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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127081, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523481

RESUMO

Finding a low-cost and suitable adsorbent is still in urgent need for efficient decontamination of As(III) and As(V) elements from the polluted waters. A novel zirconium hydroxide nanoparticle encapsulated magnetic biochar composite (ZBC) derived from rice residue was synthesized for the adsorptive capture of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. The results revealed that ZBC showed an acceptable magnet separation ability and its surface was encapsulated with lots of hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Compared to As(III), the adsorption of As(V) onto ZBC was mainly dependent on the pH of the solution. The intraparticle diffusion model described the adsorption process. ZBC showed satisfactory adsorption performances to As(III) and As(V) with the highest adsorption quantity of 107.6 mg/g and 40.8 mg/g at pH 6.5 and 8.5, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) on ZBC was almost impervious with the ionic strength while the presence of coexisting ions, especially phosphate, significantly affected the adsorption process. The processes of complexation reaction and electrostatic attraction contributed to the adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto ZBC. ZBC prepared from kitchen rice residue was found to be a low cost environmentally friendly promising adsorbent with high removal capacity for As(III) and As(V) and could be recycled easily from contaminated waters.

2.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; : 1-11, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779318

RESUMO

Purpose of present study was to prepare and evaluate self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) of curcumin (Cur) to enhance its solubility and percentage release for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect. Curcumin loaded SEDDS formulation was prepared, and zones of self-emulsification were recognized by dilution method for the construction of phase diagram. Lauroglycol FCC, Tween 80 (surfactant), and Transcutol HP (co-surfactant) were selected based on their solubility and highest emulsion region in phase diagram. Thermodynamic stability of Cur-SEDDS was calculated through globule size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), viscosity and pH. Cur-SEDDS were also characterized by encapsulation efficiency (EE %), FT-IR, in vitro release, and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect. Results revealed that droplet size of Cur-SEDDS was 19.77 ± 0.03 nm with their PDI 0.22 ± 0.19, zeta potential -19.33 ± 0.94 and viscosity 25.68 ± 0.86 cp. EE % of Cur-SEDDS was found to be 94.99 ± 0.38%, percentage release 65.83% compared with pure curcumin powder. The designed formulation possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity in paw edema when compared with positive control in carrageenan induced rat paw edema assay. Newly developed Cur-SEDDS with enhanced curcumin solubility, percentage release and better anti-inflammatory action may be an alternative source of oral delivery of curcumin.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259423, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748588

RESUMO

In this paper, the Duckworth-Lewis-Stern (DLS) and Duckworth-Lewis-McHale-Asif (DLMA) methods of revising targets for a team batting in second innings in an interrupted Limited Overs International Cricket (LOI), are examined for fairness. The work discusses four significant points: flexibility, intuition, simplicity, and goodness-of-fit of the two mentioned methods. The research findings have shown that the DLMA method is better in every aspect than the DLS method. Further, the data of 1764 ODI matches played during 2004-2021 to investigate the compatibility of the DLMA for high run-scoring One-Day International matches. The results show that DLMA is compatible to the situation of the well-above run-scoring situation.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118237, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592330

RESUMO

Soil microbes influence the uptake of toxic metals (TMs) by changing soil characteristics, bioavailability and translocation of TMs, and soil health indicators in polluted environment. The potential effect of Streptomyces pactum (Act12) and Bacillus consortium (B. subtilis and B. licheniformis; 1:1) on soil enzymes and bacterial abundance, bioavailability and translocation of Zn and Cd by Symphytum officinale, and physiological indicators in soil acquired from Fengxian (FX) mining site. Act12 and Bacillus consortium were applied at 0 (CK), 0.50 (T1), 1.50 (T2), and 2.50 (T3) g kg-1 in a split plot design and three times harvested (H). Results showed that soil pH significantly dropped, whereas, electrical conductivity increased at higher Act12 and Bacillus doses. The extractable Zn lowered and Cd increased at each harvest compared to their controls. Soil ß-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and sucrase improved, whereas, dehydrogenase reduced in harvest 2 and 3 (H2 and H3) as compared to harvest 1 (H1) after Act12 and Bacillus treatments. The main soil phyla individually contributed ∼5-55.6%. Soil bacterial communities' distribution was also altered by Act12 and Bacillus amendments. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes increased, whereas, the Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Gemmatimonadetes decreased during the one-year trial. The Zn and Cd concentration significantly decreased in shoots at each harvest, whereas, the roots concentration was far higher than the shoots, implicating the rhizoremediation by S. officinale. Accumulation factor (AF) and bioconcentration ratio (BCR) of Zn and Cd in shoots were lower and remained higher in case of roots than the standard level (≥1). BCR values of roots indicated that S. officinale can be used for rhizoremediation of TMs in smelter/mines-polluted soils. Thus, field trials in smelter/mines contaminated soils and the potential role of saponin and tannin exudation in metal translocation by plant will broaden our understanding about the mechanism of rhizoremediation of TMs by S. officinale.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Confrei , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Streptomyces
6.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 696040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239864

RESUMO

Inspirational concepts, and the transfer of analogs from natural biology to science and engineering, has produced many excellent technologies to date, spanning vaccines to modern architectural feats. This review highlights that answers to the pressing global petroleum-based plastic waste challenges, can be found within the mechanics and mechanisms natural ecosystems. Here, a suite of technological and engineering approaches, which can be implemented to operate in tandem with nature's prescription for regenerative material circularity, is presented as a route to plastics sustainability. A number of mechanical/green chemical (pre)treatment methodologies, which simulate natural weathering and arthropodal dismantling activities are reviewed, including: mechanical milling, reactive extrusion, ultrasonic-, UV- and degradation using supercritical CO2. Akin to natural mechanical degradation, the purpose of the pretreatments is to render the plastic materials more amenable to microbial and biocatalytic activities, to yield effective depolymerization and (re)valorization. While biotechnological based degradation and depolymerization of both recalcitrant and bioplastics are at a relatively early stage of development, the potential for acceleration and expedition of valuable output monomers and oligomers yields is considerable. To date a limited number of independent mechano-green chemical approaches and a considerable and growing number of standalone enzymatic and microbial degradation studies have been reported. A convergent strategy, one which forges mechano-green chemical treatments together with the enzymatic and microbial actions, is largely lacking at this time. An overview of the reported microbial and enzymatic degradations of petroleum-based synthetic polymer plastics, specifically: low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyurethanes (PU) and polycaprolactone (PCL) and selected prevalent bio-based or bio-polymers [polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and polybutylene succinate (PBS)], is detailed. The harvesting of depolymerization products to produce new materials and higher-value products is also a key endeavor in effectively completing the circle for plastics. Our challenge is now to effectively combine and conjugate the requisite cross disciplinary approaches and progress the essential science and engineering technologies to categorically complete the life-cycle for plastics.

7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208796

RESUMO

On a score sheet for plastics, bioplastics have a medium score for combined mechanical performance and a high score for biodegradability with respect to counterpart petroleum-based plastics. Analysis quickly confirms that endeavours to increase the mechanical performance score for bioplastics would be far more achievable than delivering adequate biodegradability for the recalcitrant plastics, while preserving their impressive mechanical performances. Key architectural features of both bioplastics and petroleum-based plastics, namely, molecular weight (Mw) and crystallinity, which underpin mechanical performance, typically have an inversely dependent relationship with biodegradability. In the case of bioplastics, both macro and micro strategies with dual positive correlation on mechanical and biodegradability performance, are available to address this dilemma. Regarding the macro approach, processing using selected fillers, plasticisers and compatibilisers have been shown to enhance both targeted mechanical properties and biodegradability within bioplastics. Whereas, regarding the micro approach, a whole host of bio and chemical synthetic routes are uniquely available, to produce improved bioplastics. In this review, the main characteristics of bioplastics in terms of mechanical and barrier performances, as well as biodegradability, have been assessed-identifying both macro and micro routes promoting favourable bioplastics' production, processability and performance.

8.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2021: 9850151, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268497

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted significant attention in the past two decades due to their diverse physical properties and associated functionalities. Although numerous advances have been made, the acoustic properties of MOFs have attracted very little attention. Here, we systematically investigate the acoustic velocities and impedances of 19 prototypical MOFs via first-principle calculations. Our results demonstrate that these MOFs exhibit a wider range of acoustic velocities, higher anisotropy, and lower acoustic impedances than their inorganic counterparts, which are ascribed to their structural diversity and anisotropy, as well as low densities. In addition, the piezoelectric properties, which are intimately related to the acoustic properties, were calculated for 3 MOFs via density functional perturbation theory, which reveals that MOFs can exhibit significant piezoelectricity due to the ionic contribution. Our work provides a comprehensive study of the fundamental acoustic properties of MOFs, which could stimulate further interest in this new exciting field.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255010, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An ethnobotanical expedition was conducted to document the traditional ethnobotanical (TEB) uses of wild flora of Dawarian and Ratti Gali villages of District Neelam, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) Pakistan. District Neelam has rich plant diversity and is hub of many endemic plant species while the study areas are not yet explored. The research area: Dawarian and Rati Gali (DRG) area is mountaineous terrain and villages are located on far and farther distances. DRG area has rich biocultural and plant diversity comprising of different ethnic groups of Kashmir state. The current research was aimed to explore and document traditional medicines (TEMs) and other domestic and commercial uses of wild plants. This study will assist to evaluate conservation and commercial worth of wild flora which can be potential candidate for drug discovery through ethnopharmacological analysis. METHODS: The current quantitative ethnobotanical research was carried out in 2018 by interviewing 150 indigenous informants (90 male and 60 female) of DRG area using questionnaire applying structured and semi structured interview methodology. Data analysis was analyzed by using quantitative ethnobotanical statistical tools such as fidelity level (FL), informant consensus factor (ICF), Spearman's rank correlation (SRC) and data matrix ranking (DMR). RESULTS: The indigenous people of DRG area use wild plants in their daily life to cope life necessities i.e. food, vegetables, fodder, fuel, shelter, timber and herbal medicines. TEMs are primarily used to cure different infirmities like diabetics, asthma, dysentery, constipation, cold, fever, joint pain, wound healing, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, epilepsy, kidney infections and many types of skin diseases. Current study revealed the data of 103 wild plants species belonging to 46 plant families from selected areas of District Neelum, AJK. Results depicted that Asteraceae ranked 1st (12 plants spp). Among plant parts used leaf ranked 1st (18%), followed by seed (17%) and root (13%). While prevalent form recipe mode was decoction (20%), followed by powder (17%) and extract (14%) and fodder was highest (37%) EB use-form fodder, followed by food (32%) and fuel (17%). Quantitative ethnobotanical analysis (QEA) was carried to find the reliability and novelty of the study. Five plant species including Berberis lyceum (FL = 97.78%), Isodon rugosus (FL = 95.71%), Saussurea lappa (FL = 94.74%), Aconitum heterophyllum (FL = 92.71%) and Taxus baccata (91.58%) had shown high fidelity level which confirmed that these plants have high medicinal worth in study area. The highest value (0.94) of ICF was for diseases group "tuberculosis and leucorrhea", followed by stomachache and flatulence (0.93), diabetics and blood pressure (0.92) and asthma and chest infections (0.88). For other uses fuel with ICF (0.83) ranked first and second was hedging and thatching (ICF = 0.82) where people use plants or their parts for construction. Spearman's rank correlation (SRC) test indicated that number of TEB uses increases if number of species is increased. Jaccard index (JI) analysis depicted that 56.31% plants are being used as TEMs which are first time explored from the study area. While 26.21% plants are being used in different TEB uses which are different from past cited literature. These novel findings of research indicate that wild flora of the study area has great potential for novel drug discovery and provision of materialist services for the indigenous communities. CONCLUSION: The present research revealed that TEMs uses of 58 plants are novel being first time reported from the study area (DRG) of District Neelam of AJK. The results showed that plants like Acer cappadocicum, Ajuga bracteosa and Swertia paniculata are used to cure diabetes, Viscum album, Viola canescens, Taxus baccata are used for cure of cancer, Isodon rugosus, Polygala chinensis are used in TEMs for treating cardiovascular disorders and Anaphalis triplinervis is used for epilepsy. Berberis lyceum, Ajuga bracteosa, Aconitum heterophyllum, Bistorta amplexicaule, Saussurea lapa and Jurinea dolomiaea are severely threatened and there is urgent need to do conservation measures for available of valuable MPs to the indigenous communities for life necessities and for future research. The current study will also be useful addition in ethnobotanical database, preservation of traditional culture and drug discovery and drug development through future ethnopharmacological research.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Adulto , Gerenciamento de Dados , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão
10.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200009

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most prevalent inflammatory disease among non-fatal skin diseases, affecting up to one fifth of the population in developed countries. AD is characterized by recurrent pruritic and localized eczema with seasonal fluctuations. AD initializes the phenomenon of atopic march, during which infant AD patients are predisposed to progressive secondary allergies such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and food allergies. The pathophysiology of AD is complex; onset of the disease is caused by several factors, including strong genetic predisposition, disrupted epidermal barrier, and immune dysregulation. AD was initially characterized by defects in the innate immune system and a vigorous skewed adaptive Th2 response to environmental agents; there are compelling evidences that the disorder involves multiple immune pathways. Symptomatic palliative treatment is the only strategy to manage the disease and restore skin integrity. Researchers are trying to more precisely define the contribution of different AD genotypes and elucidate the role of various immune axes. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge about the roles of innate and adaptive immune responsive cells in AD. In addition, current and novel treatment strategies for the management of AD are comprehensively described, including some ongoing clinical trials and promising therapeutic agents. This information will provide an asset towards identifying personalized targets for better therapeutic outcomes.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Epiderme/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Asma/etiologia , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Epiderme/patologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/patologia , Humanos , Rinite Alérgica/etiologia , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/patologia , Células Th2/patologia
11.
Chemosphere ; 285: 131454, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271464

RESUMO

Bacillus subtilis and saponin were tested for the uptake of heavy metals (HMs) by Symphytum officinale grown in a smelter-contaminated soil in completely randomized design. Soil pH and electrical conductivity increased by 0.11 unit (T3) and 754 mS cm-1 (T2), respectively. The bioavailable Zn decreased by 5.80% (T2); Cd and Pb increased by 6.21% (T2) and 13.46% (T3), respectively. Soil urease increased by 24% (T3) and alkaline phosphatase, ß-glucosidase, and dehydrogenase decreased by 20% (T2), 27.70% (T2), and 21% (T1), respectively. Soil amendments altered the microbial diversity. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction reported no obvious changes, except saponin application, which led to possible release of HMs in soil. The fresh weight of Symphytum officinale increased by 21.3 and 5.50% in T2 and T3, respectively. Chlorophyll (a) and carotenoid decreased by the sole application of B. subtilis and saponin and vice-versa for chlorophyll (b). Mono-application of B. subtilis efficiently increased the peroxidase (POD: 27%) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO: 13.56%), whereas, co-application enhanced the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL: 6.50%) level in shoots. Zn concentration in the shoots and roots declined by 12.75 and 27.32% in T1, respectively. Cd increased (3.92%, T3) in shoots and decreased (39.25%, T1) in roots; Pb concentration remained below detection in shoots and increased by 40% (T3) in roots due to accumulation in dead cells and cell vacuoles. Overall, B. subtilis and saponin influenced the bioavailability of HMs, enzymatic activities, and bacterial abundance in the soil; plant growth indicators, antioxidants activities, and metal uptake in shoots and roots.


Assuntos
Confrei , Metais Pesados , Saponinas , Poluentes do Solo , Bacillus subtilis , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
Curr Org Synth ; 18(7): 711-718, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254923

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intercapillary research in mathematics and other pure sciences areas has always helped humanity quantify natural phenomena. MATERIALS & METHOD: This article also contributes to which valency-based topological indices are implemented on tetrahedral sheets of clay minerals. These indices have been used for a long time and are considered the most powerful tools to quantify chemical graphs. RESULTS: The atoms in the chemical compound and the bonds between the atoms are depicted as the graph's vertices and edges, respectively. CONCLUSION: The valency (or degree) of a vertex in a graph is the number of edges incident to that vertex. In this article, various degree-based indices and their modifications are determined to check each types' significance.


Assuntos
Minerais , Argila , Matemática
13.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 579429, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079562

RESUMO

Water-scarce areas are continually increasing worldwide. This factor reduces the quantity and quality of crops produced in affected areas. Physical seed treatments are considered economical and ecofriendly solutions for such problems. It was hypothesized that a moderately drought-tolerant crop grown from seeds treated with a He-Ne laser utilizes water-limited conditions better than plants grown from untreated seeds. A field study was conducted, growing a moderately drought tolerant crop (sunflower) with supportive seed treatment (He-Ne laser treatment at 300 mJ) for 0, 1, 2, and 3 min. Thirty-day-old plants were subjected to two irrigation conditions: 100% (normal) and 50% (water stress). Harvesting was done at flowering (60-day-old plants) at full maturity. The sunflowers maintained growth and yield under water limitation with a reduced achene number. At 50%, irrigation, there was a reduction in chlorophyll a, a+b and a/b; catalase activity; soluble sugars; and anthocyanin, alongside elevated proline. The improved chlorophyll a, a+b and a/b; metabolisable energy; nutritional value; and yield in the plants grown from He-Ne-laser-treated seeds support our hypothesis. Seeds with 2-min exposure to a He-Ne laser performed best regarding leaf area; leaf number; leaf biomass; chlorophyll a, a+b and a/b; per cent oil yield; 50-achene weight; achene weight per plant; carotenoid content; and total soluble phenolic compound content. Thereafter, the leaves from the best performing level of treatment (2 min) were subjected to high-performance-liquid-chromatography-based phenolic profiling and gas-chromatography-based fatty acid profiling of the oil yield. The He-Ne laser treatment led to the accumulation of nutraceutical phenolic compounds and improved the unsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio of the oil. In conclusion, 2-min He-Ne laser seed treatment could be the best strategy to improve the yield and nutritional value of sunflowers grown in water-limited areas.

14.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131016, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090005

RESUMO

Biochar prepared from various feedstock materials has been utilized in recent years as a potential stabilizing agent for heavy metals in smelter-contaminated soils. However, the effectiveness of animal bone-derived biochar and its potential for the stabilization of contaminants remains unclear. In the present study, sheep bone-derived biochar (SB) was prepared at low (500 °C; SBL) and high temperatures (800 °C; SBH) and amended a smelter-contaminated soil at 2, 5, and 10% (w/w). The effects of SB on soil properties, bioavailable Zn and Cd and their geochemical fractions, bacterial community composition and activity, and the response of plant attributes (pigments and antioxidant activity) were assessed. Results showed that the SBH added at 10% (SBH10) increased soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and phosphorus, and also increased the oxidizable and residual Zn and Cd fractions at the expense of the bioavailable fractions. The SBH10 lowered the Zn and Cd contents in maize roots (by 57 and 60%) and shoot (by 42 and 61%), respectively, compared to unamended control. Additionally, SBH10 enhanced urease (98%) and phosphates (107%) activities, but reduced dehydrogenase (58%) and ß-glucosidase (30%) activities. Regarding the effect of the pyrolysis temperature, SBH enhanced the activity of Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlorobi, and Microgenomates, but reduced Actinobacteria and Parcubacteria in comparison to SBL. However, only the SBL10 reduced the Proteobacteria community (by 9%). In conclusion, SB immobilized Zn and Cd in smelter-affected soils, enhanced the bacterial abundance and microbial function (urease, phosphates), and improved plant growth. However, validation of the results, obtained from the pot experiment, under field conditions is suggested.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Ovinos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zea mays , Zinco/análise
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 349, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091591

RESUMO

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological and neurodevelopmental childhood-onset disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattentiveness, impulsiveness, restlessness, and hyperactivity. These symptoms may continue in 55-66% of cases from childhood into adulthood. Even though the precise etiology of ADHD is not fully understood, it is considered as a multifactorial and heterogeneous disorder with several contributing factors such as heritability, auxiliary to neurodevelopmental issues, severe brain injuries, neuroinflammation, consanguineous marriages, premature birth, and exposure to environmental toxins. Neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental assessments may help to explore the possible role of genetic variations on ADHD neuropsychobiology. Multiple genetic studies have observed a strong genetic association with various aspects of neuropsychobiological functions, including neural abnormalities and delayed neurodevelopment in ADHD. The advancement in neuroimaging and molecular genomics offers the opportunity to analyze the impact of genetic variations alongside its dysregulated pathways on structural and functional derived brain imaging phenotypes in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including ADHD. Recently, neuroimaging genomic studies observed a significant association of brain imaging phenotypes with genetic susceptibility in ADHD. Integrating the neuroimaging-derived phenotypes with genomics deciphers various neurobiological pathways that can be leveraged for the development of novel clinical biomarkers, new treatment modalities as well as therapeutic interventions for ADHD patients. In this review, we discuss the neurobiology of ADHD with particular emphasis on structural and functional changes in the ADHD brain and their interactions with complex genomic variations utilizing imaging genetics methodologies. We also highlight the genetic variants supposedly allied with the development of ADHD and how these, in turn, may affect the brain circuit function and related behaviors. In addition to reviewing imaging genetic studies, we also examine the need for complementary approaches at various levels of biological complexity and emphasize the importance of combining and integrating results to explore biological pathways involved in ADHD disorder. These approaches include animal models, computational biology, bioinformatics analyses, and multimodal imaging genetics studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adulto , Animais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Neuroimagem
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(37): 51632-51641, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990917

RESUMO

Revival of natural colorants in textile dyeing is one of the important strategies to reduce synthetic chemical-based environmental pollution. The study has been conducted to explore the coloring potential of durum (Triticum durum Desf.) and bread (Triticum astivum L.) wheat husk for fabric dyeing. The results showed that both wheat species husk could be an excellent source of natural dye, if extracted in alkaline medium. It has been observed that durum wheat husk based dye worked best at 70°C with a pH 11.0 and salt concentration of 8.0 g/100 ml of solution. Similarly, alkaline extract of bread wheat husk worked better at 80°C with dyeing solution pH 9.0 and salt concentration of 8.0 g/100 ml. Bio-mordanting experiments results revealed pomegranate rind (7%) as most effective bio-mordant to obtain high color strength of wheat husk treated fabric. In chemical-mordanting, tannic acid (5%) as pre-mordant and chrome (5%) as post-mordant have improved the color strength more than all other quantities of employed mordants. FTIR analysis indicated the presence of flavonoids as major colorant compounds in wheat husk-based natural dye. Suggested ISO standards for colorfastness illustrated good color strength ratings of husk-based dyed fabric when treated with bio-mordants as compared to chemical counterparts. Hence, husk of both bread and durum wheat species has great potential to be used as source of eco-friendly natural colorant for cotton dyeing.


Assuntos
Corantes , Triticum , Pão , Taninos , Têxteis
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 778-785, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798587

RESUMO

A batch experiment was carried out in order to remove Hg2+ from the aqueous solution as well as the polluted water using modified chitosan (CS) with polyamine compounds (triethylenetetramine (TETA), tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA)), and melamine. The obtained polyamine-co-melamine crosslinked CS derivatives (MCS-4N and MCS-5N) were characterized and used as adsorbents. In comparison to the raw CS, the modification significantly promoted the adsorption of Hg2+ ions. The results of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model revealed that pH-dependent derivatives adsorbents achieved the equilibrium state within 12 h. The Langmuir model was best fitted with the Hg2+ adsorption isotherm and showed the highest adsorption capacities of 140.3 and 109.7 mg/g for MCS-4N and MCS-5N, respectively. A slight decrease in the adsorption efficiency of Hg2+ was noticed with the increment of the ionic strength of the solution. However, the studied adsorbents were easily regenerated and presented adequate reusability. The Hg2+ adsorption was regulated by the combined process of coordination reaction and electrostatic attraction as well. The as-prepared polyamine-co-melamine crosslinked CS derivatives were found potential adsorbents for the adsorptive capture of Hg2+ ions from aqueous solutions and polluted waters.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Mercúrio/isolamento & purificação , Poliaminas/química , Triazinas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Concentração Osmolar , Soluções , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116800, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662876

RESUMO

Reusing by-products such as cow bones in agriculture can be achieved thorough pyrolysis. The potential of bone-derived biochar as a promising material for metals immobilization in contaminated mining soils has not yet been sufficiently explored. Therefore, cow bones were used as biochar feedstock were pyrolyzed at 500 °C (CBL) and 800 °C (CBH) and. The two biochars were applied to a mine contaminated soil at 0 (control), 2.5, 5 and 10%, w/w, dosages; then, the soils were incubated and cultivated by maize in the greenhouse. Cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) bioavailability and their sequentially extracted fractions (acid soluble, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fraction), soil microbial function, and plant health attributes were analyzed after maize harvesting. Bone-derived biochar enhanced the content of dissolved organic carbon (up to 74%), total nitrogen (up to 26%), and total phosphorus (up to 27%) in the soil and improved the plant growth up to 55%, as compared to the control. The addition of CBL altered the acid soluble fraction of both metals to the residual fraction and, thus, reduced the content of Zn (55 and 40%) and Cd (57 and 67%) in the maize roots and shoots, respectively as compared to the control. The CBL enhanced the ß-glucosidase (51%) and alkaline phosphatase activities (71%) at the lower doses (2.5-5%) as compared to control, while the activities of these enzymes decreased with the higher application doses. Also, CBL improved the antioxidants activity and maize growth at the 2.5-5% application rate. However, the activity of the dehydrogenase significantly decreased (77%), particularly with CBH. We conclude that CBL, applied at 2.5-5% dose, can be utilized as a potential low cost and environmental friendly amendment for stabilization of toxic metals in contaminated mining soils and producing food/feed/biofuel crops with lower metal content.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise
19.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 58: 102601, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611083

RESUMO

Mental health disorders are a burgeoning global public health challenge, and disproportionately affect the poor. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear 80 % of the mental health disease burden. Stigma associated with mental health results in delayed help seeking, reduced access to health services, suboptimal treatment, poor outcomes and an increased risk of individuals' human rights violations. Moreover, widespread co-occurrence of physical comorbidities such as noncommunicable diseases with mental health disorders makes the treatment of both conditions challenging and worsens prognosis. This paper explores various aspects of stigma towards mental health with a focus on LMICs and assesses measures to increase help-seeking and access to and uptake of mental health services. Stigma impacts persons living with mental illness, their families and caregivers and healthcare professionals (mental health professionals, non-psychiatric specialists and general practitioners) imparting mental health care. Cultural, socio-economic and religious factors determine various aspects of mental health in LMICs, ranging from perceptions of health and illness, health seeking behavior, attitudes of the individuals and health practitioners and mental health systems. Addressing stigma requires comprehensive and inclusive mental health policies and legislations; sustainable and culturally-adapted awareness programs; capacity building of mental health workforce through task-shifting and interprofessional approaches; and improved access to mental health services by integration with primary healthcare and utilizing existing pathways of care. Future strategies targeting stigma reduction must consider the enormous physical comorbidity burden associated with mental health, prioritize workplace interventions and importantly, address the deterioration of population mental health from the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estigma Social , Humanos
20.
Psychiatr Q ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586128

RESUMO

Diversity provides better patient outcomes, reduces physician burnout, and therefore lessens the burden of the healthcare system. In this study, we explore the gender and racial trends in the recruitment of medical graduates into US psychiatry residency programs. Retrospective data analysis was performed utilizing the data from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Data's annual Resource Books from the year 2007 to 2018. Demographic data, including gender and race, were extracted for psychiatry residents. Gender was categorized as Male, Female, and Not Reported. Race/ethnicity was categorized as White (Non-Hispanic), Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, Black/African-American (Non-Hispanic), Native American/Alaskan, Others (not in the aforementioned categories), and Unknown. Female psychiatry residents relatively decreased by 2.6% whereas male psychiatry residents relatively increased by 15.5% from 2007 to 2018. Between the years 2011 and 2018, there was a relative increase in African American/Black and Native American/Alaskan psychiatry residents by 5.5% and 1%, respectively, whereas the Asian/Pacific Islanders, White (Non-Hispanic), and Hispanic/Latino psychiatry residents relatively decreased by 5.1%, 2.3%, and 1.7%, respectively. Despite the overall increase of women and ethnic minorities in US medical schools, women and racial minorities remain significantly under-represented in psychiatry residency programs in the US.

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