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J Biomech Eng ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005993


Soft biological tissues consist of cells and extracellular matrix (ECM), a network of diverse proteins, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans that surround the cells. The cells actively sense the surrounding ECM and regulate its mechanical state. Cell-seeded collagen or fibrin gels, so-called tissue equivalents, are simple but powerful model systems to study this phenomenon. Nevertheless, few quantitative studies document the stresses that cells establish and maintain in such gels; moreover, most prior data were collected via uniaxial experiments whereas soft tissues are mainly subject to multiaxial loading in vivo. To begin to close this gap between existing experimental data and in vivo conditions, we describe here a computer-controlled bioreactor that enables accurate measurements of the evolution of mechanical tension and deformation of tissue equivalents under well-controlled biaxial loads. This device allows diverse studies, including how cells establish a homeostatic state of biaxial stress and if they maintain it in response to mechanical perturbations. It similarly allows, for example, studies of the impact of cell and matrix density, exogenous growth factors and cytokines, and different types of loading conditions (uniaxial, strip-biaxial, and biaxial) on these processes. As illustrative results, we show that NIH/3T3 fibroblasts establish a homeostatic mechanical state that depends on cell density and collagen concentration. Following perturbations from this homeostatic state, the cells were able to recover biaxial loading similar to homeostatic. Depending on the precise loads, however, they were not always able to fully maintain that state.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(3): 848-855, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391550


BACKGROUND: Biallelic variations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause a combined immunodeficiency with eczema, recurrent bacterial and viral infections, and malignancy. Natural disease outcome is dismal, but allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of HSCT for DOCK8 deficiency and define possible outcome variables. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the results of HSCT in a large international cohort of DOCK8-deficient patients. RESULTS: We identified 81 patients from 22 centers transplanted at a median age of 9.7 years (range, 0.7-27.2 years) between 1995 and 2015. After median follow-up of 26 months (range, 3-135 months), 68 (84%) patients are alive. Severe acute (III-IV) or chronic graft versus host disease occurred in 11% and 10%, respectively. Causes of death were infections (n = 5), graft versus host disease (5), multiorgan failure (2), and preexistent lymphoma (1). Survival after matched related (n = 40) or unrelated (35) HSCT was 89% and 81%, respectively. Reduced-toxicity conditioning based on either treosulfan or reduced-dose busulfan resulted in superior survival compared with fully myeloablative busulfan-based regimens (97% vs 78%; P = .049). Ninety-six percent of patients younger than 8 years at HSCT survived, compared with 78% of those 8 years and older (P = .06). Of the 73 patients with chimerism data available, 65 (89%) had more than 90% donor T-cell chimerism at last follow-up. Not all disease manifestations responded equally well to HSCT: eczema, infections, and mollusca resolved quicker than food allergies or failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: HSCT is curative in most DOCK8-deficient patients, confirming this approach as the treatment of choice. HSCT using a reduced-toxicity regimen may offer the best chance for survival.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971618


Studies establishing the use of new antidepressants often rely simply on proving efficacy of a new compound, comparing against placebo and single compound. The advent of large online databases in which patients themselves rate drugs allows for a new Big Data-driven approach to compare the efficacy and patient satisfaction with sample sizes exceeding previous studies. Exemplifying this approach with antidepressants, we show that patient satisfaction with a drug anticorrelates with its release date with high significance, across different online user-driven databases. This finding suggests that a systematic reevaluation of current, often patent-protected drugs compared to their older predecessors may be helpful, especially given that the efficacy of newer agents relative to older classes of antidepressants such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) is as yet quantitatively unexplored.

Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Satisfação do Paciente , Bases de Dados Factuais , Depressão/psicologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Sistemas On-Line
Eur J Radiol ; 86: 63-69, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027768


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the radiation dose and image quality of whole-body-CT (WBCT) performed on the 3rd-generation dual-source-CT (DSCT) with 2nd-generation DSCT and 64-slices-Single-Source-CT (SSCT) in a large patient cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using a monitoring and tracking software 1451, 747 and 1861 patients scanned with a one-spiral-thorax-abdomen-pelvis-CT-examination on a 3rd-, 2nd-generation DSCT and SSCT, respectively, were extracted from the PACS server. For the intra-individual analysis, 203 patients on the 3rd-generation DSCT were identified. Out of those 203 patients, 155 had the same examination on the 2nd-generation DSCT, 91 patients had the same examination on the SSCT and 43 patients had an examination on all three CT-generations. Automatic tube current modulation was active on all three CT-generations, whereas automatic tube voltage selection was only available on both DSCT-generations. Dose was recorded by the size-specific-dose-estimate-method (SSDE); signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) were calculated placing a ROI on the ascending aorta/liver and the subcutaneous adipose tissue at comparable level. Image quality of axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes and adrenal glands was assessed by two experienced radiologists. RESULTS: Subjective image quality was excellent throughout all three CT-generations (p=0.38-0.98). Quantitative image quality in both DSCT generations was superior to SSCT (p<0.001). SNR and CNR in the liver parenchyma were superior in the 3rd-generation DSCT compared to the 2nd generation DSCT (p<0.001), whereas there was no difference in the aorta. In the inter-individual analysis, CTDIvol was lower by 26.9% and 44.3% in the 3rd-generation DSCT, when compared to the 2nd-generation DSCT and SSCT, respectively; SSDE was lower by 31.5% and 51% in the 3rd-generation DSCT, when compared to the 2nd-generation DSCT and SSCT, respectively. In the intra-individual comparison CTDIVol in the 3rd-generation DSCT was lower by 33% and 45%, when compared to the 2nd-gneration DSCT and the SSCT, respectively. Consequently, SSDE in the 3rd-generation DSCT was lower by 29% and by 43% when compared to the 2nd-generation DSCT and SSCT, respectively. CONCLUSION: State-of-the-art CT-equipment substantially reduce radiation dose without affecting image quality.

Aorta Torácica/efeitos da radiação , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Doses de Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Físico , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos