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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(11): 3649-3662, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427438

RESUMO

Treatment of AIDS involves the use of the cocktail of drugs that make up the antiretroviral therapy. Its logistic control is monitored by a computerized national system of dispensation, the Logistic Control System of Medication (SICLOM). This study aimed to investigate, by means of SICLOM data, the use of antiretroviral therapy in patients treated at two University Hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. A cross-sectional study was conducted with sociodemographic and dispensation data collected from SICLOM. The evaluation of drug ownership was done by calculating the Proportion of Days Covered (PDC). Five hundred and thirty-eight patients of both genders with active registration in SICLOM and over 18 years of age were included. The ART most used in both hospitals was lamivudine, considering the total of 58 different schemes identified. The mean of possession of groups was 88% (± 0,16). The factor associated with possession of drugs was the ART scheme, with PDC of 91% (p<0,001) for rescue schemes. This study confirmed that SICLOM was a reliable source to establish the profile of the population assisted.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(11): 3649-3662, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974742

RESUMO

Resumo O tratamento da aids implica a utilização de diversos medicamentos que compõem a terapia antirretroviral, sendo o controle logístico monitorado por um sistema nacional informatizado de dispensação, o Sistema de Controle Logístico de Medicamentos (SICLOM). O objetivo foi investigar a utilização da terapia antirretroviral de pacientes de dois hospitais universitários no Estado do Rio de Janeiro a partir do SICLOM. Foi realizado um estudo seccional com coleta de dados sociodemográficos e de dispensação, a partir do SICLOM. A avaliação da posse para estimativa de pacientes não aderidos foi realizada através do indicador de proporção de dias cobertos (PDC). Foram incluídos 538 pacientes com cadastro ativo no SICLOM, maiores de 18 anos de ambos os sexos. O ARV mais utilizado em ambos os hospitais foi lamivudina, dentre 58 esquemas diferentes identificados. A maior parte dos pacientes utilizava esquemas classificados como de primeira linha de tratamento. Em média, a proporção de dias cobertos (posse) pelo tratamento foi 88% (± 0,16). A linha de tratamento mostrou associação estatística com a posse, sendo observado melhor PDC 91% (p < 0,001) para os esquemas resgate. Este estudo corroborou o SICLOM como uma boa fonte para conhecimento do perfil de utilização de ARV.


Abstract Treatment of AIDS involves the use of the cocktail of drugs that make up the antiretroviral therapy. Its logistic control is monitored by a computerized national system of dispensation, the Logistic Control System of Medication (SICLOM). This study aimed to investigate, by means of SICLOM data, the use of antiretroviral therapy in patients treated at two University Hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. A cross-sectional study was conducted with sociodemographic and dispensation data collected from SICLOM. The evaluation of drug ownership was done by calculating the Proportion of Days Covered (PDC). Five hundred and thirty-eight patients of both genders with active registration in SICLOM and over 18 years of age were included. The ART most used in both hospitals was lamivudine, considering the total of 58 different schemes identified. The mean of possession of groups was 88% (± 0,16). The factor associated with possession of drugs was the ART scheme, with PDC of 91% (p<0,001) for rescue schemes. This study confirmed that SICLOM was a reliable source to establish the profile of the population assisted.

3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(8): 2581-2594, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793074

RESUMO

The provision of ARVs is central to HIV/AIDS programs, because of its impact on the course of the disease and on quality of life. Although first-line treatments costs have declined, treatment-associated expenses are steeper each year. Sustainability is therefore an important variable for the success of treatment programs. A conceptual framework on sustainability of ARV provision was developed, followed by data collection instruments. The pilot study was undertaken in Brazil. Bolivia, Peru and Mozambique, were visited. Key informants were identified and interviewed. Investigation of sustainability related to ARV provision involved implementation and routinization events of provision schemes. Evidence of greater sustainability potential was observed in Peru, where provision is implemented and routinized by the National HIV/AIDS program and expenditures met by the government. In Mozambique, provision is dependent on donations and external aid, but the country displays a great effort to incorporate ARV provision and care in routine healthcare activities. Bolivia, in addition to external dependence on financing and management of drug supply, presents problems regarding implementation and routinization. The conceptual framework was useful in recognizing events that influence sustainable ARV provision in these countries.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/provisão & distribução , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Bolívia , Brasil , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Peru , Projetos Piloto , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(8): 2609-2614, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793076

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical services and the formulation of a medicines policy are SUS areas ensured by the organic health care law 8,080/90. Thus, after a widely participative process, involving stakeholders, the National Medicines Policy (NMP) was approved in 1998 by Ordinance 3,916.The NMP presents directives and priorities, aligned with organic health care law, which should guide the federal, states and municipals entities actions to achieve the policy goals. Considering almost 20 years of the NMP, this paper took stock discussed some of the directives in light of the SUS principles. It was not the objective to provide an exhaustive review of all the activities performed during this period. The authors tried to get close to those that have brought advances and dilemmas, with potential risk of regression. Efforts to implement an ambitious agenda applied to pharmaceutical services were identified. This agenda tried to deal with different challenges like the dynamics of the pharmaceutical market and the operation of pharmaceutical services to guarantee the supply of medicines aligned with principles and directives of SUS.


Assuntos
Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes , Política de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Assistência Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(8): 2581-2594, Ago. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890416

RESUMO

Abstract The provision of ARVs is central to HIV/AIDS programs, because of its impact on the course of the disease and on quality of life. Although first-line treatments costs have declined, treatment-associated expenses are steeper each year. Sustainability is therefore an important variable for the success of treatment programs. A conceptual framework on sustainability of ARV provision was developed, followed by data collection instruments. The pilot study was undertaken in Brazil. Bolivia, Peru and Mozambique, were visited. Key informants were identified and interviewed. Investigation of sustainability related to ARV provision involved implementation and routinization events of provision schemes. Evidence of greater sustainability potential was observed in Peru, where provision is implemented and routinized by the National HIV/AIDS program and expenditures met by the government. In Mozambique, provision is dependent on donations and external aid, but the country displays a great effort to incorporate ARV provision and care in routine healthcare activities. Bolivia, in addition to external dependence on financing and management of drug supply, presents problems regarding implementation and routinization. The conceptual framework was useful in recognizing events that influence sustainable ARV provision in these countries.


Resumo A provisão de medicamentos ARV é central para programas de HIV/Aids, devido a seu impacto no curso da doença e na qualidade de vida. Embora os custos de tratamentos de primeira linha tenham diminuído, os gastos dos programas com os tratamentos tem aumentado a cada ano. A sustentabilidade torna-se fator fundamental para o sucesso dos programas. Um modelo conceitual para avaliação da sustentabilidade da provisão de ARV e instrumentos de coleta de dados foram desenvolvidos. Um estudo piloto foi realizado no Brasil e a pesquisa de campo cobriu Bolívia, Moçambique e Peru. Informantes-chaves foram identificados e entrevistados. Eventos críticos de implementação e rotinização foram investigados na história dos programas. Foi observado maior potencial para sustentabilidade no Peru, onde a provisão está implementada e rotinizada e os gastos são cobertos pelo governo nacional. Em Moçambique, o financiamento da provisão é quase totalmente dependente de ajuda internacional, mas há grandes esforços voltados à expansão da cobertura e rotinização do cuidado a PVH. Na Bolívia, além da dependência externa para o financiamento há problemas de implementação e gerenciamento da provisão. O modelo avaliativo mostrou-se útil na identificação de fatores que influenciam a capacidade para sustentabilidade dos programas nesses países.

6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 33(3): e00136216, 2017 Apr 20.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444026

RESUMO

The current frame of reference on adherence to pharmacotherapy includes a set of behaviors experienced by the user, with observation of the detailed and continuous history of the use of each dose of the medication. Indicators based on pharmacy records have been used to measure adherence. The current review aimed to identify and describe indicators based on pharmacy records and to discuss their adequacy and limitations for measuring adherence. An exploratory literature review was conducted in three databases using the terms "adherence", "pharmacy records/administrative data", and "measure" to compose the descriptors for the selection of 81 articles and the elaboration of a chart with the denomination, sources, methods for calculation, description, and interpretation of the operational and referential meaning of 14 indicators. Given the most recent taxonomy for adherence proposed in the literature, we concluded that the indicators can be useful for identifying patients with medication-seeking behavior-related problems and analysis of persistence. The distance between supply-related events and difficulties in treatment follow-up can influence an analysis based exclusively on the use of these indicators.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias , Brasil , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
7.
Cad. saúde pública ; 33(3): e00136216, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-839668

RESUMO

Resumo: O marco atual sobre a adesão à farmacoterapia compreende um conjunto de comportamentos experimentados pelo usuário em que se observa a trajetória detalhada e contínua do uso de cada dose do medicamento. Indicadores provenientes de registros de dispensação de medicamentos têm sido utilizados para a mensuração da adesão. A presente revisão visou a identificar e a caracterizar indicadores provenientes de registros de dispensação e a discutir sua adequação e limitações para mensuração da adesão. Foi realizada uma busca bibliográfica exploratória em três bases de dados a partir dos termos "adesão", "registros de farmácia/dados administrativos" e "medida" na composição dos descritores para a seleção de 81 artigos e elaboração de um quadro com a denominação, fontes, método de cálculo, descrição e interpretação do significado operacional e referencial de 14 indicadores. Tendo em vista a mais recente taxonomia da adesão proposta na literatura, concluiu-se que os indicadores encontrados podem ser úteis na identificação de pacientes com problemas relacionados ao comportamento de busca de medicamentos e na análise da persistência. A distância entre os eventos relacionados ao fornecimento e as dificuldades no seguimento da terapêutica podem influenciar a análise baseada exclusivamente no uso desses indicadores.


Resumen: El marco de referencia actual sobre la adherencia a la farmacoterapia incluye un conjunto de comportamientos experimentados por el usuario, con observación de la historia detallada y continua del uso de cada dosis de la medicación. Se han utilizado indicadores basados en registros de farmacia para medir la adherencia. La revisión actual tuvo como objetivo identificar y describir indicadores basados en registros de farmacia y discutir su adecuación y limitaciones para medir la adherencia. Se realizó una revisión exploratoria de la literatura en tres bases de datos utilizando los términos "adherencia", "registros de farmacia/datos administrativos" y "medida" para componer los descriptores para la selección de 81 artículos y la elaboración de un cuadro con la denominación, métodos de cálculo, descripción e interpretación del significado operacional y referencial de 14 indicadores. Dada la taxonomía más reciente para la adherencia propuesta en la literatura, concluimos que los indicadores pueden ser útiles para identificar pacientes con problemas relacionados con el comportamiento de búsqueda de medicamentos y el análisis de la persistencia. La distancia entre los eventos relacionados con la oferta y las dificultades en el seguimiento del tratamiento puede influir en un análisis basado exclusivamente en el uso de estos indicadores.


Abstract: The current frame of reference on adherence to pharmacotherapy includes a set of behaviors experienced by the user, with observation of the detailed and continuous history of the use of each dose of the medication. Indicators based on pharmacy records have been used to measure adherence. The current review aimed to identify and describe indicators based on pharmacy records and to discuss their adequacy and limitations for measuring adherence. An exploratory literature review was conducted in three databases using the terms "adherence", "pharmacy records/administrative data", and "measure" to compose the descriptors for the selection of 81 articles and the elaboration of a chart with the denomination, sources, methods for calculation, description, and interpretation of the operational and referential meaning of 14 indicators. Given the most recent taxonomy for adherence proposed in the literature, we concluded that the indicators can be useful for identifying patients with medication-seeking behavior-related problems and analysis of persistence. The distance between supply-related events and difficulties in treatment follow-up can influence an analysis based exclusively on the use of these indicators.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias , Brasil , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 795-799, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-951868

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This paper aims to analyze the measurement equivalence aspects (internal consistency and interrater reliability) of a Brazilian version of Martín-Bayarre-Grau (MBG) adherence questionnaire as part of its cross-cultural adaptation. Item-total correlation and Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used as internal consistency estimates. Stability was evaluated through test and retest comparison and expressed through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa with quadratic weighting. ICC for the overall scale was 0.81, indicating an "almost perfect" agreement. However, some cases of "poor" and "slight" agreements were found while analyzing individual items. The translated version of the MBG questionnaire showed good homogeneity (alpha 0.78), higher than cutoff points suggested in the literature. The scale has proved capable of measuring the level of adherence to treatment in hypertensive and/or diabetic patients in a reliable way.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 12: 31, 2014 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24965383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to rank policy concerns and policy-related research issues in order to identify policy and research gaps on access to medicines (ATM) in low- and middle-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), as perceived by policy makers, researchers, NGO and international organization representatives, as part of a global prioritization exercise. METHODS: Data collection, conducted between January and May 2011, involved face-to-face interviews in El Salvador, Colombia, Dominican Republic, and Suriname, and an e-mail survey with key-stakeholders. Respondents were asked to choose the five most relevant criteria for research prioritization and to score policy/research items according to the degree to which they represented current policies, desired policies, current research topics, and/or desired research topics. Mean scores and summary rankings were obtained. Linear regressions were performed to contrast rankings concerning current and desired policies (policy gaps), and current and desired research (research gaps). RESULTS: Relevance, feasibility, and research utilization were the top ranked criteria for prioritizing research. Technical capacity, research and development for new drugs, and responsiveness, were the main policy gaps. Quality assurance, staff technical capacity, price regulation, out-of-pocket payments, and cost containment policies, were the main research gaps. There was high level of coherence between current and desired policies: coefficients of determination (R2) varied from 0.46 (Health system structure; r = 0.68, P <0.01) to 0.86 (Sustainable financing; r = 0.93, P <0.01). There was also high coherence between current and desired research on Rational selection and use of medicines (r = 0.71, P <0.05, R2 = 0.51), Pricing/affordability (r = 0.82, P <0.01, R2 = 0.67), and Sustainable financing (r = 0.76, P <0.01, R2 = 0.58). Coherence was less for Health system structure (r = 0.61, P <0.01, R2 = 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: This study combines metrics approaches, contributing to priority setting methodology development, with country and regional level stakeholder participation. Stakeholders received feedback with the results, and we hope to have contributed to the discussion and implementation of ATM research and policy priorities in LAC.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Pesquisa , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Colômbia , República Dominicana , El Salvador , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Suriname , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 35(2): 128-35, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24781094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Examine the social determinants that affect population behavior with regard to the search for and acquisition of medicines, and their relationship to exclusion from health services based on aggregate data from three Central American countries: Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. METHODS: A descriptive, observational cross-sectional study was conducted by administration of a household survey. The study sample was selected in accordance with the conglomerate method. Data was analyzed with the SPSS® V.17 program using descriptive statistics, bivariate, multivariate, and principal components analysis (PCA). RESULTS: Although the majority of the persons could access health care, health exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) was the main determinant of lack of access to medicines. The characteristics of housing (OR 0.747, 95% CI), formal employment of head of the household (OR 0.707, 95% CI), and socioeconomic status of the household (OR 0.462, 95% CI) were also important determinants of lack of access to medicines. CONCLUSIONS: The phenomena of lack of access to health services and medicines are not independent from one another. It was corroborated that the health system, as an intermediate social determinant of health, is an important factor for improvement of access to medicines. Public policies that aim to achieve universal coverage should consider this relationship in order to be effective.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicarágua , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 35(2): 128-135, feb. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-710565

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Examinar los determinantes sociales que afectan la conducta de la población en relación con la búsqueda y obtención de medicamentos, y su relación con la exclusión de los servicios de salud para datos agregados de tres países de América Central: Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, mediante la aplicación de una encuesta de hogares. La muestra del estudio se seleccionó de acuerdo al método de conglomerados. Los datos fueron analizados con el programa SPSS® V.17, utilizando estadística descriptiva y análisis bivariado, multivariado y por componentes principales (ACP). RESULTADOS: Aunque la mayoría de las personas pudo acceder a la atención en salud, la exclusión en salud (razón de probabilidades [RP] 4,10; intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]) fue el principal determinante de la falta de acceso a los medicamentos. Las características de la vivienda (RP 0,747, IC95%), la formalidad del empleo del jefe(a) de hogar (RP 0,707, IC95%) y las condiciones socioeconómicas del hogar (RP 0,462, IC95%) fueron también importantes determinantes de la falta de acceso a los medicamentos. CONCLUSIONES: Los fenómenos de la falta de acceso a servicios de salud y a medicamentos no son independientes entre sí. Se corroboró que el sistema de salud, como determinante social intermediario de la salud, es un factor importante para la mejora del acceso a medicamentos. Las políticas públicas orientadas a alcanzar la cobertura universal deben contemplar esta relación para ser eficaces.


OBJECTIVE: Examine the social determinants that affect population behavior with regard to the search for and acquisition of medicines, and their relationship to exclusion from health services based on aggregate data from three Central American countries: Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. METHODS: A descriptive, observational cross-sectional study was conducted by administration of a household survey. The study sample was selected in accordance with the conglomerate method. Data was analyzed with the SPSS® V.17 program using descriptive statistics, bivariate, multivariate, and principal components analysis (PCA). RESULTS: Although the majority of the persons could access health care, health exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) was the main determinant of lack of access to medicines. The characteristics of housing (OR 0.747, 95% CI), formal employment of head of the household (OR 0.707, 95% CI), and socioeconomic status of the household (OR 0.462, 95% CI) were also important determinants of lack of access to medicines. CONCLUSIONS: The phenomena of lack of access to health services and medicines are not independent from one another. It was corroborated that the health system, as an intermediate social determinant of health, is an important factor for improvement of access to medicines. Public policies that aim to achieve universal coverage should consider this relationship in order to be effective.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Guatemala , Honduras , Nicarágua , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 47(2): 292-300, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24037356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire evaluating adhesion to treatment for arterial hypertension from its original Spanish version to a Portuguese version, to be applied in Brazil. METHODS: In order to establish conceptual, semantic and operational equivalents of the items, two independent translations to Portuguese, and two back-translations into Spanish were performed. The translations and back-translations were assessed for changes in referential and general meanings. The synthesis of the translations was applied in pre-tests with patients with arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, which were important to identify different problems and confirm earlier decisions. RESULTS: In general, the second translation and back translation were evaluated more positively because the translation process did not affect the meanings in five of the twelve items of the questionnaire. Operational changes were made and a vignette with response options and an example included in the instrument facilitated application in interviews. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in the process of evaluating the items' conceptual, semantic and operational equivalence allowed the construction of a Portuguese version of the MBG questionnaire to assess adherence to treatment which can be applied in the Brazilian context.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/terapia , Adesão à Medicação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Traduções , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Características Culturais , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Linguagem , Semântica
14.
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(2): 292-300, jun. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-685578

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Descrever etapas da adaptação transcultural de questionário de avaliação de adesão terapêutica em hipertensão arterial, desenvolvido no idioma espanhol, para aplicação ao contexto brasileiro. MÉTODOS: A fim de estabelecer equivalências conceitual, de itens, semântica e operacional, foram realizadas duas traduções para o português de modo independente e duas retraduções para o espanhol. Traduções e retraduções foram avaliadas quanto à alteração nos significados referencial e geral. Realizaram-se duas aplicações de pré-testes com pacientes hipertensos e/ou diabéticos, com a versão síntese, que contribuíram para identificar diferentes problemas e confirmar decisões tomadas. RESULTADOS: A segunda tradução e retradução foram mais bem avaliadas, pois não houve alteração dos significados para cinco dos 12 itens do questionário. Foram feitas alterações operacionais, e uma vinheta com as opções de resposta e um exemplo no enunciado do instrumento facilitaram a aplicação nas entrevistas. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos na avaliação das equivalências conceitual, de itens, semântica e operacional permitiram chegar a uma versão em português do questionário MBG para avaliar adesão terapêutica para aplicação no contexto brasileiro. .


OBJETIVO: Describir etapas de la adaptación transcultural de cuestionario de evaluación de adhesión terapéutica en hipertensión arterial desarrollado en el idioma español para aplicación al contexto brasileño. MÉTODOS: con el fin de establecer equivalencias conceptual, de itens, semántica y operativa, se realizaron dos traducciones al portugués de modo independiente y dos re-traducciones al español. Traducciones y re-traducciones fueron evaluadas con relación a la alteración en los significados referencial y general. Se realizaron dos aplicaciones de pre-pruebas con pacientes hipertensos y/o diabéticos, con la versión síntesis que contribuyeron a identificar diferentes problemas y confirmar decisiones tomadas. RESULTADOS: la segunda traducción y re-traducción fueron evaluadas, pues no hubo alteración de los significados en cinco de los 12 itens del cuestionario. Se realizaron alteraciones operativas y una viñeta con las opciones de respuesta y un ejemplo en el enunciado del instrumento facilitaron la aplicación en las entrevistas. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados obtenidos en la evaluación de las equivalencias conceptual, de itens, semántica y operativa permitieron llegar a una versión en portugués del cuestionario MBG para evaluar adhesión terapéutica para la aplicación en el contexto brasileño. .


OBJECTIVE To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire evaluating adhesion to treatment for arterial hypertension from its original Spanish version to a Portuguese version, to be applied in Brazil. METHODS In order to establish conceptual, semantic and operational equivalents of the items, two independent translations to Portuguese, and two back-translations into Spanish were performed. The translations and back-translations were assessed for changes in referential and general meanings. The synthesis of the translations was applied in pre-tests with patients with arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, which were important to identify different problems and confirm earlier decisions. RESULTS In general, the second translation and back translation were evaluated more positively because the translation process did not affect the meanings in five of the twelve items of the questionnaire. Operational changes were made and a vignette with response options and an example included in the instrument facilitated application in interviews. CONCLUSIONS The results obtained in the process of evaluating the items’ conceptual, semantic and operational equivalence allowed the construction of a Portuguese version of the MBG questionnaire to assess adherence to treatment which can be applied in the Brazilian context. .


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Adesão à Medicação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Traduções , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Características Culturais , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Linguagem , Semântica
15.
BMJ Open ; 3(5)2013 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23645920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess scientific publication and map research gaps on access to medicines (ATM) in Latin American and the Caribbean low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). DESIGN: Scoping review. Two independent reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data from each study. INFORMATION SOURCES: Search strategies were developed and the following databases were searched: MEDLINE, ISI, SCOPUS and Lilacs, from 2000 to 2010. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Research articles and reviews published in English, Spanish and Portuguese were included. Studies including only high-income countries were excluded, as well as those carried out in very limited settings and discussion papers. RESULTS: The 77 articles retained were categorised through consensus among the research team according to the level of the health system addressed, ATM domain and research issues covered. Publications on ATM have increased over time during the study period (r 0.93, p=0.00; R(2) 0.85). The top five countries covered were Brazil (68.8%), Mexico (15.6%), Colombia (11.7%), Argentina (10.4%) and Peru (10.4%). 'Health services delivery' and 'patients, household and communities' were the health system levels most frequently covered. The ATM domains 'leadership and governance', 'sustainable financing, affordability and price of medicines', 'medicines selection and use' and 'availability of medicines' were the top four explored. There are research gaps in important areas such as 'human resources for health', 'global policies and human rights', 'production of medicines' and 'traditional medicine'. CONCLUSIONS: The upward trend on scientific publication reflects a growing research capacity in the region, which is concentrated on research teams in selected countries. The gaps on research capacity could be overcome through research collaboration among countries. It is important to strengthen these collaborations, assuring that interests and needs from the LMIC are addressed and local capacity building is promoted.

16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 17(1): 203-14, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22218553

RESUMO

A criterion is a typical tool in the evaluation field that can be defined as a standard-dimension under which the object of an evaluation receives qualitative or quantitative judgments. During an evaluation, several rigorous methodological procedures are involved in development and application of suitable criteria to determine the value of the object being evaluated. This article presents a set of criteria to evaluate user satisfaction with HIV/Aids-related pharmaceutical delivery services. The criteria construction process involved consensus amongst different experts, from academia, NGOs, management, by means of the Delphi technique. This technique prescribes a series of formal steps towards a consensus of experts, based on pre-structured methodology and processes. The findings were systematically organized in a structure under which the resulting satisfaction criteria are hierarchically organized. Results suggest the importance of developing a methodological strategy in evaluation that involves participation of different actors and of enhancing knowledge on user satisfaction and pharmaceutical delivery services for HIV/Aids.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Técnica Delfos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 17(1): 203-214, jan. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-610672

RESUMO

Critério é uma ferramenta típica da avaliação e pode ser definido como uma dimensão-padrão em função da qual a realidade do objeto da avaliação receberá julgamento qualitativo e/ou quantitativo. Em uma avaliação, o procedimento de elaborar, esclarecer, negociar e aplicar critérios para determinar o valor (ou mérito) do objeto avaliado faz parte de um exercício metodológico que deve ser cuidadoso. Este artigo apresenta critérios de julgamento para avaliar a satisfação dos usuários com a dispensação dos medicamentos para o tratamento do HIV/Aids e seu processo de construção por meio de consenso entre diferentes atores sociais. Para estabelecer o consenso utilizou-se técnica de Delfos, uma técnica formal utilizada para consenso de especialistas com metodologia e processos estruturados. Neste estudo, foram considerados especialistas aqueles com experiência acadêmica e em gestão, bem como ativistas informados e comprometidos com a questão. Os achados foram sistematizados sob a forma de uma nova estrutura de satisfação, sob a qual os critérios construídos são articulados hierarquicamente. Buscou-se contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma estratégia metodológica participativa em avaliação e ampliar o conhecimento sobre a satisfação dos usuários e a dispensação dos medicamentos para HIV/Aids.


A criterion is a typical tool in the evaluation field that can be defined as a standard-dimension under which the object of an evaluation receives qualitative or quantitative judgments. During an evaluation, several rigorous methodological procedures are involved in development and application of suitable criteria to determine the value of the object being evaluated. This article presents a set of criteria to evaluate user satisfaction with HIV/Aids-related pharmaceutical delivery services. The criteria construction process involved consensus amongst different experts, from academia, NGOs, management, by means of the Delphi technique. This technique prescribes a series of formal steps towards a consensus of experts, based on pre-structured methodology and processes. The findings were systematically organized in a structure under which the resulting satisfaction criteria are hierarchically organized. Results suggest the importance of developing a methodological strategy in evaluation that involves participation of different actors and of enhancing knowledge on user satisfaction and pharmaceutical delivery services for HIV/Aids.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Técnica Delfos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 16(12): 4833-4844, dez. 2011. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-606609

RESUMO

Brazil was the first developing country to provide people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) with comprehensive, universal, free access to antiretroviral medicines (ARV). Pharmaceutical services are considered a strategic action that has the goal of providing access to rational use of quality medicines while also promoting user satisfaction. User satisfaction is a complex concept, and evaluation models for pharmaceutical services for PLWA were not found in the literature. Therefore, an evaluation approach to help assess this issue had to be developed. This article seeks to describe a theoretical evaluation model of user satisfaction with the dispensing of ARV, developed as part of an Evaluability Assessment (EA). It presents a brief review of the EA and user satisfaction and describes the development of models created during the EA. The lessons learned in the process are presented as a conclusion.


O Brasil foi o primeiro país em desenvolvimento a fornecer medicamentos antiretrovirais (ARV) de forma integral, universal e gratuita às pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids (PVHA). A Assistência Farmacêutica é considerada uma ação estratégica e busca prover acesso a medicamentos de qualidade, com uso racional, promovendo a satisfação dos usuários. Satisfação do usuá-rio é um conceito complexo e modelos para avaliarem serviços farmacêuticos para PVHA não são encontrados na literatura. Este artigo objetiva descrever o desenvolvimento de três modelos criados em um Estudo de Avaliabilidade (EA). É apresentada uma breve revisão dos conceitos de EA e de Satisfação do Usuário. As lições apreendidas no processo são apresentadas como conclusão.


Assuntos
Humanos , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Modelos Teóricos , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 16(12): 4833-44, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22124923

RESUMO

Brazil was the first developing country to provide people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) with comprehensive, universal, free access to antiretroviral medicines (ARV). Pharmaceutical services are considered a strategic action that has the goal of providing access to rational use of quality medicines while also promoting user satisfaction. User satisfaction is a complex concept, and evaluation models for pharmaceutical services for PLWA were not found in the literature. Therefore, an evaluation approach to help assess this issue had to be developed. This article seeks to describe a theoretical evaluation model of user satisfaction with the dispensing of ARV, developed as part of an Evaluability Assessment (EA). It presents a brief review of the EA and user satisfaction and describes the development of models created during the EA. The lessons learned in the process are presented as a conclusion.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Modelos Teóricos , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Humanos
20.
Cad Saude Publica ; 25(7): 1597-609, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19578581

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a user satisfaction scale regarding the Brazilian National STD/AIDS Program, specifically related to dispensing AIDS medicines. The scale was developed and applied in a study covering 10 Brazilian States that evaluated the quality of medicine dispensing. The questionnaire was answered by 1,412 people living with HIV and undergoing antiretroviral therapy. Construct validation involved two stages of factor analysis. The item-total correlation matrix was analyzed, and tests for associations between the target variable, socio-demographic variables, and related constructs were performed. Reliability was studied by means of the sub-scales' internal consistency, estimated by Cronbach's alpha. Five relevant satisfaction dimensions were identified. A moderate level of internal consistency was found for these dimensions, suggesting they were adequate. The results of the association tests agreed with other studies reported in the literature. We conclude that the instrument is appropriate for application in similar populations with adequate psychometric characteristics and serves to measure users' assessments of the pharmaceutical services received and helps to orient improvements in such services.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/provisão & distribução , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/normas , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Brasil , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Psicometria , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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