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1.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 29, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is one of the leading causes of intrapartum stillbirth and neonatal mortality worldwide. We sought to explore the experiences of health care workers in managing foetal distress and birth asphyxia to gain an understanding of the challenges in a low-income setting. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with 12 midwives and 4 doctors working in maternity units from different health facilities in Northern Uganda in 2018. We used a semi-structured interview guide which included questions related to; health care workers' experiences of maternity care, care for foetal distress and birth asphyxia, views on possible preventive actions and perspectives of the community. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive content analysis. RESULTS: Four categories emerged: (i) Understanding of and actions for foetal distress and birth asphyxia including knowledge, misconception and interventions; (ii) Challenges of managing foetal distress and birth asphyxia such as complexities of the referral system, refusal of referral, lack of equipment, and human resource problems, (iii) Expectations and blame from the community, and finally (iv) Health care worker' insights into prevention of foetal distress and birth asphyxia. CONCLUSION: Health care workers described management of foetal distress and birth asphyxia as complex and challenging. Thus, guidelines to manage foetal distress and birth asphyxia that are specifically tailored to the different levels of health facilities to ensure high quality of care and reduction of need for referral are called for. Innovative ways to operationalise transportation for referral and community dialogues could lead to improved birth experiences and outcomes.

2.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1711618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955672

RESUMO

Background: In Uganda, perinatal mortality is 38 per 1000 pregnancies. One-third of these deaths are due to birth asphyxia. Adequate fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during labor may detect birth asphyxia but little is known about monitoring practices in low resource settings.Objective: To explore FHR monitoring practices among health workers at a public hospital in Northern Uganda.Methods: A sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted by reviewing 251 maternal records and conducting 11 interviews and two focus group discussions with health workers complemented by observations of 42 women in labor until delivery. Quantitative data were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Content analysis was used for qualitative data.Results: FHR was assessed in 235/251 (93.6%) of records at admission. Health workers documented the FHR at least once in 175/228 (76.8%) of cases during the first stage of labor compared to observed 17/25 (68.0%) cases. Median intervals between FHR monitoring were 30 (IQR 30-120) minutes in patients' records versus 139 (IQR 87-662) minutes according to observations. Observations suggested no monitoring of FHR during the second stage of labor but records indicated monitoring in 3.2% of cases. Reported barriers to adequate FHR monitoring were inadequate number of staff and monitoring devices, institutional challenges such as few beds, documentation problems and perceived non-compliant women not reporting for repeated checks during the first stage of labor. Health workers demonstrated knowledge of national FHR monitoring guidelines and acknowledged that practice was different.Conclusions: When compared to national and international guidelines, FHR monitoring is sub-optimal in the studied setting. Approximately one in four women was not monitored during the first stage of labor. Barriers to appropriate FHR monitoring included shortage of staff and devices, institutional challenges and mother's negative attitudes. These barriers need to be addressed in order to reduce neonatal mortality.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fetal/normas , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal/fisiologia , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Uganda
3.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212270, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763355

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hoima, one of the largest districts in mid- western Uganda, has persistently performed poorly with low immunization coverage, high immunization drop outs rates and repeated outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases especially measles. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the state of immunization services and to identify the gaps in immunization health systems that contribute to low uptake and completion of immunization schedules in Hoima District. METHODS: This was a cross sectional mixed methods study, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative approaches. A situation analysis of the immunization services was carried out using in-depth interviews with vaccinators, focus group discussions and key informant interviews with ethno-videography. Secondary data was sourced from records at headquarters and vaccination centres within Hoima District. The quantitative component utilized cluster random sampling with sample size estimated using the World Health Organization's 30 cluster sampling technique. RESULTS: A total of 311 caretaker/child pairs were included in the study. Immunization completion among children of age at least 12 months was 95% for BCG, 96% for OPV0, 93% for DPT1, 84.5% for DPT2, 81% for DPT3 and 65.5% for measles vaccines. Access to immunization centres is difficult due to poor road terrain, which affects effectiveness of outreach program, support supervision, mentorship and timely delivery of immunization program support supplies especially refrigerator gas and vaccines. Some facilities are under-equipped to effectively support the program. Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) identification, reporting and management is poorly understood. CONCLUSION: Immunization services in Hoima District require urgent improvement in the following areas: vaccine supply, expanding service delivery points, more health workers, transport and tailored mechanisms to ensure adequate communication between health workers and caretakers.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , População Rural , Uganda , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 167, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About three - quarters of all neonatal deaths occur during the first week of life, with over half of these occurring within the first 24 h after birth. The first minutes after birth are critical to reducing neonatal mortality. Successful neonatal resuscitation (NR) has the potential to prevent these perinatal mortalities related to birth asphyxia. This study described the practice of NR and outcomes of newborns with birth asphyxia in a busy referral hospital. METHODS: Direct observations of 138 NRs by 28 healthcare providers (HCPs) were conducted using a predetermined checklist adapted from the national pediatric resuscitation protocol. Descriptive statistics were computed and chi - square tests were used to test associations between the newborn outcome at 1 h and the NR processes for the observed newborns. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between the survival status at 1 h versus the NR processes and newborn characteristics. RESULTS: Nurses performed 72.5% of the NRs. A warm environment was maintained in 71% of the resuscitations. Airway was checked for almost all newborns (98%) who did not initiate spontaneous breathing after stimulation. However, only 40% of newborns were correctly cared for in case of meconium presence in airway. Bag and mask ventilation (BMV) was initiated in 100% of newborns who did not respond to stimulation and airway maintenance. About 86.2% of resuscitated newborns survived after 1 h. Removing wet cloth (P = 0.035, OR = 2.90, CI = 1.08-7.76), keeping baby warm (P = 0.018, OR = 3.30, CI = 1.22-8.88), meconium in airway (P = 0.042, OR = 0.34, CI = 0.12-0.96) and gestation age (P = 0.007, OR = 1.38, CI = 1.10-1.75) were associated with newborn outcome at 1 h. CONCLUSIONS: Mentorship and regular cost - effective NR trainings with focus on maintaining the warm chain during NR, airway maintenance in meconium presence, BMV and care for premature babies are needed for HCPs providing NR.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Gerais/normas , Tocologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Ressuscitação/métodos , Adulto , Asfixia Neonatal/mortalidade , Lista de Checagem , Protocolos Clínicos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Capacitação em Serviço , Quênia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/educação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tocologia/educação , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 30: 272, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637057

RESUMO

Introduction: Preterm birth, a leading cause of neonatal mortality accounts for 35 percent of all neonatal deaths worldwide. Uganda's high preterm birth rate of 13.6 per 1000 live births ranks 28th in the world. Efforts at reducing these pre-term births must entail interventions that target any associated risk factors. This study therefore aimed at identifying and describing the risk factors for preterm births among mothers delivering in Mulago Hospital. Methods: This was a case control study among postpartum women in Mulago Hospital. Ninety nine women with preterm newborns were recruited as cases and 193 with full term babies were the controls. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was entered into Epidata version 3.1 and exported to STATA 11 for univariate analysis and multivariate analysis by logistic regression. Results: Risk factors for preterm birth included maternal height less than 1.5 meters (OR 131.08 (20.35-844.02)), rural residence (OR 6.56(2.68-16.10)) and failure to attend antenatal care clinic (OR 8.88(1.44-54.67)). Pregnancy related risk factors included PPROM (OR 287.11(49.26-1673.28)), antepartum haemorrhage (OR 7.33(1.23-43.72)) and preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR 16.24(3.11-84.70)). Conclusion: Preterm birth is more likely to occur in women of short stature, living in rural areas and those who do not attend antenatal care clinic. The preterm birth risk is higher for women who get PPROM, APH and preeclampsia/eclampsia in pregnancy. Early recognition and management of these high risk conditions among pregnant women may lead to a reduction in preterm birth rates.


Assuntos
Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 2152487, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214159

RESUMO

Background: Birth asphyxia is the leading cause of neonatal mortality in Kenya. Quality care during neonatal resuscitation (NR) can contribute to a reduction in neonatal mortality related to birth asphyxia by 30 percent. This study assessed the quality of care (QoC) during NR for newborns with birth asphyxia. Methods: Direct observations of 138 newborn resuscitations were done in labor ward and maternity theatre. Twenty-eight healthcare providers were observed 3-5 times using a structured checklist. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated and quality of care scores computed. Ordered logistic regression model identified HCPs characteristics associated with the QoC scores during NR. Results: Overall QoC scores were good for airway clearance (83%). Suctioning in meconium presence (40%) was poorly performed. Years of experience working in maternity were associated with good drying/stimulation (ß = 1.86, P = 0.003, CI = 0.626-3.093) and airway maintenance (ß = 1.887, P = 0.009, CI = 0.469-3.305); nurses were poor compared to doctors during initial bag and mask ventilation (ß = -2.338, P = 0.05, CI = -4.732-0.056). Conclusion: Key steps in NR are poorly performed during drying and warmth, airway maintenance in meconium presence, and ventilation. Mentorship with periodic refresher training can improve the care provided during NR.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/mortalidade , Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais Gerais/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Quênia , Médicos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
7.
J Relig Health ; 52(1): 307-17, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21360222

RESUMO

In Uganda, the prevalence of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) by HIV/AIDS patients remains high and sometimes this is blamed on patients' religious behavior. A descriptive design was used to examine the relationship between religiosity and ART adherence in a sample of 220 patients attending a HIV/AIDS clinic in a Ugandan public hospital. Participants who self-identified as Pentecostal and Muslim had the highest percentage of members with high religiosity scores and ART adherence. Among Muslim participants (34), 82% reported high religiosity scores and high levels of ART adherence. Of the fifty Pentecostals participants, 96% reported high religiosity scores and 80% reported high levels of ART adherence. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between ART adherence and religiosity (r = 0.618, P ≤ 0.01). Therefore, collaboration between religious leaders and HIV/AIDS healthcare providers should be encouraged as one of the strategies for enhancing ART adherence.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/etnologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Cristianismo/psicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Islamismo/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Religião e Medicina , Religião e Psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cura pela Fé , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espiritualismo , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 11 Suppl 1: S14, 2011 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21411001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partnerships and networking are important for an institution of higher learning like Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) to be competitive and sustainable. METHODS: A stakeholder and sustainability analysis of 25 key informant interviews was conducted among past, current and potential stakeholders of MakCHS to obtain their perspectives and contributions to sustainability of the College in its role to improve health outcomes. RESULTS: The College has multiple internal and external stakeholders. Stakeholders from Uganda wanted the College to use its enormous academic capacity to fulfil its vision, take initiative, and be innovative in conducting more research and training relevant to the country's health needs. Many stakeholders felt that the initiative for collaboration currently came more from the stakeholders than the College. External stakeholders felt that MakCHS was insufficiently marketing itself and not directly engaging the private sector or Parliament. Stakeholders also identified the opportunity for MakCHS to embrace information technology in research, learning and training, and many also wanted MakCHS to start leadership and management training programmes in health systems. The need for MakCHS to be more vigorous in training to enhance professionalism and ethical conduct was also identified. DISCUSSION: As a constituent of a public university, MakCHS has relied on public funding, which has been inadequate to fulfill its mission. Broader networking, marketing to mobilize resources, and providing strong leadership and management support to inspire confidence among its current and potential stakeholders will be essential to MakCHS' further growth. MakCHS' relevance is hinged on generating research knowledge for solving the country's contemporary health problems and starting relevant programs and embracing technologies. It should share new knowledge widely through publications and other forms of dissemination. Whether institutional leadership is best in the hands of academicians or professional managers is a debatable matter. CONCLUSIONS: This study points towards the need for MakCHS and other African public universities to build a broad network of partnerships to strengthen their operations, relevance, and sustainability. Conducting stakeholder and sustainability analyses are instructive toward this end, and have provided information and perspectives on how to make long-range informed choices for success.

9.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 9(3): 205-11, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25860625

RESUMO

The side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) medications negatively impact patients' quality of life and adherence to treatment. This study describes the burden of side effects from ARV treatment as experienced by a sample of HIV/AIDS patients and identifies the personal strategies they used to cope with the side effects. A total of 166 participants were recruited from a non-governmental HIV/AIDS clinic in Entebbe, Uganda. Most of the participants (76%) were females and the mean age of the sample was 38 years. Although the participants had taken ARV medications for an average period of nine months, a large proportion (76%) could not name the medications they were taking. The mean side-effects burden for the participants was five side effects. The most common adverse effects reported were tiredness, nightmares, mood swings, nausea, poor appetite, insomnia, vomiting and dizziness. The main strategies the patients used for coping with the side effects were those categorised under information-seeking, social-support seeking and positive-emotion-focused coping. However, 27% of the participants reported non-adherence to their ARV medications as a strategy to cope with the side effects. The findings show a significant relationship between the side-effects burden and a patient's age (r = 0.530, p ≤ 0.01) and level of education (r = 0.394, p ≤ 0.01). The findings indicate that in the short term after initiating ARV treatment most patients are able to cope with the high burden of side effects through appropriate strategies, but a sizable portion will fail to cope appropriately and thus resort to non-adherence. Clinicians should assist patients with continuous health education and counselling that focuses on appropriate strategies to cope with the side effects of ARVs in order to buffer the negative impact of HIV treatment on patients' adherence and quality of life.

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