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2.
Int J Cosmet Sci ; 41(6): 617-623, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In vitro assessments of skin absorption of xenobiotics are essential for toxicological evaluations and bioavailability studies of cosmetic and pharmaceutical ingredients. Since skin metabolism can greatly contribute to xenobiotic absorption, experiments need to be performed with skin explants kept viable in suitable survival media. Existing protocols for non-viable skin are modified to consider those conditions. The objective was to design a survival medium used as an acceptor fluid in Franz cells for testing cutaneous penetration of hydrophilic or lipophilic molecules. Their metabolism inside skin may be investigated under the same conditions. The determining factors involved in survival mechanisms in vitro are discussed. The consequences of short-term skin preservation at 4°C were also evaluated. METHODS: The metabolic activity of fresh skin samples mounted in Franz cells was studied by measurement of lactate release over 24 h in order to assess the impacts of pH, buffering, osmolality, ionic strength, initial glucose supply and the addition of ethanol or non-ionic surfactant in the acceptor part of Franz cells. CONCLUSION: Survival media must maintain physiological pH (>5.5) be isotonic with skin cells (300 mOsm kg-1 ) and contain at least 0.5 g L-1 glucose. Several compositions able to preserve skin metabolism are reported. Storage of skin explants overnight at 4°C impairs skin metabolic activity. The present work provides guidelines for designing survival media according to constraints related to the scientific requirements of the experiments.

3.
Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol ; 51(5): 206-212, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287265

RESUMO

Summary: Introduction. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with Pru p 3 can prevent severe allergic reactions to LTP-containing foods, but the standard initiation protocol is time-consuming. Objectives. Establish the safety of a novel ultra-rush initiation protocol for SLIT with Pru p 3. Methods. Prospective study comparing the side effects of the standard vs novel ultra-rush initiation protocols of SLIT with Pru p 3 in patients with anaphylaxis to LTP. Results. Fifteen patients were included (standard initiation, 5; ultra-rush initiation, 10), 80% females. All patients had oropharyngeal pruritus during initiation, 80% with spontaneous recovery, but no other gastro-intestinal, respiratory, cutaneous or systemic side effects occurred in any patient of both groups. Conclusion. The novel ultra-rush protocol halved the build-up time without increasing side effects.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 311-320, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-989459

RESUMO

Abstract The present paper addresses the feeding activity of Trachinotus cayennensis, collected in Lençóis Bay (1°18'S - 1°19'S; 44°51'W - 44°53'W) on the western coast of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Sampling was conducted between June 2012 and June 2013 using driftnets with stretch mesh sizes from 95 to 100 mm. A total of 205 individuals (114 females and 91 males) were analyzed. Statistically significant differences in the sex ratio were found in June, September and December 2012. Food items were analyzed based on frequency of occurrence and volumetric method, with the subsequent calculation of the alimentary importance index. Three size groups were defined to determine possible ontogenetic changes in eating habits based on the size range of the individuals collected: I (˂ 29 cm), II (29.1 to 37.0) and III (≥ 37.1). Eleven food item categories were identified: mollusks, polychaetes, crustaceans, nematodes, insects, algae, bryozoans, ophiuroids, fishes, vegetal matter and sediments. The variety of items in the diet of T. cayennensis indicates considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic behavior. Seasonal variations influenced the feeding pattern of the species, with greater feeding activity in the dry season. The considerable availability of resources in estuarine habitats of the western coast of Maranhão constitutes another factor that influences the feeding behavior of this species.


Resumo Atividade alimentar do pampo Trachinotus cayennensis (Cuvier 1832) (Perciformes, Carangidae) em estuários na costa ocidental do Maranhão, Brasil. O presente trabalho descreve a atividade alimentar do Trachinotus cayennensis , coletado na Baía de Lençóis (1°18'S - 1°19'S; 44°51'W - 44°53'W) na costa oeste do Maranhão. Amostragens foram realizadas entre junho de 2012 e junho de 2013, utilizando redes de emalhar à deriva com tamanho de malha de 95 a 100 mm. Foram analisados ​​205 indivíduos (114 fêmeas e 91 machos). Encontraram-se diferenças estatisticamente significativas na proporção sexual nos meses de junho, setembro e dezembro de 2012. Os itens alimentares foram analisados ​​com base na frequência de ocorrência e utilizando o método volumétrico, com o subsequente cálculo do índice de importância alimentar. Três grupos de tamanho foram definidos para determinar possíveis mudanças ontogenéticas nos hábitos alimentares com base na faixa de tamanho dos indivíduos coletados: I (˂ 29 cm), II (29,1 a 37,0) e III (≥ 37,1). Foram identificadas 11 categorias de alimentos: moluscos, poliquetas, crustáceos, nematoides, insetos, algas, briozoários, ophiuro, peixes, matéria vegetal e sedimentos. A variedade de itens na dieta de T. cayennensis indica uma plasticidade alimentar considerável e um comportamento oportunista. As variações sazonais influenciaram o padrão alimentar da espécie, com maior atividade de alimentação na estação seca. A considerável disponibilidade de recursos nos habitats estuarinos da costa oeste do Maranhão constitui outro fator que exerce influência sobre o comportamento alimentar desta espécie.

5.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 47(2): 128-132, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-180800

RESUMO

Introduction: Beta-lactams are the most frequently used antibiotics in pediatric age. Anaphylactic reactions may occur and need to be properly studied, but studies in children are scarce. Objective: Characterization of case reports of anaphylaxis in children referred to an allergy department with suspected beta-lactams hypersensitivity. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of all children referred to our Drug Allergy Center with suspected beta-lactams hypersensitivity between January 2011 and December 2016. Description of the drug allergy work-up performed studied according to standardized diagnostic procedures of ENDA/EAACI, including specific-IgE assay, skin prick and intradermal tests and diagnostic/alternative drug challenge tests. Results: 146 children with suspected beta-lactams hypersensitivity were studied, and in 21 (14.4%) the diagnosis was confirmed. In all of them, except for three children, an alternative beta-lactam was found. In seven children (33.3% of those with confirmed beta-lactams hypersensitivity) anaphylaxis was confirmed, and all of them described reactions with cutaneous and respiratory or gastrointestinal involvement. The culprit drug was amoxicillin in six and flucloxacillin in one. In this sample, we also performed oral challenge with cefuroxime, being negative in all cases. Almost all cases of confirmed anaphylaxis (six from seven cases) were IgE mediated, with positive skin tests despite negative serum specific-IgE. Conclusions: Allergic reactions to beta-lactams, although rare in children, require a detailed clinical history and a specialized drug allergy work-up to allow a correct diagnosis as well as to avoid the possibility of a potential life-threatening reaction and provide alternative drugs


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Alérgenos/imunologia , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Pele/patologia , beta-Lactamas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Cutâneos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 47(2): 133-140, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-180801

RESUMO

Introduction: Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in children worldwide. Some children have severe and persistent CMPA, with near-fatal reactions after exposure to trace amounts of cow's milk-proteins (CMP). Strict avoidance diet is difficult, negatively affects quality of life and represents a conservative approach. Therefore, different therapeutic strategies are necessary. Objective: We aimed to assess long-term efficacy and safety of oral immunotherapy (OIT) in children with severe and long-lasting IgE-mediated CMPA. Materials and methods: The authors present four case reports of patients with CMPA who underwent CMP-OIT, that have been under long-term follow-up up to nine years. We provide information about the clinical and laboratory evaluation. Skin prick tests (SPT), specific IgE and IgG4 were performed before, during, and after OIT. Immune profile after OIT was assessed by flow cytometry (lymphocyte subsets, regulatory T and B cells). Results: The success rate was 100%, and all patients currently have a free diet with minimal diary ingestion of 200mL CMP or equivalent. Specific IgE levels and SPT to CMP have progressively decreased, and specific IgG4 levels have increased. CD4+CD25+CD127/dim regulatory T cells were increased after OIT. Conclusions: OIT ensured a clinical tolerance state after up to nine years, confirmed by both clinical and immune profile, allowing a diet without restrictions, with high satisfaction from patients and caregivers. We emphasize that OIT should be performed only by allergy experts in the hospital setting, and that only motivated families should be enrolled, since it is essential to ensure CMP daily intake at home


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Bovinos , Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/imunologia , Seguimentos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382497

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the carcass and meat of goats fed diets containing cactus meal (pectin source) replacing corn (starch source). Twenty-eight goats with an average initial weight of 16 ± 2.02 kg were confined in a completely randomized design with four treatments (the replacement levels of 0, 330, 660, and 1000 g kg-1 of dry matter) and seven replicates. The productive performance of the animals was not affected by the replacement of corn by cactus meal. The carcass commercial yield and the dressing percentage decreased with the addition of cactus meal levels in the diets. The commercial cuts, however, especially prime cuts like hind limbs and loin, were not changed by the use of cactus meal. Muscle:bone and fat:bone ratios and muscularity index of hind limbs were influenced by the substitution. The protein and ash contents of the longissimus lumborum muscle decreased while cholesterol levels increased with the presence of cactus meal. Sensory traits of goats' meat fed cactus meal in the diets were not affected. The substitution of corn for cactus meal reduced carcass yield but did not change the yield of commercial cuts or the qualitative characteristics of the meat.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482599

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in children worldwide. Some children have severe and persistent CMPA, with near-fatal reactions after exposure to trace amounts of cow's milk-proteins (CMP). Strict avoidance diet is difficult, negatively affects quality of life and represents a conservative approach. Therefore, different therapeutic strategies are necessary. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess long-term efficacy and safety of oral immunotherapy (OIT) in children with severe and long-lasting IgE-mediated CMPA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors present four case reports of patients with CMPA who underwent CMP-OIT, that have been under long-term follow-up up to nine years. We provide information about the clinical and laboratory evaluation. Skin prick tests (SPT), specific IgE and IgG4 were performed before, during, and after OIT. Immune profile after OIT was assessed by flow cytometry (lymphocyte subsets, regulatory T and B cells). RESULTS: The success rate was 100%, and all patients currently have a free diet with minimal diary ingestion of 200mL CMP or equivalent. Specific IgE levels and SPT to CMP have progressively decreased, and specific IgG4 levels have increased. CD4+CD25+CD127-/dim regulatory T cells were increased after OIT. CONCLUSIONS: OIT ensured a clinical tolerance state after up to nine years, confirmed by both clinical and immune profile, allowing a diet without restrictions, with high satisfaction from patients and caregivers. We emphasize that OIT should be performed only by allergy experts in the hospital setting, and that only motivated families should be enrolled, since it is essential to ensure CMP daily intake at home.

9.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 65(9): 534-536, nov. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177204

RESUMO

La cirugía del cáncer de mama generalmente se realiza bajo anestesia general o, más recientemente, combinada con técnicas regionales convencionales. El bloqueo de los nervios pectorales (PEC) aparece como una alternativa analgésica en estos procedimientos, pero pocos estudios la denominan una técnica anestésica única1-3. En este informe de caso, describimos a una paciente de 56 años de edad, con un índice de masa corporal de 31kg/m2, ASA IV, ingresada por tumorectomía electiva del cuadrante superior izquierdo de la mama y biopsia del ganglio centinela. Dadas las múltiples comorbilidades y el alto riesgo anestésico y quirúrgico, el plan anestésico consistió en bloqueo PEC II ecoguiado, como única técnica anestésica. Los autores informan del manejo exitoso de la anestesia y el dolor sin complicaciones en la cirugía de mamas. El bloqueo de los PEC, como técnica anestésica única, puede ser seguro, ventajoso y efectivo, con estabilidad hemodinámica y pocos efectos secundarios en pacientes cardiacos de alto riesgo


Breast cancer surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia or, more recently, combined with conventional regional techniques. Pectoral nerves (PECs) block appears as an analgesic alternative in these procedures, but few studies refer to it as a single anesthetic technique1-3. In this case report, we describe a 56-year-old female patient, BMI 31kg/m2, ASA IV, admitted for elective tumorectomy of the left upper quadrant of the breast and sentinel node investigation. Given the multiple comorbidities and the high anesthetic and surgical risk, the anaesthetic plan consisted in ultrasound guided PECs II block as a single anesthetic technique. The authors report a successful anesthetic and pain management without complications in breast surgery. PECs block, as a single anesthetic technique, may be safe, advantageous and effective with haemodynamic stability and few side effects in high risk cardiac patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Nervos Torácicos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Mastectomia/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos
10.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 65(8): 426-433, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297034

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Assessment of quality of recovery is important as an end-point for outcome research. This study aims to determine the incidence and determinants of poor quality of recovery (PQR) after surgery in patients scheduled for curative neoplastic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational prospective study was performed in consecutive patients undergoing surgery for cancer treatment. The Quality of Recovery 15 score (QoR-15) was applied on the day before surgery (T0) and 24h after (T1). PQR was defined for patients with a QoR-15 score lower than the mean QoR-15 score at T1 minus one standard deviation. Preoperative quality of life was assessed with EuroQol-5D. Frailty and disability were defined using Clinical Frailty Scale and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-eight patients were enrolled and 31 (15.9%) were identified as having PQR. At T0, patients with PQR presented lower scores on total QoR-15 (P=.03) and had more problems on EuroQol-5D in mobility (P=.014), self-care (P=.027) and usual activities domains (P=.019). The difference of QoR-15 score between T1 and T0 was higher in PQR patients (P<.001). PQR had more frequently Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI)≥2 (P=.012) and were more frequently frail (P=.03). PQR patients stayed longer in the hospital (P=.034). CONCLUSION: PQR patients had lower QoR-15 before surgery, poor quality of life, were more frequently frail and had high cardiac risk factors. PQR patients stayed longer in the hospital.

11.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 65(8): 426-433, oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177146

RESUMO

Introducción: Evaluar la calidad de la recuperación es importante como objetivo de la investigación de resultados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la incidencia y los factores determinantes de la mala calidad de la recuperación (MCR) después de la cirugía en pacientes sometidos a cirugías neoplásicas con intención curativa. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo en pacientes consecutivos sometidos a cirugía para el tratamiento del cáncer. La puntuación Quality of Recovery 15 (QoR-15) se aplicó antes de la cirugía (T0) y 24h después (T1). La MCR se definió para los pacientes con una puntuación QoR-15 inferior a la media en T1 menos una desviación estándar. La calidad de vida preoperatoria se evaluó con el cuestionario EuroQol-5D y se utilizaron las escalas Clinical Frailty Scale y World Health Organization Disability Assessement Schedule 2.0. Resultados: Se seleccionaron138 pacientes y se identificaron 31 (15,9%) con MCR. En T0, los pacientes con MCR presentaron puntuaciones totales más bajas en QoR-15 (p=0,03) y más problemas en EuroQol-5D en cuanto a movilidad (p=0,014), autocuidado (p=0,027) y actividades cotidianas (p=0,019). La diferencia de la puntuación QoR-15 entre T1 y T0 fue mayor en los pacientes con MCR (p<0,001), quienes tenían con más frecuencia un Índice de Riesgo Cardiovascular Revisado (RCRI)≥2 (p=0,012), reflejaron fragilidad más frecuentemente (p=0,03) y permanecieron más tiempo internados en el hospital (p=0,034). Conclusión: Los pacientes con MCR tuvieron puntuaciones de QoR-15 más bajas antes de la cirugía, peor calidad de vida, más fragilidad, tenían más factores de riesgo cardíaco y permanecieron más tiempo internados en el hospital


Introduction: Assessment of quality of recovery is important as an end-point for outcome research. This study aims to determine the incidence and determinants of poor quality of recovery (PQR) after surgery in patients scheduled for curative neoplastic surgery. Materials and methods: An observational prospective study was performed in consecutive patients undergoing surgery for cancer treatment. The Quality of Recovery 15 score (QoR-15) was applied on the day before surgery (T0) and 24h after (T1). PQR was defined for patients with a QoR-15 score lower than the mean QoR-15 score at T1 minus one standard deviation. Preoperative quality of life was assessed with EuroQol-5D. Frailty and disability were defined using Clinical Frailty Scale and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Results: One hundred and thirty-eight patients were enrolled and 31 (15.9%) were identified as having PQR. At T0, patients with PQR presented lower scores on total QoR-15 (P=.03) and had more problems on EuroQol-5D in mobility (P=.014), self-care (P=.027) and usual activities domains (P=.019). The difference of QoR-15 score between T1 and T0 was higher in PQR patients (P<.001). PQR had more frequently Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI)≥2 (P=.012) and were more frequently frail (P=.03). PQR patients stayed longer in the hospital (P=.034). Conclusion: PQR patients had lower QoR-15 before surgery, poor quality of life, were more frequently frail and had high cardiac risk factors. PQR patients stayed longer in the hospital


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/reabilitação , Recuperação Demorada da Anestesia , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Nível de Saúde , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Beta-lactams are the most frequently used antibiotics in pediatric age. Anaphylactic reactions may occur and need to be properly studied, but studies in children are scarce. OBJECTIVE: Characterization of case reports of anaphylaxis in children referred to an allergy department with suspected beta-lactams hypersensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all children referred to our Drug Allergy Center with suspected beta-lactams hypersensitivity between January 2011 and December 2016. Description of the drug allergy work-up performed studied according to standardized diagnostic procedures of ENDA/EAACI, including specific-IgE assay, skin prick and intradermal tests and diagnostic/alternative drug challenge tests. RESULTS: 146 children with suspected beta-lactams hypersensitivity were studied, and in 21 (14.4%) the diagnosis was confirmed. In all of them, except for three children, an alternative beta-lactam was found. In seven children (33.3% of those with confirmed beta-lactams hypersensitivity) anaphylaxis was confirmed, and all of them described reactions with cutaneous and respiratory or gastrointestinal involvement. The culprit drug was amoxicillin in six and flucloxacillin in one. In this sample, we also performed oral challenge with cefuroxime, being negative in all cases. Almost all cases of confirmed anaphylaxis (six from seven cases) were IgE mediated, with positive skin tests despite negative serum specific-IgE. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic reactions to beta-lactams, although rare in children, require a detailed clinical history and a specialized drug allergy work-up to allow a correct diagnosis as well as to avoid the possibility of a potential life-threatening reaction and provide alternative drugs.

13.
Braz J Biol ; 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133557

RESUMO

The present paper addresses the feeding activity of Trachinotus cayennensis, collected in Lençóis Bay (1°18'S - 1°19'S; 44°51'W - 44°53'W) on the western coast of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Sampling was conducted between June 2012 and June 2013 using driftnets with stretch mesh sizes from 95 to 100 mm. A total of 205 individuals (114 females and 91 males) were analyzed. Statistically significant differences in the sex ratio were found in June, September and December 2012. Food items were analyzed based on frequency of occurrence and volumetric method, with the subsequent calculation of the alimentary importance index. Three size groups were defined to determine possible ontogenetic changes in eating habits based on the size range of the individuals collected: I (˂ 29 cm), II (29.1 to 37.0) and III (≥ 37.1). Eleven food item categories were identified: mollusks, polychaetes, crustaceans, nematodes, insects, algae, bryozoans, ophiuroids, fishes, vegetal matter and sediments. The variety of items in the diet of T. cayennensis indicates considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic behavior. Seasonal variations influenced the feeding pattern of the species, with greater feeding activity in the dry season. The considerable availability of resources in estuarine habitats of the western coast of Maranhão constitutes another factor that influences the feeding behavior of this species.

14.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 65(9): 534-536, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037430

RESUMO

Breast cancer surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia or, more recently, combined with conventional regional techniques. Pectoral nerves (PECs) block appears as an analgesic alternative in these procedures, but few studies refer to it as a single anesthetic technique1-3. In this case report, we describe a 56-year-old female patient, BMI 31kg/m2, ASA IV, admitted for elective tumorectomy of the left upper quadrant of the breast and sentinel node investigation. Given the multiple comorbidities and the high anesthetic and surgical risk, the anaesthetic plan consisted in ultrasound guided PECs II block as a single anesthetic technique. The authors report a successful anesthetic and pain management without complications in breast surgery. PECs block, as a single anesthetic technique, may be safe, advantageous and effective with haemodynamic stability and few side effects in high risk cardiac patients.

15.
J Anim Sci ; 96(8): 3381-3397, 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767729

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to establish a protocol to validate urine spot samples to estimate N excretion and microbial synthesis in goat and sheep; and to study factors that affect daily creatinine and purine derivatives (PD) urinary excretion. Also a performance trial was carried out to compare goat and sheep slaughtered after different feedlot periods. Twelve Boer goats (20.6 kg ± 3.4 initial BW) and 12 Dorper sheep (18.4 kg ± 2.3 initial BW), all 4-mo-old, males, were used. Eight animals (4 goats and 4 sheep) were randomly allocated to be slaughtered at 28, 56, and 84 d in feedlot. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial scheme, in which the factors were both species and the 3 feedlot periods. Diet consisted of 50% sorghum silage and 50% concentrate on a DM basis. Nutrient intake was higher (P < 0.01) for sheep than goats. Apparent digestibility of nutrients was similar (P > 0.05) in both species. Sheep had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and final BW than goats. Fat deposition and fat:muscle ratio was higher (P < 0.01) in sheep carcasses. Sheep had higher N urinary (P = 0.02) excretion and N retention (g/d; P < 0.01) than goats. Urinary N excretion increased linearly (P < 0.01) in response to feedlot period. However, feedlot did not affect (P = 0.20) N retention, but linearly reduced the relationship between N retained and ingested (P = 0.04) or apparently digested (P < 0.01). Microbial efficiency (P > 0.05) did not differ between species. Creatinine excretion (C mg/d; P < 0.01) was higher in sheep than goats. Purine derivatives (Y) were related closely with OM intake (Y = 0.013±0.0007X; r2 = 94). A difference (P < 0.01) was found between the allometric model for creatinine excretion (Y) and muscle weight (X) for both species, and the following equations were obtained: Y = 89.04(±31.44)X0.9797(±0.16) for goats and Y = 109.8(±47.50)X0.8002(±0.20) for sheep. Creatinine concentration was greater during nocturnal than diurnal periods, with lower diurnal fluctuations. Sampling time did not affect (P = 0.27) the PD:C ratio. The urea (U):C ratio was higher (P < 0.01) in sheep than goats, and was also higher (P < 0.01) during diurnal than nocturnal sampling periods. Our results suggest that it is necessary to take 2 and 3 spot urine samples after feeding to estimate N compounds excretions in goats and sheep, respectively.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 630: 1365-1373, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554756

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess removal potential of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total phosphorus (TP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in synthetic wastewater simulating low-strength sewage by sequencing-batch mode constructed wetlands (CWs). Six CWs with three substrates (gravel, light expanded clay and clay bricks) and one CW of each substrate was planted with E. crassipes to verify the feasibility of using a floating macrophyte in CWs and verify the best optimized substrate. Results showed that the presence of E. crassipes enhanced the removal of COD for systems with gravel, increasing the removal efficiency from 37% in the unplanted system (CWG-U) to 60% in the planted system (CWG-P). The vegetated CW with clay bricks (CWB-P) presented the best performance for both TKN and TAN removal, with maximum removal efficiencies of 68% and 35%, respectively. Phosphorus was observed to be efficiently removed in systems with clay bricks, both planted (CWB-U) and unplanted (CWB-P), with mean removal efficiencies of 82% and 87%, respectively, probably via adsorption. It was also observed that after 296days of operation, no desorption or increase on phosphorus in effluent samples were observed, thus indicating that the material was not yet saturated and phosphorus probably presents a strong binding to the media. ASA removal efficiency varied from 34% to 92% in CWs, probably due to plant uptake through roots and microbial biodegradation. Plant direct uptake varied from 4 to 74% of the total nitrogen and from 26 to 71% of the total phosphorus removed in CWG-P, CWC-P and CWB-P. E. crassipes was able to uptake up to 4.19g of phosphorus in CWC-P and 11.84g of nitrogen in CWB-P. The findings on this study suggest that E. crassipes could be used in CWs and clay bricks could significantly enhance phosphorus removal capacity in CWs.


Assuntos
Plantas/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Nitrogênio , Fósforo/análise , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 101: 38-47, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174013

RESUMO

Endothelial cells line the vasculature and act as gatekeepers that control the passage of plasma, macromolecules and cells from the circulation to the interstitial space. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier can lead to uncontrolled leak or edema. Vascular leakage is a hallmark of a range of diseases and despite its large impact no specialized therapies are available to prevent or reduce it. RhoGTPases are known key regulators of cellular behavior that are directly involved in the regulation of the endothelial barrier. We recently performed a comprehensive analysis of the effect of all RhoGTPases and their regulators on basal endothelial integrity. In addition to novel positive regulators of endothelial barrier function, we also identified novel negative regulators, of which the ArhGAP45 (also known as HMHA1) was the most significant. We now demonstrate that ArhGAP45 acts as a Rac-GAP (GTPase-Activating Protein) in endothelial cells, which explains its negative effect on endothelial barrier function. Silencing ArhGAP45 not only promotes basal endothelial barrier function, but also increases cellular surface area and induces sprout formation in a 3D-fibrin matrix. Our data further shows that loss of ArhGAP45 promotes migration and shear stress adaptation. In conclusion, we identify ArhGAP45 (HMHA1) as a novel regulator, which contributes to the fine-tuning of the regulation of basal endothelial integrity.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade Capilar , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Impedância Elétrica , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Mecanotransdução Celular , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Ligação Proteica , Interferência de RNA , Estresse Mecânico , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(4): 1257-1265, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-946524

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho bioeconômico de bezerros, nos primeiros 60 dias de vida, submetidos a três sistemas de aleitamento. Foram utilizados 24 bezerros (Holandês x Guzerá), sendo 12 machos e 12 fêmeas, com peso inicial de 32,25±4,8kg para as fêmeas e 36,92±6,8kg para os machos. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (3 x 2). Os bezerros receberam água à vontade e seis litros de sucedâneo lácteo por dia, durante 60 dias, em três estratégias diferentes, denominadas sistema de aleitamento (SA30: 3 litros de sucedâneo lácteo, duas vezes ao dia, até 30 dias de idade; SA45: 3 litros de sucedâneo lácteo, duas vezes ao dia, até 45 dias de idade; SA49: 3 litros de sucedâneo lácteo, duas vezes ao dia, até 49 dias de idade). Os sistemas de aleitamento estudados não apresentaram diferença estatística (P>0,05) para o consumo e a digestibilidade de nutrientes, com exceção para o consumo de matéria orgânica (MO) e extrato etéreo (EE). Verificou-se interação (P<0,05) entre o sistema de aleitamento e a classe sexual para os consumos de MO e EE, bem como para o ganho médio diário, em que os machos do SA 49 apresentaram maiores médias em relação ao SA 30. O desempenho bioeconômico de bezerros machos do sistema de aleitamento 49 foi superior e apresentou a melhor relação custo-benefício entre os sistemas estudados.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioeconomic performance of calves in the first 60 days of life submitted to three feeding systems. Twenty-four calves (Dutch x Guzerá) were used, 12 males and 12 females, with initial weight of 32.25±4.8kg for females and 36.92±6.8kg for males. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a factorial scheme (3 x 2). The calves received water at will and six liters of milk replacer a day for 60 days in three different strategies, called the suckling system (SA-30: 3 liters of milk replacer, twice a day until 30 days of age; SA-45: 3 liters of milk replacer, twice a day until 45 days of age; SA-49: 3 liters of milk replacer, twice daily up to 49 days old). The lactation systems studied did not present statistical difference (P>0.05) for the consumption and digestibility of nutrients, except for organic matter (OM) and ethereal extract (EE). There was an interaction (P<0.05) between the suckling system and sexual class for the OM and EE intakes, as well as for the average daily gain, in which HS 49 males presented higher averages in relation to SA 30. The bioeconomic performance of male calves from the lactation system 49 was superior and presented the best cost-benefit ratio among the systems studied.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Aleitamento Materno , Bovinos/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10132, 2017 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28860633

RESUMO

Endothelial barrier function is carefully controlled to protect tissues from edema and damage inflicted by extravasated leukocytes. RhoGTPases, in conjunction with myriad regulatory proteins, exert both positive and negative effects on the endothelial barrier integrity. Precise knowledge about the relevant mechanisms is currently fragmented and we therefore performed a comprehensive analysis of endothelial barrier regulation by RhoGTPases and their regulators. Combining RNAi with electrical impedance measurements we quantified the relevance of 270 Rho-associated genes for endothelial barrier function. Statistical analysis identified 10 targets of which six promoted- and four reduced endothelial barrier function upon downregulation. We analyzed in more detail two of these which were not previously identified as regulators of endothelial integrity. We found that the Rac1-GEF (Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor) TIAM2 is a positive regulator and the Cdc42(Rac1)-GAP (GTPase-Activating Protein) SYDE1 is a negative regulator of the endothelial barrier function. Finally, we found that the GAP SYDE1 is part of a Cdc42-centered signaling unit, also comprising the Cdc42-GEF FARP1 and the Cdc42 effector PAK7 which controls the integrity of the endothelial barrier. In conclusion, using a siRNA-based screen, we identified new regulators of barrier function and found that Cdc42 is a dominant positive regulator of endothelial integrity.

20.
Toxicon ; 137: 150-157, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688807

RESUMO

This study compares the role of hepatic cytosolic glutathione transferases (cGST) isoforms of three different bivalve species to a Microcystis aeruginosa extract and purified MC-LR exposure (both at 150 µg MC-LR L-1) for 24 h. Characterization and alterations of the cytosolic GST activities in Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ruditapes philippinarum and Corbicula fluminea were measured using four class-specific substrates and changes in individual GST isoforms expression were achieved by a subsequent two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis. Evaluation of cGST activity basal levels using the four class-specific substrates denoted quantitative differences between the three bivalves. Purified MC-LR did not induce any significant response from bivalves. On the other hand, cell extracts caused significant alterations according to bivalves and substrates. Among the three bivalves, only R. philippinarum showed a significant induction of cGST activity using generic 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) substrate. However, no significant alterations were detected in these clams by cell extracts using the other specific substrates. In contrast, C. fluminea revealed significant induction of cGST activity when using 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene (DCNB) and ethacrynic acid (EA). In M. galloprovincialis, cell extracts promoted a significant decrease of cGST activity when using EA substrate. Altered protein expression was quantitatively detected upon exposure to cell extracts for one spot in R. philippinarum and another for C. fluminea, both upregulated (2.0 and 8.5-fold, respectively) and identified as a sigma1-class GST in the case of the first. The results showed that the three bivalves presented specific adaptive biotransformation responses to MCs and other cyanobacteria compounds supported by the modulation of distinct cGST classes.

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