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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiometabolic outcomes associated with discordant visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver fat (LF) phenotypes in 2 cohorts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants in the Dallas Heart Study underwent baseline imaging from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2002, and were followed for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through 2013. Associations between VAT-LF groups (low-low, high-low, low-high, and high-high) and outcomes were assessed using multivariable-adjusted regression and were replicated in the independent UK Biobank. RESULTS: The Dallas Heart Study included 2064 participants (mean ± SD age, 44±9 years; 54% female; 47% black). High VAT-high LF and high VAT-low LF were associated with prevalent atherosclerosis, whereas low VAT-high LF was not. Of 1731 participants without CVD/T2DM, 128 (7.4%) developed CVD and 95 (5.5%) T2DM over a median of 12 years. High VAT-high LF and high VAT-low LF were associated with increased risk of CVD (hazard ratios [HRs], 2.0 [95% CI, 1.3 to 3.2] and 2.4 [95% CI, 1.4 to 4.1], respectively) and T2DM (odds ratios [ORs], 7.8 [95% CI, 3.8 to 15.8] and 3.3 [95% CI, 1.4 to 7.8], respectively), whereas low VAT-high LF was associated with T2DM (OR, 2.7 [95% CI, 1.1 to 6.7]). In the UK Biobank (N=22,354; April 2014-May 2020), only high VAT-low LF remained associated with CVD after multivariable adjustment for age and body mass index (HR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2 to 1.9]). CONCLUSION: Although VAT and LF are each associated with cardiometabolic risk, these observations demonstrate the importance of separating their cardiometabolic implications when there is presence or absence of either or both in an individual.

2.
Biomark Med ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663078

RESUMO

Aim: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) associate with structural heart disease and heart failure risk in individuals without known cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, few data are available regarding whether factors influencing levels of these two biomarkers are similar or distinct. We performed serial measurement of NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT in a contemporary multiethnic cohort with extensive phenotyping, with the goal of identifying their respective biological determinants in a population without known or suspected CVD. Methods: We evaluated 1877 participants of the Dallas Heart Study who had NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT measured and were free from clinical CVD at the each of its two examinations (2000-2002 and 2007-2009). Variables collected included demographic and risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, body composition via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, coronary artery calcium by computed tomography, and cardiac dimensions and function by cardiac MRI. Linear regression was used to identify associations of these factors with each biomarker at baseline and with changes in biomarkers over follow-up. Results: NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT were poorly correlated at baseline (Spearman rho 0.083, p = 0.015), with only moderate correlation between change values (rho 0.18, p < 0.001). hs-cTnT positively associated and NT-proBNP inversely associated with male gender and black race. At baseline, both NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT associated with left ventricular end-diastolic volume and wall thickness, but only NT-proBNP associated with left atrial size. Changes in cardiac dimensions between phases were more strongly associated with changes in NT-proBNP than hs-cTnT. NT-proBNP was more strongly associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and measures of body composition than hs-cTnT. Conclusion: Among individuals without CVD in the general population, NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT are nonredundant biomarkers that are differentially associated with demographic and cardiac factors. These findings indicate that hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP may reflect different pathophysiological pathways.

3.
Circ Heart Fail ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503353

RESUMO

Background: In approximately 25% of patients with heart failure and reduced left-ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF), right-ventricular (RV) and left-ventricular (LV) filling pressures are discordant (i.e., one is elevated while the other is not). Whether clinical assessment allows detection of this discordance is unknown. We sought to determine the agreement of clinically- versus invasively-determined patterns of ventricular congestion. Methods: In 156 HFrEF subjects undergoing invasive hemodynamic assessment, we categorized patterns of ventricular congestion (no congestion, RV only, LV only, or both) based on clinical findings of RV (jugular venous distention, JVD) or LV (hepatojugular reflux, orthopnea, or bendopnea) congestion. Agreement between clinically and invasively determined [RV congestion if right atrial pressure (RAP) ≥10 mmHg and LV congestion if pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) ≥22 mmHg)] categorizations was the primary endpoint. Results: The frequency of clinical patterns of congestion was: 51% no congestion, 24% both RV and LV, 21% LV only, and 4% RV only. JVD had excellent discrimination for elevated RAP (C=0.88). However, agreement between clinical and invasive congestion patterns was poor, λ=0.44 (95% CI 0.34-0.55). While those with no clinical congestion usually had low RAP and PCWP (67/79, 85%), over one-half (24/38, 64%) with isolated LV clinical congestion had PCWP <22 mmHg, most (5/7, 71%) with isolated RV clinical congestion had PCWP ≥22 mmHg, and ∼one-third (10/32, 31%) with both RV and LV clinical congestion had elevated RAP but PCWP <22 mmHg. Conclusions: While clinical examination allows accurate detection of elevated RAP, it does not allow accurate detection of discordant RV and LV filling pressures.

4.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical congestion is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure. The pathophysiological mediators of this association remain uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled a cohort of patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and performed a detailed clinical examination followed on the same day by an invasive right heart catheterization and blood sampling for biomarkers. High-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. A clinical congestion score was calculated based on jugular venous pressure (cm H20 <10 = 0, 10-14 = 1, >14 = 2 points), bendopnea (0 vs 1), a third heart sound (0 vs 1), or peripheral edema (0-2). Congestion was categorized into tiers as absent (0 points), mild (1 point), or moderate to severe (≥ 2 points). We tested for associations of high-sensitivity troponin T, NT-proBNP, and elevated ventricular filling pressures with clinical congestion in both univariate and multivariable analyses. Of 153 participants, 65 (42%) had absent, 35 mild (23%), and 53 (35%) had moderate to severe clinical congestion. Congestion tier was associated with higher NT-proBNP and hs-troponin levels, and the right atrial pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (P < .001 for each). Increased congestion tier was also associated with the coexistent presence of elevated troponin T (≥52 ng/L), NT-proBNP (≥1000 pg/mL), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (≥22 mm Hg). Specifically, 78% of those with absent clinical congestion had 0 to 1 of these findings, whereas 75% of those with moderate-severe congestion had 2 or all 3 of these abnormalities (P < .001). An elevated hs-troponin was associated with mild or greater clinical congestion (odds ratio 3, 95% confidence interval 1.2-7.5, P = .02) in multivariable analysis adjusting for potential confounders including the right atrial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and NT-proBNP levels. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical congestion is a phenotype in which there is a high coexistent presence of elevated ventricular filling pressures, elevated natriuretic peptide levels, and subclinical myocardial injury. An elevated troponin was associated with clinical congestion in multivariable models that adjusted for ventricular filling pressures and natriuretic peptide levels. These data strengthen the evidence base for an association of elevated troponin with clinical congestion, suggesting that subclinical myocardial injury may be an important contributor to the pathophysiology of the congested state.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257574, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547056

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by adiposity and atherogenic dyslipidemia consisting of elevated triglyceride and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels however, cholesterol concentration alone does not reflect HDL functionality. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) captures a key anti-atherosclerotic function of HDL; studies linking CEC to MetS have yielded inconsistent findings and lacked racial/ethnic diversity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between CEC and MetS in a large multi-ethnic population utilizing two different CEC assays interrogating overlapping but distinct reverse cholesterol transport pathways. A cross-sectional study was performed using the Dallas Heart Study cohort and cholesterol efflux was measured with radiolabeled and fluorescent cholesterol assays. The relationship between CEC and MetS was assessed using multivariable regression analyses. A total of 2241 participants were included (mean age was 50 years; 38% men and 53% Blacks). CEC was independently and inversely associated with MetS irrespective of efflux assay (CEC-radiolabeled, adjusted OR 0·71 [95% CI 0·65-0·80]. CEC-fluorescent, adjusted OR 0·85 [95% CI 0·77-0·94]). Both CEC measures were inversely associated with waist circumference and directly associated with HDL-C but not with other MetS components. There was an interaction by sex but not by race such that the inverse associations between CEC and MetS were somewhat attenuated in men (OR 0·86, 95%CI 0·74-1·01). In this large multi-ethnic cohort, impaired CEC is linked to MetS irrespective of efflux assay and race/ethnicity but less so among men. Future studies are needed to assess whether CEC mediates the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk of MetS.

6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(9): 595-605, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral and ectopic fat are key drivers of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in obesity. We aimed to evaluate the effects of injectable liraglutide 3·0 mg daily on body fat distribution in adults with overweight or obesity without type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 4, single centre trial, we enrolled community-dwelling adults, recruited from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, with BMI of at least 30 kg/m2 or BMI of at least 27 kg/m2 with metabolic syndrome but without diabetes and randomly assigned them, in a 1:1 ratio, to 40 weeks of treatment with once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide 3·0 mg or placebo, in addition to a 500 kcal deficient diet and guideline-recommended physical activity counselling. The primary endpoint was percentage reduction in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured with MRI. All randomly assigned participants with a follow-up imaging assessment were included in efficacy analyses and all participants who received at least one dose of study drug were included in the safety analyses. The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03038620. FINDINGS: Between July 20, 2017 and Feb 21, 2020 from 235 participants assessed for eligibility, 185 participants were randomly assigned (n=92 liraglutide, n=93 placebo) and 128 (n=73 liraglutide, n=55 placebo) were included in the final analysis (92% female participants, 37% Black participants, 24% Hispanic participants, mean age 50·2 years (SD 9·4), mean BMI 37·7 kg/m2). Mean change in VAT over median 36·2 weeks was -12·49% (SD 9·3%) with liraglutide compared with -1·63% (SD 12·3%) with placebo, estimated treatment difference -10·86% (95% CI -6·97 to -14·75, p<0·0001). Effects seemed consistent across subgroups of age, sex, race-ethnicity, BMI, and baseline prediabetes. The most frequently reported adverse events were gastrointestinal-related (43 [47%] of 92 with liraglutide and 12 [13%] of 93 with placebo) and upper respiratory tract infections (10 [11%] of 92 with liraglutide and 14 [15%] of 93 with placebo). INTERPRETATION: In adults with overweight or obesity at high cardiovascular disease risk, once-daily liraglutide 3·0 mg plus lifestyle intervention significantly lowered visceral adipose tissue over 40 weeks of treatment. Visceral fat reduction may be one mechanism to explain the benefits seen on cardiovascular outcomes in previous trials with liraglutide among patients with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: NovoNordisk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(13): e019864, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180246

RESUMO

Background Patient-reported outcomes may be discordant to severity of illness as assessed by objective parameters. The frequency of this discordance and its influence on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure is unknown. Methods and Results In HF-ACTION (Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training), participants (N=2062) had baseline assessment of health-related quality of life via the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Clinical Summary score (KCCQ-CS) and objective severity by cardiopulmonary stress testing (minute ventilation [VE]/carbon dioxide production [VCO2] slope). We defined 4 groups by median values: 2 concordant (lower severity: high KCCQ-CS and low VE/VCO2 slope; higher severity: low KCCQ-CS and high VE/VCO2 slope) and 2 discordant (symptom minimizer: high KCCQ-CS and high VE/VCO2 slope; symptom magnifier: low KCCQ-CS and low VE/VCO2 slope). The association of group assignment with mortality was assessed in adjusted Cox models. Symptom magnification (23%) and symptom minimization (23%) were common. Despite comparable KCCQ-CS scores, the risk of all-cause mortality in symptom minimizers versus concordant-lower severity participants was increased significantly (hazard ratio [HR], 1.79; 95% CI, 1.27-2.50; P<0.001). Furthermore, despite symptom magnifiers having a KCCQ-CS score 28 points lower (poorer QOL) than symptom minimizers, their risk of mortality was not increased (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.57-1.1; P=0.18, respectively). Conclusions Severity of illness by patient report versus cardiopulmonary exercise testing was frequently discordant. Mortality tracked more closely with the objective data, highlighting the importance of relying not only on patient report, but also objective data when risk stratifying patients with heart failure.

9.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; : 100156, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615285

RESUMO

Background: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognizes that older adults and individuals with certain medical conditions are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Understanding the proportion of the population at risk of severe infection, including among those with heart disease, could assist current vaccine strategy efforts. Methods: Using data from the 2015-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we estimated the weighted prevalence of any of eight of eleven increased-risk conditions (including age ≥65) in U.S. adults aged ≥18 (N=10,581) and extrapolated these results to a population of 233.8 million U.S. adults ≥18, and subgroups from the overall population defined by race/ethnicity, education, income and history of heart disease. Results: An estimated 176.1 million individuals representing 75.4% of U.S. adults had at least one increased-risk condition, 40.3% ≥2 and, 18.5% ≥3 conditions. Approximately 129 million adults aged <65 (69.2%) were also estimated to be at increased-risk. Compared to Whites, similar proportions of Blacks in the overall population (78.0 vs. 75.6%, p>0.05) and Hispanics in the younger population (70.8 vs 68.4%) were estimated to be at increased-risk. Conversely, a greater proportion of individuals with lower education and income levels were estimated to be at increased-risk both in the overall and younger population. In addition, an estimated 6.2 million individuals (14.5%) had heart disease. Among these, virtually all had at least one additional CDC risk factor (97.9%) and most had ≥2 or ≥3 risk factors (83.8% and 58.5%, respectively). Conclusions: As vaccination strategies are being explored, these results demonstrate that >75% of adults in the U.S. would be considered at increased-risk for severe COVID-19 infection by CDC criteria. Risk factor prevalence alone may not adequately capture the totality of risk, particularly among Black and Hispanic racial/ethnic groups and those with heart disease.

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(2): 179-187, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112372

RESUMO

Importance: Higher coronary artery calcium (CAC) identifies individuals at increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Whether it can also identify individuals likely to derive net benefit from aspirin therapy is unclear. Objective: To examine the association between CAC, bleeding, and ASCVD and explore the net estimated effect of aspirin at different CAC thresholds. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective population-based cohort study of Dallas Heart Study participants, free from ASCVD and not taking aspirin at baseline. Data were analyzed between February 1, 2020, and July 15, 2020. Exposures: Coronary artery calcium score in the following categories: 0, 1-99, and 100 or higher. Main Outcomes and Measures: Major bleeding and ASCVD events were identified from International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Ninth Revision codes. Meta-analysis-derived aspirin effect estimates were applied to observed ASCVD and bleeding rates to model the net effect of aspirin at different CAC thresholds. Results: A total of 2191 participants (mean [SD], age 44 [9.1] years, 1247 women [57%], and 1039 black individuals [47%]) had 116 major bleeding and 123 ASCVD events over a median follow-up of 12.2 years. Higher CAC categories (CAC 1-99 and ≥100 vs CAC 0) were associated with both ASCVD and bleeding events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4; HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.3; HR, 4.8; 95% CI, 2.8-8.2; P < .001; HR, 5.3; 95% CI, 3.6-7.9; P < .001), but the association between CAC and bleeding was attenuated after multivariable adjustment. Applying meta-analysis estimates, irrespective of CAC, aspirin use was estimated to result in net harm in individuals at low (<5%) and intermediate (5%-20%) 10-year ASCVD risk and net benefit in those at high (≥20%) ASCVD risk. Among individuals at lower bleeding risk, a CAC score of at least 100 identified individuals who would experience net benefit, but only in those at borderline or higher (≥5%) 10-year ASCVD risk. In individuals at higher bleeding risk, there would be net harm from aspirin irrespective of CAC and ASCVD risk. Conclusions and Relevance: Higher CAC is associated with both ASCVD and bleeding events, with a stronger association with ASCVD. A high CAC score identifies individuals estimated to derive net benefit from primary prevention aspirin therapy from those who would not, but only in the setting of lower bleeding risk and estimated ASCVD risk that is not low.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2023242, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119108

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity is a global health challenge and a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASVCD). Performance of the pooled cohort equations (PCE) for ASCVD risk by body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is unknown. Objective: To assess performance of the PCE across clinical BMI categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used pooled individual-level data from 8 community-based, prospective, longitudinal cohort studies with 10-year ASCVD event follow-up from 1996 to 2016. We included all adults ages 40 to 79 years without baseline ASCVD or statin use, resulting in a sample size of 37 311 participants. Data were analyzed from August 2017 to July 2020. Exposures: Participant BMI category: underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5 to <25), overweight (25 to <30), mild obesity (30 to <35), and moderate to severe obesity (≥35). Main Outcomes and Measures: Discrimination (Harrell C statistic) and calibration (Nam-D'Agostino χ2 goodness-of-fit test) of the PCE across BMI categories. Improvement in discrimination and net reclassification with addition of BMI, waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) to the PCE. Results: Among 37 311 participants (mean [SD] age, 58.6 [11.8] years; 21 897 [58.7%] women), 380 604 person-years of follow-up were conducted. Mean (SD) baseline BMI was 29.0 (6.2), and 360 individuals (1.0%) were in the underweight category, 9937 individuals (26.6%) were in the normal weight category, 13 601 individuals (36.4%) were in the overweight category, 7783 individuals (20.9%) were in the mild obesity category, and 5630 individuals (15.1%) were in the moderate to severe obesity category. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) 10-year estimated ASCVD risk was 7.1% (2.5%-15.4%), and 3709 individuals (9.9%) developed ASCVD over a median (IQR) 10.8 [8.5-12.6] years. The PCE overestimated ASCVD risk in the overall cohort (estimated/observed [E/O] risk ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.18-1.26) and across all BMI categories except the underweight category. Calibration was better near the clinical decision threshold in all BMI groups but worse among individuals with moderate or severe obesity (E/O risk ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.25-1.47) and among those with the highest estimated ASCVD risk ≥20%. The PCE C statistic overall was 0.760 (95% CI, 0.753-0.767), with lower discrimination in the moderate or severe obesity group (C statistic, 0.742; 95% CI, 0.721-0.763) compared with the normal-range BMI group (C statistic, 0.785; 95% CI, 0.772-0.798). Waist circumference (hazard ratio, 1.07 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) and hsCRP (hazard ratio, 1.07 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 1.05-1.09), but not BMI, were associated with increased ASCVD risk when added to the PCE. However, these factors did not improve model performance (C statistic, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.753-0.767) with or without added metrics. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the PCE had acceptable model discrimination and were well calibrated at clinical decision thresholds but overestimated risk of ASCVD for individuals in overweight and obese categories, particularly individuals with high estimated risk. Incorporation of the usual clinical measures of obesity did not improve risk estimation of the PCE. Future research is needed to determine whether incorporation of alternative high-risk obesity markers (eg, weight trajectory or measures of visceral or ectopic fat) into the PCE may improve risk prediction.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Circulation ; 142(7): 657-669, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration (HDL-C) is an established atheroprotective marker, in particular for coronary artery disease; however, HDL particle concentration (HDL-P) may better predict risk. The associations of HDL-C and HDL-P with ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) among women and Blacks have not been well studied. We hypothesized that HDL-P would consistently be associated with MI and stroke among women and Blacks compared with HDL-C. METHODS: We analyzed individual-level participant data in a pooled cohort of 4 large population studies without baseline atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: DHS (Dallas Heart Study; n=2535), ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities; n=1595), MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; n=6632), and PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease; n=5022). HDL markers were analyzed in adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for MI and ischemic stroke. RESULTS: In the overall population (n=15 784), HDL-P was inversely associated with the combined outcome of MI and ischemic stroke, adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors (hazard ratio [HR] for quartile 4 [Q4] versus quartile 1 [Q1], 0.64 [95% CI, 0.52-0.78]), as was HDL-C (HR for Q4 versus Q1, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.61-0.94]). Adjustment for HDL-C did not attenuate the inverse relationship between HDL-P and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, whereas adjustment for HDL-P attenuated all associations between HDL-C and events. HDL-P was inversely associated with the individual end points of MI and ischemic stroke in the overall population, including in women. HDL-P was inversely associated with MI among White participants but not among Black participants (HR for Q4 versus Q1 for Whites, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.35-0.69]; for Blacks, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.76-1.98]; Pinteraction=0.001). Similarly, HDL-C was inversely associated with MI among White participants (HR for Q4 versus Q1, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.36-0.78]) but had a weak direct association with MI among Black participants (HR for Q4 versus Q1, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.08-2.83]; Pinteraction<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with HDL-C, HDL-P was consistently associated with MI and ischemic stroke in the overall population. Differential associations of both HDL-C and HDL-P for MI by Black ethnicity suggest that atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk may differ by vascular domain and ethnicity. Future studies should examine individual outcomes separately.

13.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(8): e010153, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, inclusive of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and is a decision-making aid for primary prevention. The predictive value of CAC categories for CHD and stroke separately and across sex and race groups of an asymptomatic population is unclear. METHODS: White, Black, and Hispanic participants of MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and DHS (Dallas Heart Study) underwent CAC measurement at enrollment and were followed for incident ASCVD events. Ten-year CHD-to-stroke incidence ratios across CAC score categories 0, 1 to 99, and ≥100 were assessed. Associations of CAC with incident CHD and stroke events were evaluated using multivariable-adjusted Cox models and multiplicative interactions of CAC with sex/race were tested. RESULTS: Among 7042 participants (mean age, 57 years, 54% women, 36% Black, 23% Hispanic, 49% CAC=0, 19% CAC ≥100), 574 incident ASCVD events (333 CHD and 241 stroke) were observed over 12.3-year follow-up. Ten-year CHD-to-stroke incidence ratio increased significantly across CAC categories in men, women, Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics (all P<0.001). High CAC burden (score ≥100) was independently associated with ASCVD and CHD risk in all groups and with stroke risk in the overall cohort and Blacks. No sex- or race-based CAC interactions for ASCVD, CHD, and stroke events were observed. Adding CAC to a traditional risk factor model improved risk discrimination and reclassification for CHD but not for stroke events. CONCLUSIONS: In 2 population-based cohorts of asymptomatic individuals, 10-year CHD-to-stroke incidence ratio was higher with increasing CAC score categories across sex and race groups, and CAC was consistently a better predictor of CHD than stroke. High CAC burden comparably associated with ASCVD risk across sex and race groups.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Doença das Coronárias/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Calcificação Vascular/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores Raciais , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(7): 781-793, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) and family history (FHx) of coronary heart disease (CHD) are individually associated with cardiovascular risk, and Lp(a) is commonly measured in those with FHx. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine independent and joint associations of Lp(a) and FHx with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and CHD among asymptomatic subjects. METHODS: Plasma Lp(a) was measured and FHx was ascertained in 2 cohorts. Elevated Lp(a) was defined as the highest race-specific quintile. Independent and joint associations of Lp(a) and FHx with cardiovascular risk were determined using Cox regression models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Among 12,149 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) participants (54 years, 56% women, 23% black, 44% with FHx), 3,114 ASCVD events were observed during 21 years of follow-up. FHx and elevated Lp(a) were independently associated with ASCVD (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 to 1.26, and HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.40, respectively), and no Lp(a)-by-FHx interaction was noted (p = 0.75). Compared with subjects without FHx and nonelevated Lp(a), those with either elevated Lp(a) or FHx were at a higher ASCVD risk, while those with both had the highest risk (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.27 to 1.62). Similar findings were observed for CHD risk in ARIC, in analyses stratified by premature FHx, and in an independent cohort, the DHS (Dallas Heart Study). Presence of both elevated Lp(a) and FHx resulted in greater improvement in ASCVD and CHD risk reclassification and discrimination indexes than either marker alone. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma Lp(a) and FHx have independent and additive joint associations with cardiovascular risk and may be useful concurrently for guiding primary prevention therapy decisions.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Anamnese , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese/métodos , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(15): e015410, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698652

RESUMO

Background Current strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment focus on 10-year or longer timeframes. Shorter-term CVD risk is also clinically relevant, particularly for high-risk occupations, but is under-investigated. Methods and Results We pooled data from participants in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study), MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and DHS (Dallas Heart Study), free from CVD at baseline (N=16 581). Measurements included N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (>100 pg/mL prospectively defined as abnormal); high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (abnormal >5 ng/L); high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (abnormal >3 mg/L); left ventricular hypertrophy by ECG (abnormal if present); carotid intima-media thickness, and plaque (abnormal >75th percentile for age and sex or presence of plaque); and coronary artery calcium (abnormal >10 Agatston U). Each abnormal test result except left ventricular hypertrophy by ECG was independently associated with increased 3-year risk of global CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, incident heart failure, or atrial fibrillation), even after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors and the other test results. When a simple integer score counting the number of abnormal tests was used, 3-year multivariable-adjusted global CVD risk was increased among participants with integer scores of 1, 2, 3, and 4, by ≈2-, 3-, 4.5- and 8-fold, respectively, when compared with those with a score of 0. Qualitatively similar results were obtained for atherosclerotic CVD (fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke). Conclusions A strategy incorporating multiple biomarkers and atherosclerosis imaging improved assessment of 3-year global and atherosclerotic CVD risk compared with a standard approach using traditional risk factors.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Troponina T/sangue
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1254-1262, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of empagliflozin on glycerol-derived hepatic gluconeogenesis in adults with obesity without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using oral carbon 13 (13 C)-labeled glycerol. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in participants with magnetic resonance imaging assessment of body fat and measurement of glycerol-derived 13 C enrichment in plasma glucose by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy following ingestion of [U-13 C3 ]glycerol. Participants were randomized to oral empagliflozin 10 mg once daily or placebo for 3 months. Glycerol-derived 13 C enrichment studies were repeated, and treatment differences in the mean percentage of 13 C glycerol enrichment in glucose were compared using mixed linear models. RESULTS: Thirty-five participants completed the study. Empagliflozin increased glycerol-derived 13 C enrichment between baseline and follow-up by 6.5% (P = 0.005), consistent with less glycerol from visceral adipose tissue (VAT). No difference was found with placebo. Glycerol-derived 13 C enrichment was lower in participants with high VAT compared with low VAT by 12.6% (P = 0.04), but there was no heterogeneity of the treatment effect by baseline VAT. Glycerol-derived 13 C enrichment was inversely correlated with VAT but was not correlated with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: VAT is associated with endogenous glycerol-derived hepatic gluconeogenesis, and empagliflozin reduces endogenous glycerol gluconeogenesis in adults with obesity without T2DM. These findings suggest a mechanism by which sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors may prevent T2DM in obesity.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Glicerol/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Placebos , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Circulation ; 141(12): 957-967, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A malignant subphenotype of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been described, in which minimal elevations in cardiac biomarkers identify individuals with LVH at high risk for developing heart failure (HF). We tested the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of malignant LVH among blacks may contribute to racial disparities in HF risk. METHODS: Participants (n=15 710) without prevalent cardiovascular disease were pooled from 3 population-based cohort studies, the ARIC Study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), the DHS (Dallas Heart Study), and the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Participants were classified into 3 groups: those without ECG-LVH, those with ECG-LVH and normal biomarkers (hs-cTnT (high sensitivity cardiac troponin-T) <6 ng/L and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) <100 pg/mL), and those with ECG-LVH and abnormal levels of either biomarker (malignant LVH). The outcome was incident HF. RESULTS: Over the 10-year follow-up period, HF occurred in 512 (3.3%) participants, with 5.2% in black men, 3.8% in white men, 3.2% in black women, and 2.2% in white women. The prevalence of malignant LVH was 3-fold higher among black men and women versus white men and women. Compared with participants without LVH, the adjusted hazard ratio for HF was 2.8 (95% CI, 2.1-3.5) in those with malignant LVH and 0.9 (95% CI, 0.6-1.5) in those with LVH and normal biomarkers, with similar findings in each race/sex subgroup. Mediation analyses indicated that 33% of excess hazard for HF among black men and 11% of the excess hazard among black women was explained by the higher prevalence of malignant LVH in blacks. Of black men who developed HF, 30.8% had malignant LVH at baseline, with a corresponding population attributable fraction of 0.21. The proportion of HF cases occurring among those with malignant LVH, and the corresponding population attributable fraction, were intermediate and similar among black women and white men and lowest among white women. CONCLUSIONS: A higher prevalence of malignant LVH may in part explain the higher risk of HF among blacks versus whites. Strategies to prevent development or attenuate risk associated with malignant LVH should be investigated as a strategy to lower HF risk and mitigate racial disparities.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Raciais
19.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817053

RESUMO

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) exert anti-atherosclerotic effects via reverse cholesterol transport, yet this salutary property is impaired in the setting of inflammation. GlycA, a novel integrated glycosylation marker of five acute phase reactants, is linked to cardiovascular (CV) events. We assessed the hypothesis that GlycA is associated with measures of impaired HDL function and that dysfunctional HDL may contribute to the association between GlycA and incident CV events. Baseline measurements of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL particle concentration (HDL-P), apoliprotein A1 (Apo A1), cholesterol efflux capacity, GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were obtained from the Dallas Heart Study, a multi-ethnic cohort of 2643 adults (median 43 years old; 56% women, 50% black) without cardiovascular disease (CVD). GlycA was derived from nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were followed for first nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or CV death over a median of 12.4 years (n = 197). The correlation between GlycA and hs-CRP was 0.58 (p < 0.0001). In multivariate models with HDL-C, GlycA was directly associated with HDL-P and Apo A1 and inversely associated with cholesterol efflux (standardized beta estimates: 0.08, 0.29, -0.06, respectively; all p ≤ 0.0004) GlycA was directly associated with incident CV events (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for Q4 vs. Q1: 3.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.99, 5.57). Adjustment for cholesterol efflux mildly attenuated this association (HR for Q4 vs. Q1: 3.00, 95% CI 1.75 to 5.13). In a multi-ethnic cohort, worsening inflammation, as reflected by higher GlycA levels, is associated with higher HDL-P and lower cholesterol efflux. Impaired cholesterol efflux likely explains some of the association between GlycA and incident CV events. Further studies are warranted to investigate the impact of inflammation on HDL function and CV disease.

20.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(9): e009226, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Absence of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) in young adulthood is associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unclear if low RF burden in young adulthood decreases the quantitative burden and qualitative features of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Multi-contrast carotid magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 440 Chicago Healthy Aging Study participants in 2009 to 2011, whose RF (total cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and smoking) were measured in 1967 to 1973. Participants were divided into 4 groups: low-risk (with total cholesterol <200 mg/dL and no treatment, blood pressure <120/80 mm Hg and no treatment, no smoking, and no diabetes mellitus), 0 high RF but some RF unfavorable (≥1 RF above low-risk threshold but below high-risk threshold), 1 high RF (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or treated, blood pressure ≥140/90 or treated, diabetes mellitus, or smoking), and 2 or more high RF. Association of baseline RF status with carotid atherosclerosis (overall mean carotid wall thickness and lipid-rich necrotic core) at follow-up was assessed. RESULTS: Among 424 participants with evaluable carotid magnetic resonance images, the mean age was 32 years at baseline and 73 years at follow-up; 67% were male, 86% white, and 36% were low-risk at baseline. Two or more high RF status was associated with higher carotid wall thickness (0.99±0.11 mm) and lipid-rich necrotic core prevalence (30%), as compared with low-risk group (0.94±0.09 mm and 17%, respectively). Each increment in baseline RF status was associated with higher carotid wall thickness (ß-coefficient, 0.015; 95% CI, 0.004-0.026) and with higher lipid-rich necrotic core prevalence at older age (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.00-1.58) in models adjusted for baseline RF and demographics. CONCLUSIONS: RF status in young adulthood is associated with the burden and quality of carotid atherosclerosis in older age suggesting that the decades-long protective effect of low-risk status might be mediated through a lower burden of quantitative and qualitative features of atherosclerotic plaque.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Envelhecimento Saudável , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Chicago , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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