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Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 78(1): 91-100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106463


BACKGROUND: Red grape juice (RGJ) and dark raisins (DR) are rich in polyphenols and antioxidants. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of RGJ and DR in protec- ting the renal tubules against hypercholesteraemic-induced pathological changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty albino rats divided into four groups (n = 10) were utilised in this study. They included the control, high cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed, HCD+RGJ-fed, and HCD+DR-fed groups. Body weight gain, food and water in- take, blood and insulin levels, lipid profile and kidney functions were assessed at the start of the experiment and after 12 weeks. The right kidney was dissected out and processed for both light and electron microscopic examination. Desmin and cytokeratin antibodies were utilised as histologic markers to assess the integrity of the proximal (PTs) and distal tubules (DTs) of the kidney. RESULTS: Administration of HCD resulted in hypercholesterolaemia in rats as evi- denced by the lipid profile. The PTs of hypercholesteraemic rats appeared dilated with hyaline casts and mitochondria in most of the tubular cells were affected. Immunohistochemical assessment revealed affection of both PTs and DTs. Both RGJ and DR, when administered along with the HCD for 12 weeks, improved the lipid profile, kidney functions as well as the histologic and cellular changes-induced by hypercholesterolaemia in the rats. The effect of raisins was superior to RGJ which might be due to its high contents of fibres and proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the importance of supplementation of red grape and raisins in protection against the harmful effects induced by deposition of fat on the renal tubules' structure and function.

Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Vitis , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dieta , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
Biotech Histochem ; 92(6): 390-401, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800278


We investigated the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oils for treating depression related behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes caused by exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in mice and to explore the mechanism underlying the pathology. Male albino mice were divided into four groups: controls; CUMS; CUMS plus fluoxetine, the antidepressant administered for pharmacological validation of OB; and CUMS plus OB. Behavioral tests included the forced swim test (FST), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the open field test (OFT); these tests were performed at the end of the experiment. We assessed serum corticosterone level, protein, gene and immunoexpression of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) as well as immunoexpression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67, caspase-3 in the hippocampus. CUMS caused depression in the mice as evidenced by prolonged immobility in the FST, prolonged time spent in the open arms during the EPM test and reduction of open field activity in the OFT. OB ameliorated the CUMS induced depressive status. OB significantly reduced the corticosterone level and up-regulated protein and gene expressions of BDNF and GR. OB reduced CUMS induced hippocampal neuron atrophy and apoptosis, and increased the number of the astrocytes and new nerve cells. OB significantly increased GFAP-positive cells as well as BDNF and GR immunoexpression in the hippocampus.

Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocimum basilicum/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antidepressivos/química , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/patologia , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 74(1): 106-17, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25792404


Raisins were investigated for their protective role on cardiac muscle both biochemically and histopathologically in high cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed rats. Wister male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): control, raisin-fed, HCD-fed and HCD-raisin fed group. Animals were anaesthetized after 13 weeks. Hearts were dissected and processed for histopathological examination. Raisins administration with HCD significantly decreased the animals' blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein levels; while increased their high density lipoprotein levels compared with rats fed HCD alone. They also decreased cardiomyocytes' degeneration, cellular infiltration, haemorrhages and blood vessels affection. Raisins reduced fibrosis by decreasing the immuno-expression of alpha smooth muscle actin marker, whereas they significantly increased the immuno-expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Raisins showed a cardioprotective effect and were able to alleviate the biochemical and the histopathological changes induced by the HCD. Consumption of raisins or their pharmaceutical product should be recommended specially for those eating a high-fat diet.