and financial stability is increasingly recognized. Objective: To describe the association between chronic disease burden and patients' adverse financial outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed insurance claims data from January 2019 to January 2021 linked to commercial credit data in January 2021 for adults 21 years and older enrolled in a commercial preferred provider organization in Michigan. Exposures: Thirteen common chronic conditions (cancer, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, dementia, depression and anxiety, diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, liver disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, serious mental illness, stroke, and substance use disorders). Main Outcomes and Measures: Adjusted probability of having medical debt in collections, nonmedical debt in collections, any delinquent debt, a low credit score, or recent bankruptcy, adjusted for age group and sex. Secondary outcomes included the amount of medical, nonmedical, and total debt among individuals with nonzero debt. Results: The study population included 2 854 481 adults (38.4% male, 43.3% female, 12.9% unknown sex, and 5.4% missing sex), 61.4% with no chronic conditions, 17.7% with 1 chronic condition, 14.8% with 2 to 3 chronic conditions, 5.4% with 4 to 6 chronic conditions, and 0.7% with 7 to 13 chronic conditions. Among the cohort, 9.6% had medical debt in collections, 8.3% had nonmedical debt in collections, 16.3% had delinquent debt, 19.3% had a low credit score, and 0.6% had recent bankruptcy. Among individuals with 0 vs 7 to 13 chronic conditions, the predicted probabilities of having any medical debt in collections (7.6% vs 32%), any nonmedical debt in collections (7.2% vs 24%), any delinquent debt (14% vs 43%), a low credit score (17% vs 47%) or recent bankruptcy (0.4% vs 1.7%) were all considerably higher for individuals with more chronic conditions and increased with each added chronic condition. Among individuals with medical debt in collections, the estimated amount increased with the number of chronic conditions ($784 for individuals with 0 conditions vs $1252 for individuals with 7-13 conditions) (all P < .001). In secondary analyses, results showed significant variation in the likelihood and amount of medical debt in collections across specific chronic conditions. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study of commercially insured adults linked to patient credit report outcomes shows an association between increasing burden of chronic disease and adverse financial outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(16): 4223-4232, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2014, hypertension guidelines for older adults endorsed increased use of fixed-dose combinations, prioritized thiazide diuretics and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) for Black patients, and no longer recommend beta-blockers as first-line therapy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate older adults' antihypertensive use following guideline changes. DESIGN: Time series analysis. PATIENTS: Twenty percent national sample of Medicare Part D beneficiaries aged 66 years and older with hypertension. INTERVENTION: Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC8) guidelines MAIN MEASURES: Quarterly trends in prevalent and initial antihypertensive use were examined before (2008 to 2013) and after (2014 to 2017) JNC8. Analyses were conducted among all beneficiaries with hypertension, beneficiaries without chronic conditions that might influence antihypertensive selection (hypertension-only cohort), and among Black patients, given race-based guideline recommendations. KEY RESULTS: The number of beneficiaries with hypertension increased from 1,978,494 in 2008 to 2,809,680 in 2017, the proportions using antihypertensives increased from 80.3 to 81.2%, and the proportion using multiple classes and fixed-dose combinations declined (60.8 to 58.1% and 20.7 to 15.1%, respectively, all P<.01). Prior to JNC8, the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and CCBs was increasing. Use of CCBs as initial therapy increased more rapidly following JNC8 (relative change in quarterly trend 0.15% [95% CI, 0.13-0.18%), especially among Black beneficiaries (relative change 0.44% [95% CI, 0.21-0.68%]). Contrary to guidelines, the use of thiazides and combinations as initial therapy consistently decreased in the hypertension-only cohort (13.8 to 8.3% and 25.1 to 15.7% respectively). By 2017, 65.9% of Black patients in the hypertension-only cohort were initiated on recommended first-line or combination therapy compared to 80.3% of non-Black patients. CONCLUSIONS: Many older adults, particularly Black patients, continue to be initiated on antihypertensive classes not recommended as first-line, indicating opportunities to improve the effectiveness and equity of hypertension care and potentially reduce antihypertensive regimen complexity.

12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e222933, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297972

RESUMO

Importance: The association of the COVID-19 pandemic with the quality of ambulatory care is unknown. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are a well-studied measure of the quality of ambulatory care; however, they may also be associated with other patient-level and system-level factors. Objective: To describe trends in hospital admissions for ACSCs in the prepandemic period (March 2019 to February 2020) compared with the pandemic period (March 2020 to February 2021). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study of adults enrolled in a commercial health maintenance organization in Michigan included 1 240 409 unique adults (13 011 176 person-months) in the prepandemic period and 1 206 361 unique adults (12 759 675 person-months) in the pandemic period. Exposure: COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020 to February 2021). Main Outcomes and Measures: Adjusted relative risk (aRR) of ACSC hospitalizations and intensive care unit stays for ACSC hospitalizations and adjusted incidence rate ratio of the length of stay of ACSC hospitalizations in the prepandemic (March 2019 to February 2020) vs pandemic (March 2020 to February 2021) periods, adjusted for patient age, sex, calendar month of admission, and county of residence. Results: The study population included 1 240 409 unique adults (13 011 176 person-months) in the prepandemic period and 1 206 361 unique adults (12 759 675 person-months) in the pandemic period, in which 51.3% of person-months (n = 6 547 231) were for female patients, with a relatively even age distribution between the ages of 24 and 64 years. The relative risk of having any ACSC hospitalization in the pandemic period compared with the prepandemic period was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69-0.76; P < .001). This decrease in risk was slightly larger in magnitude than the overall reduction in non-ACSC, non-COVID-19 hospitalization rates (aRR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.81-0.83; P < .001). Large reductions were found in the relative risk of respiratory-related ACSC hospitalizations (aRR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.50-0.58; P < .001), with non-statistically significant reductions in diabetes-related ACSCs (aRR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.00; P = .05) and a statistically significant reduction in all other ACSC hospitalizations (aRR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.74-0.85; P < .001). Among ACSC hospitalizations, no change was found in the percentage that included an intensive care unit stay (aRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.94-1.04; P = .64), and no change was found in the length of stay (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.98-1.06; P = .33). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of adults enrolled in a large commercial health maintenance organization plan, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with reductions in both non-ACSC and ACSC hospitalizations, with particularly large reductions seen in respiratory-related ACSCs. These reductions were likely due to many patient-level and health system-level factors associated with hospitalization rates. Further research into the causes and long-term outcomes associated with these reductions in ACSC admissions is needed to understand how the pandemic has affected the delivery of ambulatory and hospital care in the US.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cancer Med ; 11(13): 2679-2686, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testing for BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants is recommended for women aged ≤45 years with breast cancer. Some studies have found racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in testing. We linked Massachusetts' All-Payer Claims Database with Massachusetts Cancer Registry data to assess factors associated with BRCA1/2 testing among young women with breast cancer in Massachusetts, a state with high levels of access to care and equitable insurance coverage of breast cancer gene (BRCA) testing. METHODS: We identified breast cancer diagnoses in the Massachusetts Cancer Registry from 2010 to 2013 and linked registry data with Massachusetts All-Payer Claims Data from 2010 to 2014 among women aged ≤45 years with private insurance or Medicaid. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine factors associated with BRCA1/2 testing within 6 months of diagnosis. RESULTS: The study population included 2424 women; 80.3% were identified as non-Hispanic White, 6.4% non-Hispanic Black, and 6.3% Hispanic. Overall, 54.9% received BRCA1/2 testing within 6 months of breast cancer diagnosis. In adjusted analyses, non-Hispanic Black women had less than half the odds of testing compared with non-Hispanic White women (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.31, 0.64). Medicaid-insured women had half the odds of testing compared with privately-insured women (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.41, 0.63). Living in lower-income areas was also associated with lower odds of testing. Having an academically-affiliated oncology clinician was not associated with testing. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities exist in BRCA1/2 testing among women with breast cancer in Massachusetts, despite equitable insurance coverage of testing. Further research should examine whether disparities have persisted with growing testing awareness and availability over time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Programas de Rastreamento , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Grupos Raciais , Sistema de Registros
14.
Am J Public Health ; 112(5): 766-775, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324259

RESUMO

Objectives. To compare health care utilization and costs between beneficiaries randomly assigned to usual services versus a community health worker (CHW) program implemented by 3 Medicaid health plans. Methods. From February 2018 to June 2019, beneficiaries residing in Detroit, Michigan's Cody Rouge neighborhood with more than 3 emergency department (ED) visits or at least 1 ambulatory care‒sensitive hospitalization in the previous 12 months were randomized. CHWs reached out to eligible beneficiaries to assess their needs and link them to services. We compared ED and ambulatory care visits, hospitalizations, and related costs over 12 months. Results. In intention-to-treat analyses among 2457 beneficiaries, the 1389 randomized to the CHW program had lower adjusted ratios of ED visits (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] = 0.96; P < .01) and ED visit costs (ARR = 0.96; P < .01), but higher adjusted ratios of ambulatory care costs (ARR = 1.15; P < .01) and no differences in inpatient or total costs compared with the usual-care group. Conclusions. Initial increases in ambulatory care use from effective programs for underserved communities may mitigate savings from decreased acute care use. Longer-term outcomes should be followed to assess potential cost savings from improved health. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03924713. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(5):766-775. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306700).


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Medicaid , Redução de Custos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 233, 2022 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicaid community engagement requirements previously received federal approval in 12 states, despite limited data on their impact on enrollees' employment-related activities. Our objective was to assess longitudinal changes in enrollees' employment and student status after implementation of Michigan's Medicaid expansion. METHODS: Longitudinal telephone survey of Michigan Medicaid expansion enrollees in 2016 (response rate [RR] = 53.7%), 2017 (RR = 83.4%), and 2018 (N = 2,608, RR = 89.4%) serially assessing self-reported employment or student status. Survey responses were benchmarked against statewide changes in assessed similar low-income adults in the U.S. Census Bureau Current Population Survey. We used mixed models with individual random effects to assess changes in the proportion of enrollees who were employed or students by year. RESULTS: Most respondents had incomes < 100% FPL (61.7% with 0-35% of the federal poverty level [FPL], 22.9% with 36-99% FPL, and 15.4% with 100-133% FPL), 89.3% had at least a high school diploma/equivalent, and they ranged in age (39.6% age 19-34, 34.5% age 35-50, 25.9% age 51-64). Employment or student status increased significantly among Michigan Medicaid expansion respondents, from 54.5% in 2016 to 61.4% in 2018 (P < 0.001), including among those with a chronic condition (47.8% to 53.8%, P < 0.001) or mental health/substance use disorder (48.5% to 56.0%, P < 0.001). In contrast, the statewide proportion of low-income non-elderly adults who were employed or students did not change significantly (from 42.7% in 2016 to 46.0% in 2018, P = 0.57). CONCLUSIONS: Medicaid expansion, absent a community engagement requirement, was associated with increased employment and related activities. The role of Medicaid in providing safety-net coverage to individuals during times of economic stress is likely to grow.


Assuntos
Emprego , Medicaid , Adulto , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Michigan/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Pobreza , Estudantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ ; 376: e068576, 2022 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35177406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To create and validate a simple and transferable machine learning model from electronic health record data to accurately predict clinical deterioration in patients with covid-19 across institutions, through use of a novel paradigm for model development and code sharing. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: One US hospital during 2015-21 was used for model training and internal validation. External validation was conducted on patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 at 12 other US medical centers during 2020-21. PARTICIPANTS: 33 119 adults (≥18 years) admitted to hospital with respiratory distress or covid-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: An ensemble of linear models was trained on the development cohort to predict a composite outcome of clinical deterioration within the first five days of hospital admission, defined as in-hospital mortality or any of three treatments indicating severe illness: mechanical ventilation, heated high flow nasal cannula, or intravenous vasopressors. The model was based on nine clinical and personal characteristic variables selected from 2686 variables available in the electronic health record. Internal and external validation performance was measured using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the expected calibration error-the difference between predicted risk and actual risk. Potential bed day savings were estimated by calculating how many bed days hospitals could save per patient if low risk patients identified by the model were discharged early. RESULTS: 9291 covid-19 related hospital admissions at 13 medical centers were used for model validation, of which 1510 (16.3%) were related to the primary outcome. When the model was applied to the internal validation cohort, it achieved an AUROC of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.84) and an expected calibration error of 0.01 (95% confidence interval 0.00 to 0.02). Performance was consistent when validated in the 12 external medical centers (AUROC range 0.77-0.84), across subgroups of sex, age, race, and ethnicity (AUROC range 0.78-0.84), and across quarters (AUROC range 0.73-0.83). Using the model to triage low risk patients could potentially save up to 7.8 bed days per patient resulting from early discharge. CONCLUSION: A model to predict clinical deterioration was developed rapidly in response to the covid-19 pandemic at a single hospital, was applied externally without the sharing of data, and performed well across multiple medical centers, patient subgroups, and time periods, showing its potential as a tool for use in optimizing healthcare resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Deterioração Clínica , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Public Health Dent ; 82(1): 11-21, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate self-reported improved oral health and its mediators, and job-related outcomes, of Medicaid expansion beneficiaries in Michigan. METHODS: This cross-sectional mixed-methods study of adult "Healthy Michigan Plan" (HMP) Medicaid expansion beneficiaries included qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 67 beneficiaries enrolled for ≥6 months, a stratified random sample survey of 4,090 beneficiaries enrolled for ≥12 months; and Medicaid claims data. We examined unadjusted associations between demographic variables and awareness of dental coverage, self-reported dental care access, dental visits, and self-reported oral health; and between improved oral health and job seeking and job performance. Multivariate analysis examined factors associated with self-reported oral health improvement, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, prior health insurance, and having at least one dental visit claim. RESULTS: Among surveyed beneficiaries, 60 percent received ≥1 dental visit and 40 percent reported improved oral health. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for improved oral health were higher for African-American beneficiaries [aOR = 1.61; confidence interval (CI) = 1.28-2.03] and those previously uninsured for ≥12 months (aOR = 1.96; CI = 1.58-2.43). Beneficiaries reporting improved oral health were more likely to report improved job seeking (59.9 percent vs 51 percent; P = 0.04) and job performance (76.1 percent vs 65.0 percent; P < 0.001) due to HMP. Interviewees described previously unmet oral health needs, and treatments that improved oral health, functioning, appearance, confidence, and employability. CONCLUSION: Michigan's Medicaid expansion contributed to self-reported improved oral health, which was associated with improved job outcomes. Policymakers should consider the importance of Medicaid dental coverage in reducing oral health disparities and improving the health and socioeconomic well-being of low-income adults and communities when considering this optional benefit.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Michigan , Estados Unidos
19.
Ann Surg ; 275(1): 99-105, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of gaining access to Medicare on key financial outcomes for surgical patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical care poses a significant financial burden, especially among patients with insufficient financial risk protection. Medicare may mitigate the risk of these adverse circumstances, but the impact of Medicare eligibility on surgical patients remains poorly understood. METHODS: Regression discontinuity analysis of national, cross-sectional survey and cost data from the 2008 to 2018 National Health Interview Survey and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Patients were between the ages of 57 to 72 with surgery in the past 12 months. The primary outcomes were the presence of medical debt, delay/deferment of care due to cost, total annual out-of-pocket costs, and experiencing catastrophic health expenditures. RESULTS: Among 45,982,243 National Health Interview Survey patients, Medicare eligibility was associated with a 6.6 percentage-point decrease (95% confidence interval [CI]: -9.0% to -4.3) in being uninsured (>99% relative reduction), 7.6 percentage-point decrease (24% relative reduction) in having medical debt (95%CI: -14.1% to -1.1%), and 4.9 percentage-point decrease (95%CI: -9.4% to -0.4%) in deferrals/delays in medical care due to cost (28% relative reduction). Among 33,084,967 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey patients, annual out-of-pocket spending decreased by $1199 per patient (95%CI: -$1633 to -$765), a 33% relative reduction, and catastrophic health expenditures decreased by 7.3 percentage points (95%CI: -13.6% to -0.1%), a 55% relative reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Medicare may reduce the economic burden of healthcare spending and delays in care for older adult surgical patients. These findings have important implications for policy discussions regarding changing insurance eligibility thresholds for the older adult population.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Medicare/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/economia , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo para o Tratamento/economia , Estados Unidos
20.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(12): 1918-1925, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871083

RESUMO

In 2012 Medicare introduced the quality bonus program, linking financial bonuses to commercial insurers' quality performance in Medicare Advantage (MA). Despite large investments in the program, evidence of its effectiveness is limited. We analyzed insurance claims from the period 2009-2018 from the nation's largest MA claims database for 3,753,117 MA beneficiaries (treatment group) and 4,025,179 commercial enrollees (control group). Using a difference-in-differences framework, we evaluated changes in performance on nine claims-based measures of quality in both groups before and after the start of the bonus program and with adjustment for differential pre-period trends. We observed no consistent differential improvement in quality for MA versus commercial enrollees under the quality bonus program. Program participation was associated with significant quality improvements among MA beneficiaries on four measures, significant declines on four other measures, and no significant change in overall quality performance (+0.6 percentage points). Together, these results suggest that the quality bonus program did not produce the intended improvement in overall quality performance of MA plans.


Assuntos
Seguro , Medicare Part C , Idoso , Humanos , Seguradoras , Estados Unidos
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