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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

RESUMO

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMO

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Cádmio , Bovinos , Bioacumulação
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Mel , Abelhas , Carboidratos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246322, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285614

RESUMO

Abstract A total of 10 specimens were captured from selected sites of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan using mist nets. The captured specimens were morphologically identified and various morphometric measurements were taken. The head and Body length (HB) of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n=10) was 43±0.11 mm and 45±1.1 respectively. Morphologically identified Pipistrellus kuhlii confirmed as Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus based on 16S rRNA sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MN 719478 and MT430902). The available 16S rRNA gene sequences of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were retrieved from NCBI and incorporated in N-J tree analysis. Overall, the interspecific genetic variations among Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were 8% and 1% respectively. In our recommendation, a comprehensive molecular identification of bats is need of hour to report more cryptic and new species from Pakistan.


Resumo Um total de 10 espécimes foi capturado em locais selecionados da Bajaur Agency FATA, Paquistão, usando redes de neblina. Os espécimes capturados foram identificados morfologicamente e várias medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento da cabeça e do corpo (HB) de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n = 10) foi de 43 ± 0,11 mm e 45 ± 1,1, respectivamente. Pipistrellus kuhlii identificado morfologicamente e confirmado como Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus com base em sequências de rRNA 16S. As sequências de DNA foram submetidas ao GenBank e os números de acesso foram obtidos (MN 719478 e MT430902). As sequências do gene 16S rRNA disponíveis de Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram recuperadas do NCBI e incorporadas na análise da árvore N-J. No geral, as variações genéticas interespecíficas entre Pipistrellus coromondra e Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus foram de 8% e 1%, respectivamente. Em nossa recomendação, uma identificação molecular abrangente de morcegos precisa de uma hora para relatar mais espécies crípticas e novas do Paquistão.


Assuntos
Animais , Quirópteros/genética , Paquistão , RNA Ribossômico 16S
6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e262533, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228226

RESUMO

Fish is thought to be the most appropriate for indication of toxicity in water. So, purpose of present study was to determine the concentrations of few metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cd, Pb and Zn) in relation to the body size and condition factor in Scomberoides commersonnianus. A total of 73 samples of marine fish, S. commersonnianus with various sizes that ranged from 93.4-1180 g of body weight and total length 20.5-56.9cm were randomly collected from the Arabian Sea of Karachi Pakistan, for examination of elemental composition. The concentration of Calcium found maximum while Cadmium found minimum in S. commersonnianus. Concentrations of Zn showed highly significant (P<0.001) negative, while Na and Ca exhibited strong positive correlation with the fish size. Correlations of Pb, K and Mg were found least significant (P<0.05) with the wet weight and total length of S. commersonnianus. Whereas, Fe and Cd were remained insignificantly correlated (P>0.05) with the fish size. Condition factor showed highly significant correlation (P<0.001) with all studied metals except cadmium and lead which were found insignificantly correlated (P>0.05) with condition factor of S. commersonnianus.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cádmio , Cálcio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Food Res Int ; 152: 110744, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181116

RESUMO

The preservation of agri-products with a high moisture content like fruits and vegetables is challenging. Traditional dehydration techniques (sun drying and hot air drying) were used to limit food degradations and extend shelf life. However, few issues have been raised regarding the long processing time during the dehydration process causing the pronounced oxidation of nutrients and significant energy losses. Recent studies emphasize different process intensification methods, such as ultrasound (US), to rapidly and economically obtain quality dehydrated food to tackle quality deteriorating issues. The current work provides a comprehensive state-of-art of the drying of fruits and vegetables using ultrasound as an improvement technique for quality retention. The review will first provide a global knowledge of ultrasound in the drying field with a special focus on the equipment as well as mechanisms involved when US is used as a pretreatment or simultaneously during various drying processes. Discussion on the efficiency of each ultrasonic device and its potential use in industry is also provided along the way. The second part will cover a critical report and analysis of recent studies highlighting the effects of the two ultrasound application modes in the drying field (pretreatment and combined with the drying process) on the quality of fruits and vegetables. Overall, applying ultrasound to assist the dehydration of fruits and vegetables is a promising way to reduce drying time and obtain nutritious dehydrated products. This non-thermal technology alleviates the oxidation of nutrients, thus offering a favorable perspective to increase the marketability of finished products as public awareness of food quality is surging.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Dessecação/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Ultrassonografia
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253555, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019098

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Nanopartículas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Nutrientes
9.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 62(19): 5183-5202, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563022

RESUMO

Frying is one of the most common units in food processing and catering worldwide, which involves simultaneous physicochemical and structural changes. However, the problems of traditional frying technology, such as low thermal utilization and poor processing efficiency, have been gradually exposed to industrial production. In this paper, strategies of applying physical fields, such as pressure field, electromagnetic field, and acoustic field in frying technology separately or synergistically with improved efficiency and quality attributes are reviewed. The role of physical fields in the frying process was discussed with modifications in heat and mass transfer and porous structures. The effects of physical fields and their processing parameters on moisture loss kinetics, oil uptake, texture, color, and nutrients retention of fried food are introduced, respectively. Recent advances in multi-physical field-based frying techniques were recommended with synergistic benefits. Furthermore, the trends and challenges that could further develop the multi-physical field-based frying techniques are proposed, showing further commercial prospects for the purpose. The application of physical fields has brought new inspiration to the exploitation of efficient and high-qualified frying technologies, while higher technical levels and economic costs need to be taken into consideration.HighlightsThe role of physical fields in pretreatments and frying process were reviewed.The mechanism of physics fields on frying efficiency and quality was summarized.The physicochemical and microstructure changes by physics fields were discussed.The synergy of physical fields in frying technology were outlined.The trends for further multi-physical field-based frying techniques were proposed.


Assuntos
Culinária , Manipulação de Alimentos , Culinária/métodos , Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Cinética
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 346: 126513, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890818

RESUMO

Advances in microbial enzyme technology offer a significant opportunity for developing low-energy bioconversion solutions for industrial wastes as inexpensive feedstocks for useful products. In this short communication, two agro-food industrial wastes, chicken feather powder (CFP) and okara, were converted into peptides by a Bacillus licheniformis mutant using solid-state fermentation (SSF). The optimum SSF conditions for okara to CFP ratio, inoculum size, and time were 0.7 (7:10), 15%, and 90 h, respectively, which produced 185.99 mg/g peptides, with 910.12 U/g keratinase activity and 85.03% antioxidant scavenging activity. Compared to okara, CFP with mutant strain showed 11.28% higher keratinase activity and produced higher amounts of peptides (5.51%).


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus licheniformis/genética , Fermentação , Resíduos Industriais , Peptídeos
11.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 81: 105855, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871910

RESUMO

Ultrasound as an eco-friendly green technology has been widely studied in food processing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of publications regarding the application of ultrasound in food processing using large-scale reactors. In this paper, the mechanisms and the devices of multi-frequency power ultrasound (MFPU) are described. Moreover, the MFPU applied in enzymolysis of protein, and washing of fruits and vegetables are reviewed. The application of MFPU can improve the enzymolysis of protein through modification on enzyme, modification on substrate materials, and facilitation of the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The ultrasound treatment can enhance the removal of microorganisms, and pesticides on the surface of fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, the reactors of ultrasound-assisted enzymolysis of protein, and washing of fruits and vegetables on the industrial scale are also detailed. This review paper also considers future trends, limitations, drawbacks, and developments of ultrasound application in enzymolysis and washing.

12.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254251, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852138

RESUMO

Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Galliformes , Parasitos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Prevalência
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431908

RESUMO

A total of 10 specimens were captured from selected sites of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan using mist nets. The captured specimens were morphologically identified and various morphometric measurements were taken. The head and Body length (HB) of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n=10) was 43±0.11 mm and 45±1.1 respectively. Morphologically identified Pipistrellus kuhlii confirmed as Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus based on 16S rRNA sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MN 719478 and MT430902). The available 16S rRNA gene sequences of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were retrieved from NCBI and incorporated in N-J tree analysis. Overall, the interspecific genetic variations among Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were 8% and 1% respectively. In our recommendation, a comprehensive molecular identification of bats is need of hour to report more cryptic and new species from Pakistan.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Quirópteros/genética , Paquistão , RNA Ribossômico 16S
14.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 78: 105714, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411845

RESUMO

The effects of osmotic pretreatment assisted by ultrasound in different frequency modes before vacuum freeze-drying (VFD) on moisture migration and quality characteristics of strawberry slices were investigated. The frequency modes are single-frequency modes under 20, 40 kHz (SM-20, SM-40), and dual-frequency under 20/40 kHz including sequential mode (SeDM) and simultaneous mode (SiDM). The quality characteristics of dried strawberry products including rehydration, hardness, color, flavor, total anthocyanins, total phenols, vitamin C content, and active antioxidant components (DPPH and -OH) were determined. Results showed that drying time of the strawberry slices irradiated by ultrasound was reduced by 15.25%-50.00%, compared to the control samples. Besides, dual-frequency ultrasound shortened the drying time more than single-frequency ultrasound. The drying time of SeDM was the shortest. In addition to vitamin C content, the quality characteristics including rehydration, hardness, color, flavor, total anthocyanins, total phenols, and antioxidant activity of dried strawberry products pretreated by SeDM were significantly (p < 0.05) better than those of control and other pretreated samples. It can be concluded that the SeDM was an effective pretreatment method to produce high-quality vacuum freeze-dried strawberry products.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Liofilização , Antocianinas , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Dessecação , Aromatizantes , Fragaria/química , Fenóis/análise , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Vácuo
15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378683

RESUMO

The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Carboidratos
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 295-304, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894258

RESUMO

In order to take full advantage of the gastrointestinal digestive function, the effects of S-type ultrasound-assisted sodium bisulfite (UASB) pretreatment on the preparation of cholesterol-lowering peptide precursors derived from soybean protein were investigated and the structural characterizations of pretreated proteins were explored. UASB pretreatment with the operational mode of mono-frequency ultrasound at 28 kHz, ultrasonic power density of 200 W/L and ultrasonic time of 50 min exhibited the highest cholesterol-lowering activity (56.90%) of soybean protein hydrolysates (SPH) after simulated gastrointestinal digestion, which increased by 87.17% compared to the control. Under these conditions, the peptide content of SPH after simulated gastrointestinal digestion was not significantly different (p > 0.05) compared to the control. Further FTIR analysis showed that UASB pretreatment increased ß-turn and ß-sheet content and decreased α-helix and random coil content. The changes in the surface hydrophobicity and microstructures of soybean protein indicated that UASB pretreatment loosened soybean protein structure and exposed more hydrophobic groups. SDS-PAGE indicated that the restriction sites changed after UASB pretreatment. In conclusion, UASB pretreatment is an efficient method for the preparation of cholesterol-lowering peptide precursors.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/química , Peptídeos/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Sulfitos/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Animais , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468515

RESUMO

During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird's houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246243, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468516

RESUMO

The present study reports the existence of cliff racer, Platyceps rhodorachis from the plains of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 10 specimens were captured during the field surveys from June to September, 2018 from different sites of Punjab. Platyceps rhodorachis was identify on the basis of morphology and confirmed through COI gene sequences. The obtained DNA sequences have shown reliable and exact species identification. Newly produced DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MK936174.1, MK941839.1 and MT790210.1). N-J tree based on COI sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis clearly separated as out-group with other members of family Colubridae based on p-distance. The intra-specific genetic variation ranges from 12% to 18%. The DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis kashmirensis, Platyceps rhodorachis ladacensis, Platyceps ventromaculatus, Platyceps ventromaculatus bengalensis and Platyceps ventromaculatus indusai are not available at NCBI to validate their taxonomic positions. In our recommendations, a large scale molecular based identification of Pakistan's herpetofauna is required to report more new or subspecies from country.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia , Filogeografia
19.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247562, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495155

RESUMO

To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Cádmio , Bovinos , Feminino , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo
20.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 16(10): 673-5, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17007761

RESUMO

Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is an important cause of cholestatic liver disease and biliary cirrhosis in pediatric population. Three cases of PFIC are described that were diagnosed on the basis of family history, pruritus, cirrhosis and / or paucity of interlobular bile ducts on liver biopsy and presence of extrahepatic biliary tree on imaging. These patients were initially labeled as suffering from extra-hepatic biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis. PFIC-1 and 2 could not be differentiated on histological grounds, since these patients presented late and process of fibrosis was advanced.


Assuntos
Colestase Intra-Hepática/diagnóstico , Atresia Biliar/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colestase Intra-Hepática/complicações , Colestase Intra-Hepática/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Hepatite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prurido/etiologia
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