Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 677
Filtrar
1.
Am J Surg ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small bowel obstructions (SBO) are one of the most common surgical emergencies, but they remain a major cause of high morbidity and mortality in patients with previous history of abdominal and pelvic surgery. Socioeconomic factors have not been extensively studied in surgical management of SBO. METHODS: We queried the 2016 NRD database for all surgically managed admissions ≥18 years of age with a primary diagnosis of SBO. The primary outcomes for this analysis were index admission mortality, 30-day mortality, and 30-day readmissions. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to examine the association between predictors and primary outcomes. RESULTS: Medicaid patients had a higher likelihood of index admission mortality. Medicare and Medicaid patients both had higher likelihoods of 30-day readmissions.results CONCLUSIONS: Careful consideration should be taken before deciding the optimal surgical approach in patients with SBO. Medicaid beneficiaries and those with existing comorbidities should receive careful post-operative follow-up to ensure optimal outcomes.

2.
Am Surg ; : 31348211011130, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residents to receive milestone-based evaluations in key areas. Shortcomings of the traditional evaluation system (TES) are a low completion rate and delay in completion. We hypothesized that adoption of a mobile evaluation system (MES) would increase the number of evaluations completed and improve their timeliness. METHODS: Traditional evaluations for a general surgery residency program were converted into a web-based form via a widely available, free, and secure application and implemented in August 2017. After 8 months, MES data were analyzed and compared to that of our TES. RESULTS: 122 mobile evaluations were completed; 20% were solicited by residents. Introduction of the MES resulted in an increased number of evaluations per resident (P = .0028) and proportion of faculty completing evaluations (P = .0220). Timeliness also improved, with 71% of evaluations being completed during one's clinical rotation. CONCLUSIONS: A resident-driven MES is an inexpensive and effective method to augment traditional end-of-rotation evaluations.

3.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 68, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892787

RESUMO

Most two-group statistical tests find broad patterns such as overall shifts in mean, median, or variance. These tests may not have enough power to detect effects in a small subset of samples, e.g., a drug that works well only on a few patients. We developed a novel statistical test targeting such effects relevant for clinical trials, biomarker discovery, feature selection, etc. We focused on finding meaningful associations in complex genetic diseases in gene expression, miRNA expression, and DNA methylation. Our test outperforms traditional statistical tests in simulated and experimental data and detects potentially disease-relevant genes with heterogeneous effects.

4.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671474

RESUMO

A series of carbosilane dendrimers of the 4th, 6th, and 7th generations with a terminal trimethylsilylsiloxane layer was synthesized. Theoretical models of these dendrimers were developed, and equilibrium dendrimer conformations obtained via molecular dynamics simulations were in a good agreement with experimental small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data demonstrating molecule monodispersity and an almost spherical shape. It was confirmed that the glass transition temperature is independent of the dendrimer generation, but is greatly affected by the chemical nature of the dendrimer terminal groups. A sharp increase in the zero-shear viscosity of dendrimer melts was found between the 5th and the 7th dendrimer generations, which was qualitatively identical to that previously reported for polycarbosilane dendrimers with butyl terminal groups. The viscoelastic properties of high-generation dendrimers seem to follow some general trends with an increase in the generation number, which are determined by the regular branching structure of dendrimers.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125524, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647620

RESUMO

In this work, fibrous silica-titania (FST) was successfully prepared by the microemulsion method prior to the addition of three types of carbonaceous materials: graphitic-carbon nitride, g-C3N4 (CN), graphene nanoplatelets (GN), and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, MWCNT (CNT), via a solid-state microwave irradiation technique. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, FESEM, TEM, FTIR, UV-Vis DRS, N2 adsorption-desorption, XPS and ESR, while their photoactivity was examined on the degradation of toxic 2-chlorophenol (2-CP). The result demonstrated that the initial reaction rate was in the following order: CNFST (5.1 × 10-3 mM min-1) > GNFST (2.5 × 10-3 mM min-1) > CNTFST (2.3 × 10-3 mM min-1). The best performance was due to the polymeric structure of g-C3N4 with a good dispersion of C and N on the surface FST. This dispersion contributed towards an appropriate quantity of defect sites, as a consequence of the greater interaction between g-C3N4 and the FST support, that led to narrowed of band gap energy (2.98 eV to 2.10 eV). The effect of scavenger and ESR studies confirmed that the photodegradation over CNFST occurred via a Z-scheme mechanism. It is noteworthy that the addition of green carbonaceous materials on the FST markedly enhanced the photodegradation of toxic 2-CP.

6.
Environ Technol ; : 1-13, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494654

RESUMO

In this study anodic oxidation of Cr2(SO4)3 was carried out in an air-sparged divided parallel plate cell. Variables studied were current density, Cr2(SO4)3 concentration, and superficial air velocity. The rate constant of Cr2(SO4)3 oxidation was found to increase with increasing current density and Cr2(SO4)3 concentration. The effect of air sparging was found to depend on Cr2(SO4)3 concentrations, at high Cr2(SO4)3 concentration (> 0.1 M) air sparging does not affect the rate constant of the reaction denoting that the reaction is charge transfer controlled. As Cr2(SO4)3 concentration decreases below 0.1 M the reaction becomes under mixed diffusion and chemical control and the rate constant increases with increasing air superficial velocity, the lower Cr2(SO4)3 concentration the higher the contribution of diffusion to the reaction rate. The current efficiency of the process ranged from 20 to 85% depending on current density and Cr2(SO4)3 concentration. Electrical energy consumption which ranged from 1.8 to 14.4 kW h/kg of Cr6+ was found to increase with increasing current density and decreases with increasing Cr2(SO4)3 concentration. Air sparging was found to decrease electrical energy consumption in the case of dilute solutions << 0.1 M Cr2(SO4)3.

7.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484589

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study evaluated, for the first time, the inhibitory effects of the filtrate of Purpureocillium lilacinum against Penicillium digitatum. METHODS AND RESULTS: No direct contact between P. lilacinum and P. digitatum was observed during the dual culture test and the inhibition zone was 6·1 mm. The filtrate of P. lilacinum completely inhibited P. digitatum growth and spore germination at the concentration of 64%. The filtrate increased the permeability of the cell membrane and the content of MDA in P. digitatum. The ergosterol content in P. digitatum was strongly inhibited at 32% by 81·1%. The green mould incidence and severity in filtrate-treated fruit at 64% were 71·7 and 80·7% lower than in the control, respectively. The filtrate enhanced the activity of PAL, PPO and POD enzymes in orange fruit. The POD and PAL gene expression levels were significantly upregulated in the fruit treated with the filtrate. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that the antifungal mechanism of P. lilacinum filtrate against P. digitatum is mainly by the damage of the fungal cell membrane and its components. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This work provides the pioneer evidence on the application of P. lilacinum filtrate as a novel biocontrol agent for orange green mould.

8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 103, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417110

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of supplementation of L-arginine (AR) on sub-fertile buffalo-bulls' ejaculates, 25 ejaculates of poor motility (40 to 55%) were collected by artificial vagina from 5 buffalo-bulls and extended with Tris-yolk extender (1:10) supplemented with different concentrations of AR (0, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mM). Semen was cooled gradually to 4 °C within 2 h and incubated at 4 °C for additional 2 h. Incubated semen samples were evaluated by computer-assisted semen analysis. Results showed that addition of 5 mM AR increased (P < 0.05) total sperm motility and rapid progressive motility percentages, while decreased (P < 0.05) non-motile sperm and static sperm percentages compared with AR-free (control) extender. Increasing the AR level to 6 mM increased (P < 0.05) the percentages of sperm progressive motility and rapid and slow progressive motilities, while decreased (P < 0.05) the non-progressive sperm motility percentages compared with AR-free extender. Supplementation of 5 mM AR improved (P < 0.05) sperm straight linear, curve linear, and average path velocities (36 ± 0.13, 20.6 ± 5.3, and 33.2 ± 8.5, respectively) in comparing with control and other AR treatments. Addition of AR (5 and 6 mM) improved (P < 0.05) the percentages of vitality (89.8 ± 1.9 and 80.0 ± 3.4, respectively), normality (44.3 ± 3.6 and 44.8 ± 1.5, respectively), and functional sperm (20.4 ± 8.6 and 21.0 ± 0.61, respectively), and decreased abnormal neck and tail percentages compared with AR-free extender. All AR levels decreased (P < 0.05) the abnormal neck and tail percentages. Addition of all AR levels had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase in semen extender. Supplementation of Tris-yolk extender with L-arginine (5 or 6 mM) can improve sperm motility, velocity, vitality, and functional sperm and can decrease tail and neck abnormalities of sub-fertile buffalo ejaculate after 4 h incubation at cool temperature.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Búfalos/fisiologia , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Arginina/metabolismo , Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores/administração & dosagem , Crioprotetores/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Neurobiol Dis ; 149: 105225, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347974

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body diseases (LBD), and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) spectrum are defined by the accumulation of specific misfolded protein aggregates. However, the mechanisms by which each proteinopathy leads to neurodegeneration remain elusive. We hypothesized that there is a common "pan-neurodegenerative" gene expression signature driving pathophysiology across these clinically and pathologically diverse proteinopathies. To test this hypothesis, we performed a systematic review of human CNS transcriptomics datasets from AD, LBD, and ALS-FTD patients and age-matched controls in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and ArrayExpress databases, followed by consistent processing of each dataset, meta-analysis, pathway enrichment, and overlap analyses. After applying pre-specified eligibility criteria and stringent data pre-processing, a total of 2600 samples from 26 AD, 21 LBD, and 13 ALS-FTD datasets were included in the meta-analysis. The pan-neurodegenerative gene signature is characterized by an upregulation of innate immunity, cytoskeleton, and transcription and RNA processing genes, and a downregulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Pathway enrichment analyses also revealed the upregulation of neuroinflammation (including Toll-like receptor, TNF, and NFκB signaling) and phagocytosis, and the downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, lysosomal acidification, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. Our findings suggest that neuroinflammation and a failure in both neuronal energy metabolism and protein degradation systems are consistent features underlying neurodegenerative diseases, despite differences in the extent of neuronal loss and brain regions involved.

10.
J Surg Res ; 257: 50-55, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency general surgery (EGS) has high rates of morbidity, mortality, and readmission. Therefore, it might be expected that an EGS service fields many consultations for postoperative patients. However, with the known overutilization of emergency department visits for nonurgent conditions, we hypothesized most postoperative consults received by an EGS service would be nonurgent and could be appropriately managed as an outpatient. METHODS: We reviewed all EGS consults at a single urban safety net hospital over a 12-month period, screening for patients who had undergone surgery in the previous 12 mo. This included consultations from the emergency room and inpatient setting. Demographics, admission status, procedures performed, and other details were abstracted from the chart and Vizient reports. Consultation questions were categorized and then reviewed by an expert panel to determine if conditions could have been managed as an outpatient. RESULTS: The EGS service received a total of 1112 consults, with 99 (9%) for a postoperative condition. Overall, 85% of postoperative consults were admitted after consultation, 19% underwent surgery and 21% underwent a procedure with gastroenterology or interventional radiology. Expert review classified slightly over one-third (36%) of consults as nonurgent. CONCLUSIONS: Most postoperative consults seen at our urban safety net hospital represent true morbidity that required admission, intervention, or surgery. Despite this high acuity, one-third of postoperative consults could have been managed as an outpatient. Efforts to improve discharge instructions and set patient expectations could limit unnecessary postoperative emergency department visits.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Urbanos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Chemosphere ; : 129026, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250225

RESUMO

Agriculture is the backbone of most developing countries, and most of their people depend on it for their livelihood. The world population is increased by approximately 83 million people each year, so there is a need to increase agricultural productivity. At present, productivity growth can be achieved either by expanding the area cultivated or increasing crop yields through improving the efficiency of fertilizers used. Therefore, there has been a trend to use modern technologies, such as nanotechnology (NT), to increase the productivity of plants. Where, it is involved in the food production process, from planting to packaging. NT improves plants' ability to absorb nutrients, and the agronomic properties of soil, which improves plant growth and productivity. Economically, NT increased the efficiency of nano-fertilizers, and so contributed to increasing productivity and the production of crops. However, the study of the effect of nanotechnology on the environment of soils and plants did not receive the required study. In this review, a comprehensive survey is exhibited on NT as an effective method in dealing with the problem of fertilizer loss during irrigation. This review discusses the technologies and applications of the latest research findings in this field. Furthermore, this review deals with the forms and types of nanoparticles and the methods of their transmission in plants, as well as their effect on plants (physiological and DNA) as well as on those who eat those plants.

12.
J Invest Surg ; : 1-6, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic opioid use is prevalent among patients undergoing emergent surgery. We sought to understand it on the outcomes of the most common emergency surgery procedures, Appendectomy and Cholecystectomy. METHODS: We used the National Inpatient Sample to identify chronic opioid use in emergency appendectomies (n = 953) and cholecystectomies (n = 2826) from 2005 to 2014. Primary outcome was length of stay (LOS), and secondary outcomes included total charges and mortality. LOS was analyzed with multivariate Poisson regression, total charges with multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: For Appendectomy, the opioid abuse group was younger, had similar gender and racial demographics, had more Medicaid and private insurance and less self-pay, and had no clinically significant differences in comorbidities. Those with chronic opioid use had a 24% increased LOS (20-29%, p < .001) and $5532(±$881, p < .001) higher hospital charges. Mortality was very rare and not different (0.2% vs 0.6%, aOR 0.54 [0.11-2.58], p = .44). For Cholecystectomy, the opioid abuse group was similar in age and gender, had slightly more white individuals, had a slightly different payor mix including higher rate of private insurance, and had no clinically significant differences in comorbidities. Patients with preoperative chronic opioid abuse showed a 14% increased LOS (12-16%, p < .001) and $5352 (± $1065, p < .001) higher hospital charges, but no significant increase in mortality (0.7% vs 0.6%, aOR 1.58 [0.77-3.25], p = .22). CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic opioid abuse did not have increased mortality following EGS but had increased resource utilization and LOS. These findings may help explore the impact of opioid abuse on hospital and societal cost.

13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202266

RESUMO

The current work focuses on a cheap and simple preparation of highly conducting chitosan/hydroxyl ethylcellulose/polyaniline loaded with graphene oxide doped by silver nanoparticles (CS/HEC/PAni/GO@Ag) bionanocomposite as a biodegradable and biocompatible hydrogel for energy storage technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displays the compatibility of chitosan, hydroxyl ethyl cellulose, and polyaniline and a good distribution of GO@Ag-NPs in bionanocomposite hydrogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) displayed the structure and existence of GO@Ag-NPs in the matrix. The swelling percentage and the antibacterial activities slightly increased with raising the content of GO@Ag-NPs. Also, the presence of both chitosan and cellulose improves the biodegradation of the fabricated bionanocomposites, which is increased by adding GO. Moreover, the incorporation of 5% GO@Ag-NPs in hydrogels enhances dc-conductivity by about 25 times from 3.37 × 10-3 to 8.53 × 10-2 S/cm. The fabricated hydrogels are inexpensive, eco-friendly, and have high capacitance and permittivity, and so they can store electrical energy.

14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186652

RESUMO

According to the World Health Organization, nearly a billion people do not have incoming to pure drinking water and much of that water is contaminated with high levels of heavy elements. In this study, adsorption of lead ions has been studied by nanocomposites which prepared through acrylic acid grafting and amino-functionalized magnetized (FM-NPs) TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TEMPO-CNF). The amino-functionalized magnetite was acting as a crosslinked. The crystallinity of TEMPO-CNF was 75 with a 4-10 nm diameter range, while the average particle size of FM-NPs was 30 nm. The adsorption studies illustrated that the elimination efficiency of lead ions was 80% by the prepared nanocomposite that includes a minimum amount of crosslinker (1%), which demonstrated that the magnetic grafted oxidized cellulose nanofiber nanocomposite is a promising green adsorbent material to eliminate heavy metal ions and is additionally easy to get rid of due to its magnetic property. The kinetics and isotherms studied found that the sorption reaction follows a pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.997) and Freundlich model (R2 = 0.993), respectively, this indicated that the adsorption of lead ion occurs within the pores and via the functional groups present on the nanocomposite.

15.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019543

RESUMO

Compatible green polymer electrolytes based on methyl cellulose (MC) were prepared for energy storage electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) application. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted for structural investigation. The reduction in the intensity of crystalline peaks of MC upon the addition of sodium iodide (NaI) salt discloses the growth of the amorphous area in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). Impedance plots show that the uppermost conducting electrolyte had a smaller bulk resistance. The highest attained direct current DC conductivity was 3.01 × 10-3 S/cm for the sample integrated with 50 wt.% of NaI. The dielectric analysis suggests that samples in this study showed non-Debye behavior. The electron transference number was found to be lower than the ion transference number, thus it can be concluded that ions are the primary charge carriers in the MC-NaI system. The addition of a relatively high concentration of salt into the MC matrix changed the ion transfer number from 0.75 to 0.93. From linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), the green polymer electrolyte in this work was actually stable up to 1.7 V. The consequence of the cyclic voltammetry (CV) plot suggests that the nature of charge storage at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces is a non-Faradaic process and specific capacitance is subjective by scan rates. The relatively high capacitance of 94.7 F/g at a sweep rate of 10 mV/s was achieved for EDLC assembly containing a MC-NaI system.

16.
J Surg Res ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. We developed and validated an artificial neural network (ANN) model for the prediction of surgical outcomes and the analysis of risk factors for inguinal hernia repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was used to find patients who underwent inguinal hernia repair. Using logistic regression and ANN models, we evaluated morbidity, readmission, and mortality using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, true-positive rate, true-negative rate, false-positive rate, and false-negative rates. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the power of the ANN and logistic regression for predicting mortality, readmission, and all morbidities after inguinal hernia repair. Risk factors for morbidity, readmission, and mortality outcomes identified using ANN were consistent with logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: ANNs perform comparably to logistic regression models in the prediction of outcomes after inguinal hernia repair. ANNs may be a useful tool in risk factor analysis of hernia surgery and clinical applications.

17.
Surg J (N Y) ; 6(3): e164-e166, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005735

RESUMO

Introduction Traumatic diaphragm rupture injury repairs are predominately performed through thoracotomy, laparotomy, or a combination of the two approaches. While open surgery is often necessary to follow the fundamentals of damage-control operations in unstable or polytrauma patients, minimally invasive surgery may be an alternative for those with a low injury burden to reduce the postoperative morbidities associated with open operations. Case Description We describe the first case of a right-sided diaphragm rupture from blunt trauma that was repaired by a robotic transthoracic approach in the index admission. Conclusion Minimally invasive repair of an acute traumatic diaphragm rupture is feasible in selected trauma patients.

18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 78(1): 467-477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The APOEɛ4 allele is the largest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent literature suggested that the contribution of APOEɛ4 to AD risk could be population-specific, with ɛ4 conferring a lower risk to Blacks or African Americans. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of APOE haplotypes on AD risk in individuals with European ancestry (EU) and Blacks or African Americans (AA). METHODS: We selected data from 1) the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center: a total of 3,486 AD cases and 4,511 controls (N = 7,997, 60% female) with genotypes from the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC), and 2) the Rush University Religious Orders Study and Memory and Aging Project (ROSMAP) cohort with 578 AD and 670 controls (N = 1,248, 60% female). Using ɛ3 homozygotes as the reference, we compared the association of various APOE haplotypes with the clinical and neuropathological correlates of dementia in AA and EU. RESULTS: In both cohorts, we find no difference in the odds or age of onset of AD among the ɛ4-linked haplotypes defined by rs769449 within either AA or EU. Additionally, while APOEɛ4 was associated with a faster rate of decline, no differences were found in rate of decline, clinical or neuropathological features among the ɛ4-linked haplotypes. Further analysis with other variants near the APOE locus failed to identify any effect modification. CONCLUSION: Our study finds similar effects of the ɛ4-linked haplotypes defined by rs769449 on AD as compared to ɛ3 in both AA and EU. Future studies are required to understand the heterogeneity of APOE conferred risk of AD among various genotypes and populations.

19.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987643

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major causes of death in the world. There are two types of DM-type 1 DM and type 2 DM. Type 1 DM can only be treated by insulin injection whereas type 2 DM is commonly treated using anti-hyperglycemic agents. Despite its effectiveness in controlling blood glucose level, this therapeutic approach is not able to reduce the decline in the number of functional pancreatic ß cells. MST1 is a strong pro-apoptotic kinase that is expressed in pancreatic ß cells. It induces ß cell death and impairs insulin secretion. Recently, a potent and specific inhibitor for MST1, called XMU-MP-1, was identified and characterized. We hypothesized that treatment with XMU-MP-1 would produce beneficial effects by improving the survival and function of the pancreatic ß cells. We used INS-1 cells and STZ-induced diabetic mice as in vitro and in vivo models to test the effect of XMU-MP-1 treatment. We found that XMU-MP-1 inhibited MST1/2 activity in INS-1 cells. Moreover, treatment with XMU-MP-1 produced a beneficial effect in improving glucose tolerance in the STZ-induced diabetic mouse model. Histological analysis indicated that XMU-MP-1 increased the number of pancreatic ß cells and enhanced Langerhans islet area in the severe diabetic mice. Overall, this study showed that MST1 could become a promising therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus.

20.
Updates Surg ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880870

RESUMO

To assess the association between low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among participants undergoing general surgery. LMWH and UFH are the standard of practice in the prevention of VTE in surgery. However, in the context of general surgery, studies comparing the effectiveness of these treatments are limited. A systematic search was conducted to find studies which examined the comparative effectiveness between LMWH and UFH in the prophylaxis of VTE in the context of general surgery. The number of events of VTE in groups receiving LMWH or UFH was the primary outcome of interest, and was used to calculate odds-ratios. Amongst 33,068 participants pooled from twelve studies, the rate of VTE was 1.3% in those treated with LMWH, and 3.1% in those treated with UFH. Although there was a wide difference in rates due to clinical heterogeneity, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment effects [OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.58-1.03; p value = 0.0783; I2= 62.3%; 12 studies]. In terms of the sensitivity analysis, sources overly contributing to heterogeneity were removed. The random-effects model continued to show insignificance between LMWH and UFH in the prevention of VTE in participants undergoing general surgery [OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.69-1.08; p value = 0.2005; I2= 0%; 9 studies]. Results show an equal effectiveness in the prevention of VTE between participants undergoing general surgery in those allocated to receive LMWH to those allocated to receive UFH.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...