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1.
J Neurol Sci ; 422: 117339, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The stroke mortality rate has gradually declined due to improved interventions and controlled risk factors. We investigated the associated factors and trends in recurrence and all-cause mortality in ischemic stroke patients from a rural population in the United States between 2004 and 2018. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study based on electronic health records (EHR) data. A comprehensive stroke database called "Geisinger NeuroScience Ischemic Stroke (GNSIS)" was built for this study. Clinical data were extracted from multiple sources, including EHR and quality data. RESULTS: The cohort included in the study comprised of 8561 consecutive ischemic stroke patients (mean age: 70.1 ± 13.9 years, men: 51.6%, 95.1% Caucasian). Hypertension was the most prevalent risk factor (75.2%). The one-year recurrence and all-cause mortality rates were 6.3% and 16.1%, respectively. Although the one-year stroke recurrence increased during the study period, the one-year stroke mortality rate decreased significantly. Age > 65 years, atrial fibrillation or flutter, heart failure, and prior ischemic stroke were independently associated with one-year all-cause mortality in stratified Cox proportional hazards model. In the Cause-specific hazard model, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and age < 65 years were found to be associated with one-year ischemic stroke recurrence. CONCLUSION: Although all-cause mortality after stroke has decreased, stroke recurrence has significantly increased in stroke patients from rural population between 2004 and 2018. Older age, atrial fibrillation or flutter, heart failure, and prior ischemic stroke were independently associated with one-year all-cause mortality while diabetes, chronic kidney disease and age less than 65 years were predictors of ischemic stroke recurrence.

2.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 21(3): 9, 2021 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586020

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review discusses the peripheral nervous system (PNS) manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RECENT FINDINGS: Nerve pain and skeletal muscle injury, Guillain-Barré syndrome, cranial polyneuritis, neuromuscular junction disorders, neuro-ophthalmological disorders, neurosensory hearing loss, and dysautonomia have been reported as PNS manifestations in patients with COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19. COVID-19 has shown syndromic complexity. Not only does SARS-CoV-2 affect the central nervous system but also it involves the PNS. The PNS involvement may be due to dysregulation of the immune system attributable to COVID-19. Here we review the broad spectrum of PNS involvement of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Sistema Nervoso Central , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso Periférico
3.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 20(12): 66, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184674

RESUMO

The original version contained incorrect formatting of Dr. Napolis. His first name should be Mario and his last name should be Di Napoli.

4.
Neurol Sci ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few data are available on the associations between the level of pre-stroke physical activity and long-term outcomes in patients with stroke. This study is designed to assess the associations between pre-stroke physical activity and age of first-ever stroke occurrence and long-term outcomes. METHODS: Six hundred twenty-four cases with first-ever stroke were recruited from the Mashhad Stroke Incidence Study a prospective population-based cohort in Iran. Data on Physical Activity Level (PAL) were collected retrospectively and were available in 395 cases. According to the PAL values, subjects were classified as inactive (PAL < 1.70) and active (PAL ≥ 1.70). Age at onset of stroke was compared between active and inactive groups. Using logistic model, we assessed association between pre-stroke physical activity and long-term (5-year) mortality, recurrence, disability, and functional dependency rates. We used multiple imputation to analyze missing data. RESULTS: Inactive patients (PAL < 1.70) were more than 6 years younger at their age of first-ever-stroke occurrence (60.7 ± 15.5) than active patients (67.0 ± 13.2; p < 0.001). Patients with PAL< 1.7 also had a greater risk of mortality at 1 year [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.31; 95%CI: 1.14-4.67, p = 0.02] and 5 years after stroke (aOR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.05-3.14, p = 0.03) than patients who were more physically active. Recurrence rate, disability, and functional dependency were not statistically different between two groups. Missing data analysis also showed a higher odds of death at one and 5 years for inactive patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, we observed a younger age of stroke and a higher odds of 1- and 5-year mortality among those with less physical activity. This is an important health promotion strategy to encourage people to remain physically active.

5.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 20(12): 60, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128130

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health crisis of our time. The disease arises from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on host cells for its internalization. COVID-19 has a wide range of respiratory symptoms from mild to severe and affects several other organs, increasing the complexity of the treatment. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can target the nervous system. In this review, we provide an account of the COVID-19 central nervous system (CNS) manifestations. RECENT FINDINGS: A broad spectrum of the CNS manifestations including headache, impaired consciousness, delirium, loss of smell and taste, encephalitis, seizures, strokes, myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neurogenic respiratory failure, encephalopathy, silent hypoxemia, generalized myoclonus, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and Kawasaki syndrome has been reported in patients with COVID-19. CNS manifestations associated with COVID-19 should be considered in clinical practice. There is a need for modification of current protocols and standing orders to provide better care for COVID-19 patients presenting with neurological symptoms.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia
6.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3770-3777, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121384

RESUMO

The risks of stroke and dementia increase steeply with age, and both are preventable. At present, the best way to preserve cognitive function is to prevent stroke. Therapeutic nihilism based on age is common and unwarranted. We address recent advances in stroke prevention that could contribute greatly to prevention of stroke and dementia at a time when the aging of the population threatens to markedly increase the incidence of both. Issues discussed: (1) old patients benefit even more from lipid-lowering therapy than do younger patients; (2) patients with stiff arteries are at risk from a target systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg; (3) the interaction of the intestinal microbiome, age, and renal function has important dietary implications for older adults; (4) anticoagulation with direct-acting oral anticoagulants should be prescribed more to old patients with atrial fibrillation; (5) B vitamins to lower homocysteine prevent stroke; and (6) most old patients in whom intervention is warranted for carotid stenosis would benefit more from endarterectomy than from stenting. An 80-year-old person has much to lose from a stroke and should not have effective therapy withheld on account of age. Lipid-lowering therapy, a more plant-based diet, appropriate anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy, appropriate blood pressure control, B vitamins to lower homocysteine, and judicious intervention for carotid stenosis could do much to reduce the growing burden of stroke and dementia.

7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105321, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted global healthcare systems and this may affect stroke care and outcomes. This study examines the changes in stroke epidemiology and care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Zanjan Province, Iran. METHODS: This study is part of the CASCADE international initiative. From February 18, 2019, to July 18, 2020, we followed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke hospitalization rates and outcomes in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, Iran. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model and an interrupted time series analysis (ITS) to identify changes in stroke hospitalization rate, baseline stroke severity [measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)], disability [measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)], presentation time (last seen normal to hospital presentation), thrombolytic therapy rate, median door-to-needle time, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. We compared in-hospital mortality between study periods using Cox-regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 1,026 stroke patients were hospitalized. Stroke hospitalization rates per 100,000 population decreased from 68.09 before the pandemic to 44.50 during the pandemic, with a significant decline in both Bayesian [Beta: -1.034; Standard Error (SE): 0.22, 95% CrI: -1.48, -0.59] and ITS analysis (estimate: -1.03, SE = 0.24, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we observed lower admission rates for patients with mild (NIHSS < 5) ischemic stroke (p < 0.0001). Although, the presentation time and door-to-needle time did not change during the pandemic, a lower proportion of patients received thrombolysis (-10.1%; p = 0.004). We did not see significant changes in admission rate to the stroke unit and in-hospital mortality rate; however, disability at discharge increased (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In Zanjan, Iran, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted stroke outcomes and altered the delivery of stroke care. Observed lower admission rates for milder stroke may possibly be due to fear of exposure related to COVID-19. The decrease in patients treated with thrombolysis and the increased disability at discharge may indicate changes in the delivery of stroke care and increased pressure on existing stroke acute and subacute services. The results of this research will contribute to a similar analysis of the larger CASCADE dataset in order to confirm findings at a global scale and improve measures to ensure the best quality of care for stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105138, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hookah consumption, as a common non-cigarette tobacco product, is wrongly considered as less harmful. Moreover, little is known about hookah consumption and risk of ischemic stroke. The current study aimed to assess the association between hookah consumption and first-ever ischemic stroke (FEIS). METHODS: This case-control study was performed on individuals admitted at a tertiary referral center in Shiraz, Southern Iran between October 1, 2018 and September 20, 2019. We compared FEIS patients with randomly selected stroke-free individuals as a control group. Using a multiple logistic regression analysis, we assessed the association between hookah consumption and FEIS. RESULTS: A total of 208 FEIS patients (mean age 65.2 ± 15.9 years) and 212 age and sex-matched controls (mean age 63.2 ± 14.4) were recruited. The prevalence of vascular risk factors and comorbidities including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation, cigarette smoking, and sleep apnea was higher in patients with FEIS than their control counterparts. After adjusting for a wide range of confounders, including socioeconomic factors, hookah consumption was still an independent risk factor for FEIS (odds ratio: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.7-6.1). CONCLUSION: Hookah consumption is associated strongly with FEIS. Public awareness about risk of hookah consumption should be raised.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 104938, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), now named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may change the risk of stroke through an enhanced systemic inflammatory response, hypercoagulable state, and endothelial damage in the cerebrovascular system. Moreover, due to the current pandemic, some countries have prioritized health resources towards COVID-19 management, making it more challenging to appropriately care for other potentially disabling and fatal diseases such as stroke. The aim of this study is to identify and describe changes in stroke epidemiological trends before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is an international, multicenter, hospital-based study on stroke incidence and outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. We will describe patterns in stroke management, stroke hospitalization rate, and stroke severity, subtype (ischemic/hemorrhagic), and outcomes (including in-hospital mortality) in 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic, comparing them with the corresponding data from 2018 and 2019, and subsequently 2021. We will also use an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to assess the change in stroke hospitalization rates before, during, and after COVID-19, in each participating center. CONCLUSION: The proposed study will potentially enable us to better understand the changes in stroke care protocols, differential hospitalization rate, and severity of stroke, as it pertains to the COVID-19 pandemic. Ultimately, this will help guide clinical-based policies surrounding COVID-19 and other similar global pandemics to ensure that management of cerebrovascular comorbidity is appropriately prioritized during the global crisis. It will also guide public health guidelines for at-risk populations to reduce risks of complications from such comorbidities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Incidência , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105089, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interaction between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-communicable diseases may increase the global burden of disease. We assessed the association of COVID-19 with ageing and non-communicable diseases. METHODS: We extracted data regarding non-communicable disease, particularly cardiovascular disease, deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and healthy life expectancy (HALE) from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017. We obtained data of confirmed COVID-19 cases, deaths, and tests from the Our World in Data database as of May 28, 2020. Potential confounders of pandemic outcomes analyzed include institutional lockdown delay, hemispheric geographical location, and number of tourists. We compared all countries according to GBD classification and World Bank income level. We assessed the correlation between independent variables associated with COVID-19 caseload and mortality using Spearman's rank correlation and adjusted mixed model analysis. FINDINGS: High-income had the highest, and the Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania region had the least cases per million population (3050.60 vs. 63.86). Sub-saharan region has reported the lowest number of COVID-19 mortality (1.9). Median delay to lockdown initiation varied from one day following the first case in Latin America and Caribbean region, to 34 days in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania. Globally, non-communicable disease DALYs were correlated with COVID-19 cases (r = 0.32, p<0.001) and deaths (r = 0.37, p<0.001). HALE correlated with COVID-19 cases (r = 0.63, p<0.001) and deaths (r = 0.61, p<0.001). HALE was independently associated with COVID-19 case rate and the number of tourists was associated with COVID-19 mortality in the adjusted model. INTERPRETATION: Preventive measures against COVID-19 should protect the public from the dual burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, particularly in the elderly. In addition to active COVID-19 surveillance, policymakers should utilize this evidence as a guide for prevention and coordination of health services. This model is timely, as many countries have begun to reduce social isolation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Neurol Sci ; 416: 117013, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659508

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current evidence on the association between COVID-19 and dementia is sparse. This study aims to investigate the associations between COVID-19 caseload and the burden of dementia. METHODS: We gathered data regarding burden of dementia (disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] per 100,000), life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy (HALE) from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study. We obtained COVID-19 data from Our World in Data database. We analyzed the association of COVID-19 cases and deaths with the burden of dementia using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Globally, we found significant positive (p < .001) correlations between life expectancy (r = 0.60), HALE (r = 0.58), and dementia DALYs (r = 0.46) with COVID-19 caseloads. Likewise, we found similar correlations between life expectancy (r = 0.60), HALE (r = 0.58) and dementia DALYs (r = 0.54) with COVID-19 mortality. CONCLUSION: Health policymakers should clarify a targeted model of disease surveillance in order to reduce the dual burden of dementia and COVID-19.

12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104941, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689643

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global health threat. Some COVID-19 patients have exhibited widespread neurological manifestations including stroke. Acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have been reported in patients with COVID-19. COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is increasingly recognized as a result of acute infection and is likely caused by inflammation, including inflammatory cytokine storm. Recent studies suggest that axonal transport of SARS-CoV-2 to the brain can occur via the cribriform plate adjacent to the olfactory bulb that may lead to symptomatic anosmia. The internalization of SARS-CoV-2 is mediated by the binding of the spike glycoprotein of the virus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on cellular membranes. ACE2 is expressed in several tissues including lung alveolar cells, gastrointestinal tissue, and brain. The aim of this review is to provide insights into the clinical manifestations and pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke in COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 can down-regulate ACE2 and, in turn, overactivate the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) axis and decrease the activation of the alternative RAS pathway in the brain. The consequent imbalance in vasodilation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and thrombotic response may contribute to the pathophysiology of stroke during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Encefalite Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Coagulação Sanguínea , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/metabolismo , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Transdução de Sinais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia , Vasodilatação , Virulência
13.
Comput Biol Med ; 116: 103586, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425160

RESUMO

With continuous development of therapeutic options for atherosclerosis, image-based biomarkers sensitive to the effect of new interventions are required to be developed for cost-effective clinical evaluation. Although 3D ultrasound measurement of total plaque volume (TPV) showed the efficacy of high-dose statin, more sensitive biomarkers are needed to establish the efficacy of dietary supplements expected to confer a smaller beneficial effect. This study involved 171 subjects who participated in a one-year placebo-controlled trial evaluating the effect of pomegranate. A framework involving a feature selection technique known as discriminative feature selection (DFS) and a semi-supervised graph-based regression (SSGBR) technique was proposed for sensitive detection of plaque textural changes over the trial. 376 textual features of plaques were extracted from 3D ultrasound images acquired at baseline and a follow-up session. A scalar biomarker for each subject were generated by SSGBR based on prominent textural features selected by DFS. The ability of this biomarker for discriminating pomegranate from placebo subjects was quantified by the p-values obtained in Mann-Whitney U test. The discriminative power of SSGBR was compared with global and local dimensionality reduction techniques, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA), maximum margin criterion (MMC) and Laplacian Eigenmap (LE). Only SSGBR (p=4.12×10-6) and normalized LE (p=0.002) detected a difference between the two groups at the 5% significance level. As compared with ΔTPV, SSGBR reduced the sample size required to establish a significant difference by a factor of 60. The application of this framework will substantially reduce the cost incurred in clinical trials.

14.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 39(9): 2844-2855, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142426

RESUMO

Vessel-wall-volume (VWV) is an important three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) metric used in the assessment of carotid plaque burden and monitoring changes in carotid atherosclerosis in response to medical treatment. To generate the VWV measurement, we proposed an approach that combined a voxel-based fully convolution network (Voxel-FCN) and a continuous max-flow module to automatically segment the carotid media-adventitia (MAB) and lumen-intima boundaries (LIB) from 3DUS images. Voxel-FCN includes an encoder consisting of a general 3D CNN and a 3D pyramid pooling module to extract spatial and contextual information, and a decoder using a concatenating module with an attention mechanism to fuse multi-level features extracted by the encoder. A continuous max-flow algorithm is used to improve the coarse segmentation provided by the Voxel-FCN. Using 1007 3DUS images, our approach yielded a Dice-similarity-coefficient (DSC) of 93.2±3.0% for the MAB in the common carotid artery (CCA), and 91.9±5.0% in the bifurcation by comparing algorithm and expert manual segmentations. We achieved a DSC of 89.5±6.7% and 89.3±6.8% for the LIB in the CCA and the bifurcation respectively. The mean errors between the algorithm-and manually-generated VWVs were 0.2±51.2 mm3 for the CCA and -4.0±98.2 mm3 for the bifurcation. The algorithm segmentation accuracy was comparable to intra-observer manual segmentation but our approach required less than 1s, which will not alter the clinical work-flow as 10s is required to image one side of the neck. Therefore, we believe that the proposed method could be used clinically for generating VWV to monitor progression and regression of carotid plaques.

15.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 18(2): 53-63, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043917

RESUMO

Introduction: Most patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) now have a lower risk with intensive medical therapy than with stenting (CAS) or endarterectomy (CEA); the annual risk of stroke or death with intensive medical therapy is ~ 0.5%, vs. a periprocedural risk with CAS of ~ 2.5-4.1% with CAS, and ~ 1.4-1.8% with CEA. The excess risk of CAS is greater in older patients.Areas covered: Discussed are the need for intensive medical therapy, the nature of intensive medical therapy, approaches to identifying the few patients with ACS who could benefit from CEA or CAS, and which patients would be better suited to CEA vs. CAS.Expert opinion: All patients with ACS are at high risk of cardiovascular events, soshould receive intensive medical therapy including lifestyle modification, intensive lipid-lowering, B vitamins to lower homocysteine (using methylcobalamin rather than cyanocobalamin), and appropriate antithrombotic therapy. High-risk patients who could benefit from intervention can be identified by clinical and imaging features including transcranial Doppler embolus detection, ulceration, intraplaque hemorrhage, reduced cerebrovascular reserve, plaque echolucency, silent infarction on brain imaging, and progression of stenosis. Most patients whose risk of stroke warrants intervention would be better treated with CEA than with CAS.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Stents
16.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 184: 105276, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dietary supplements are expected to confer a smaller beneficial effect than medical treatments. Therefore, there is a need to develop cost-effective biomarkers that can demonstrate the efficacy of such supplements for carotid atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to develop such a biomarker based on the changes of 376 plaque textural features measured from 3D ultrasound images. METHODS: Since the number of features (376) was greater than the number of subjects (171) in this study, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of feature vectors. To generate a scalar biomarker for each subject, elements in the reduced feature vectors produced by PCA were weighted using locality preserving projections (LPP) to capture essential patterns exhibited locally in the feature space. 96 subjects treated by pomegranate juice and tablets, and 75 subjects receiving placebo-matching juice and tablets were evaluated in this study. The discriminative power of the proposed biomarker was evaluated and compared with existing biomarkers using t-tests. As the cost of a clinical trial is directly related to the number of subjects enrolled, the cost-effectiveness of the proposed biomarker was evaluated by sample size estimation. RESULTS: The proposed biomarker was more able to discriminate plaque changes exhibited by the pomegranate and placebo groups than total plaque volume (TPV) according to the result of t-tests (TPV: p=0.34, Proposed biomarker: p=1.5×10-5). The sample size required by the new biomarker to detect a significant effect was 20 times smaller than that required by TPV. CONCLUSION: With the increase in cost-effectiveness afforded by the proposed biomarker, more proof-of-principle studies for novel treatment options could be performed.

17.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2(4): 198-203, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507780

RESUMO

Objectives: Microembolic signals (MES) on transcranial Doppler (TCD) predict stroke and cognitive decline. Plasma levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), a prothrombotic factor, are higher in patients with microemboli in carotid stenosis and in patients with paradoxical embolism. In this study we assessed the association between the level of tHcy and the number of MES in patients with mechanical heart valves (MHVs). Methods: TCD monitoring was performed to detect MES before and after breathing 100% oxygen and repeated every 2-4 weeks up to six times. Results: Twenty-five patients with MHVs (mean age: 63.60±10.15 years) participated in this study; 15 were men (66.47±7.25 years) and 10 were women (59.30±12.60 years). In total, there were 126 study visits. In multiple regression, higher tHcy was associated with more MES in both preoxygenation (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.68, P=0.009)) and postoxygenation (OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.83, P=0.01)) phases. Current smoking and the length of time between the operation and monitoring also correlated with a higher number of MES before and after breathing oxygen, particularly in women. Conclusions: Higher tHcy and smoking were associated with a higher MES count in both preoxygenation and postoxygenation phases. Because smoking can be stopped and hyperhomocysteinaemia is treatable, these are clinically important findings.

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