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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284382

RESUMO

Strain CECT 9734 T, a Gram-negative, aerobic, chemoorganotrophic bacterium, motile by polar flagella, was isolated from cultured European seabass, Dicenthrarchus labrax, in Spain. It grows from 5 to 42 ºC, 6-9 pH and 1-12% total salinity. Major cellular fatty acids are C15:0 iso, summed feature 9 (C17:1 iso w9c/C16:0 10-methyl) and C17:0 iso. The genome size is 2.5 Mbp and G + C content is 49.5 mol%. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence shows that the strain is a member of Pseudidiomarina, with highest similarities with Pseudidiomarina halophila (97.0%) and Pseudidiomarina salinarum (96.9%). Phylogenomic tree based on UBCG program shows P. halophila as its closest relative. ANI and in-silico DDH with other Pseudidiomarina spp. are lower than 87 and 20%, respectively, suggesting that strain CECT 9734 T represents a new species, for which we propose the name Pseudidiomarina piscicola sp. nov. and CECT 9734 T (= LUBLD50 7aT = LMG 31044 T) as type strain.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 591945, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193258

RESUMO

Riboflavin, vitamin B2, is essential for humans and has to be obtained from the diet. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce this vitamin, and they can be used for in-situ fortification of foods. This could be an alternative to supplementation with chemically synthesized vitamin, to palliate riboflavin deficiencies in specific groups of people. Moreover, if the producing LAB could survive in the gastrointestinal stress (GIT) they could be added as probiotics in this environment. In the present study we tested two riboflavin-overproducing Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strains (M5MA1-B2 and M9MG6-B2), spontaneous mutants of LAB isolated from chicha, a traditional Andean beverage. These two LAB, and also their isogenic strains M5MA1-B2[pRCR12] and M9MG6-B2[pRCR12], expressing the mCherry protein from the pRCR12 plasmid, were evaluated in vitro under simulated GIT conditions. Among other, specifically developed protein fluorescence assays were used. The four LAB showed similar levels of adhesion (>6.0%) to Caco-2 cells, higher than that of the probiotic Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG strain (4.51%). Thus, LAB biofilm formation was assessed in the labeled cells by intracellular mCherry fluorescence and in the unlabeled parental strains by crystal violet staining. Both methods detected the formation of consistent biofilms by the L. plantarum strains. The quantification of mCherry fluorescence was also used to analyze LAB auto-aggregation properties. High levels of auto-aggregation were detected for both M5MA1-B2[pRCR12] and M9MG6-B2[pRCR12]. Survival of LAB included in a commercial cereal-based food matrix (Incaparina) under GIT conditions was also evaluated. The four LAB were resistant in vitro to the stomach and intestinal stresses, and proliferated in this environment, indicating a protective and nutritional effect of the Incaparina on the bacteria. Also, M9MG6-B2 survival in the presence or absence of Incaparina was evaluated in vivo in a BALB/c mouse model. The administration of the M9MG6-B2 strain alone or together with Incaparina had no adverse effect on the health, growth and/or well-being of the rodents. In addition, an increment in the villus length/crypt depth ratio was observed. The overall results obtained indicate that the LAB studied have probiotic characteristics of interest for the development of functional foods.

3.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(9): 2031-2041, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594222

RESUMO

Strain SB0023/3 T, isolated from spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum, was analysed to determine whether it represents a new species. It was studied for its applicability in the field of agriculture to reduce the input of nitrogen fertilizers. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence shows the strain to be affiliated to the genus Methylobacterium, the closest similarities (98.7%) being shared with Methylobacterium dankookense. Further phylogenomic analysis through Up-to-date Bacterial Core Gene (UBCG) confirmed Methylobacterium dankookense as its closest relative. Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) were lower than 92% and 44%, respectively, of the values shown by its phylogenetic relatives. Its genome had an approximate length of 6.05 Mb and the G + C content of the genome was 70.1 mol%. The main cellular fatty acid was Summed Feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c). It is a Gram-staining-negative, pink-pigmented, strictly aerobic and facultative methylotroph; it grows at 28 ºC and can grow at up to 3% salinity in the presence of sodium chloride. All the data collected support the naming of a novel species to accommodate the strain SB0023/3 T, for which the name Methylobacterium symbioticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SB0023/3 T (=CECT 9862 T =PYCC 8351 T).

4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4329-4338, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589567

RESUMO

Strain ISS653T, isolated from Atlantic seawater, is a yellow pigmented, non-motile, Gram-reaction-negative rod-shaped bacterium, strictly aerobic and chemoorganotrophic, slightly halophilic (1-15 % NaCl) and mesophilic (4-37 °C), oxidase- and catalase-positive and proteolytic. Its major cellular fatty acids are iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH; the major identified phospholipid is phosphatidylethanolamine and the major respiratory quinone is MK6. Genome size is 4.28 Mbp and DNA G+C content is 34.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity places the strain among members of the family Flavobacteriaceae, with the type strains of Mesonia phycicola (93.2 %), Salegentibacter mishustinae (93.1 %) and Mesonia mobilis (92.9 %) as closest relatives. Average amino acid identity (AAI) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) indices show highest values with M. mobilis (81 % AAI; 78.9 % ANI), M. phycicola (76 % AAI; 76.3 % ANI), Mesonia maritima (72 % AAI, 74.9 % ANI), Mesonia hippocampi (64 % AAI, 70.8 % ANI) and Mesonia algae (68 % AAI; 72.2 % ANI). Phylogenomic analysis using the Up-to-date-Bacterial Core Gene set (UBCG) merges strain ISS653T in a clade with species of the genus Mesonia. We conclude that strain ISS653T represents a novel species of the genus Mesonia for which we propose the name Mesonia oceanica sp. nov., and strain ISS653T (=CECT 9532T=LMG 31236T) as the type strain. A second strain of the species, ISS1889 (=CECT 30008) was isolated from Pacific Ocean seawater. Data obtained throughout the Tara oceans expedition indicate that the species is more abundant in the mesopelagic dark ocean than in the photic layer and it is more frequent in the South Pacific, Indian and North Atlantic oceans.


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Oceano Atlântico , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Oceano Pacífico , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e033725, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly prevalent chronic disease in the Spanish population. Typically, T2DM is associated with other chronic conditions. Intensive medication at the time of diagnosis has proven effective in reducing cardiovascular risk, improving glycaemic control and preventing T2DM complications. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that a comprehensive and intensive health education protocol at the time of diagnosis has the benefits described previously. Currently, there is great variability in the practices of primary care nurses regarding health education at the time of disease diagnosis.We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a systematic protocol with a comprehensive care programme in people with newly diagnosed T2DM with associated comorbidities. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multicentre quasi-experimental design comparing a group of individuals taking part in the intervention (intervention group (IG)) with a similar group receiving standard diabetes care (comparison group (CG)) is planned. The intervention will take place during the 3 months after study enrolment. Data will be collected at baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Ten primary care centres in Barcelona city will be selected for participation: 5 for the IG and 5 for the CG. The IG will include five structured individual visits postdiagnosis with the primary care nurse, during which aspects of diabetes education will be discussed with the patient and his/her family. The results will be measured in terms of health-related quality of life and the change in main outcomes (glycated haemoglobin and weight). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study fully met the requirements of the Ethical Committee of Clinical Investigation of the IDIAP Jordi Gol (approval code: P13/118). Patients will be informed that their data are confidential, and they have the right to withdraw at any time without penalty. Dissemination will include publishing the findings in peer-reviewed journals and sharing our findings at scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03990857; Pre-results.

6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(2): 1231-1239, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793854

RESUMO

Strain ISS155T, isolated from surface Mediterranean seawater, has cells that are Gram-reaction-negative, motile, strictly aerobic chemoorganotrophic, oxidase-positive, unable to reduce nitrate to nitrite, and able to grow with cellulose as the sole carbon and energy source. It is mesophilic, neutrophilic, slightly halophilic and has a requirement for sodium and magnesium ions. Its 16S rRNA gene sequence places the strain among members of Cellvibrionaceae, in the Gammaproteobacteria, with Agarilytica rhodophyticola 017T as closest relative (94.3 % similarity). Its major cellular fatty acids are C18 : 1, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1; major phospholipids are phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and an unidentified lipid, and the major respiratory quinone is Q8. The genome size is 6.09 Mbp and G+C content is 45.2 mol%. A phylogenomic analysis using UBCG merges strain ISS155T in a clade with A. rhodophyticola, Teredinibacter turnerae, Saccharophagus degradans and Agaribacterium haliotis type strain genomes, all of them possessing a varied array of carbohydrate-active enzymes and the potential for polysaccharide degradation. Average amino acid identity indexes determined against available Cellvibrionaceae type strain genomes show that strain ISS155T is related to them by values lower than 60 %, with a maximum of 58 % to A. rhodophyticola 017T and 57 % to T. turnerae T7902T and S. degradans 2-40T. These results, together with the low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and differences in phenotypic profiles, indicate that strain ISS155T represents a new genus and species in Cellvibrionaceae, for which we propose the name Thalassocella blandensis gen. nov., sp. nov., and strain ISS155T (=CECT 9533T=LMG 31237T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Phyllobacteriaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Mar Mediterrâneo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Phyllobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
7.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611862

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are indigenous microorganisms that have been involved in food fermentations throughout history to preserve food and also to give special characteristics to them. The traditional fermented foods that are still being elaborated in indigenous populations around the world are a potential source of LAB with important biotechnological properties and/or beneficial to health. In a previous work, LAB biodiversity associated with chicha, a traditional maize-based fermented beverage from Northwestern Argentina, was studied, both by culture dependent and independent methods. From that study, 392 isolates were recovered, mostly members of Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc. Biotechnological characterization of representative isolates led to the selection of five strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus plantarum for their ability to produce vitamin B2 (riboflavin) and vitamin B9 (folates), their antimicrobial properties and antibiotics susceptibility. In this work, we present the Whole Genome Sequences (WGS) of these five strains that have been deposited in the Spanish Type Culture Collection: M5MA1 (= CECT 8962), M9MM1 (= CECT 8963), M9MM4 (= CECT 8964), M9MG6 (= CECT 8965), and M9Y2 (= CECT 8966), and a detailed description of their characterization, through a genomic approach, analyzing the genes responsible for these biotechnological properties, making a comparative study of the five genomes and reporting the aspects related to food safety, in accordance with the recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA FEEDAP Panel, 2018) aiming at their use in the design of functional foods. The analysis unveiled, for the five strains, the complete set of genes for folate and riboflavin biosynthesis, the absence of pathogenic factors, the presence of CRISPR and cas genes, phage sequences, insertion elements and an aminoglycosides resistance gene, aadA, whose resistance could not be proved phenotypically in any strain. Genomic comparisons showed that strain CECT 8962 was significantly different in terms of genetic content and allowed the identification of carbohydrates metabolism and membrane transport related genes as the main components of the unique and accessory genome.

8.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(11): 3405-3413, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373895

RESUMO

Strain CECT 7735T, a marine Gram-reaction negative, aerobic, non-motile bacterium, was isolated from coastal seawater in Valencia, Spain. Strain CECT 7735T is chemoorganotrophic, mesophilic, slightly halophilic, grows at 15-28 °C but not at 4 or 37 °C, requires seawater for growth and grows up to 6 % salinity. The major cellular fatty acid is summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). The G+C content of the genome is 55.7 mol%. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence shows the strain is affiliated to the family Rhodobacteraceae, in the class Alphaproteobacteria, with highest similarities to Phaeobacter species (97.0-97.5 %), Shimia species (96.5-97.3 %) and Pseudopelagicola gijangensis (96.5 %). Further phylogenomic analysis through the up-to-date-bacterial core gene (UBCG) set showed P. gijangensis to be its closest relative. Average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values are lower than 85 and 21 %, respectively, with its phylogenetic relatives, suggesting that strain CECT 7735T represents a new species. The average amino acid identity value was over 70 % with the genome of the type strain of P. gijangensis and with all those of Shimia species. These values, together with UBCG set trees, suggest that the new species and P. gijangensisbelong to the same genus and that Pseudopelagicola should be reclassified as a Shimia species. We conclude that strain CECT 7735T represents a new species in the genus Shimia, for which we propose the name Shimiathalassica sp. nov. In addition, Pseudopelagicola gijangensis is reclassified as Shimiagijangensis comb. nov. From the same phylogenomic study, it can be concluded that Thalassobius activus should be reclassified in the genus Cognatishimia as Cognatishimiaactiva comb. nov.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Rhodobacteraceae/classificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
9.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1748, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417534

RESUMO

Some strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce riboflavin, a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex, essential for human beings. Here, we have evaluated riboflavin (B2 vitamin) production by five Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from chicha, a traditional maize-based fermented alcoholic beverage from north-western Argentina and their isogenic riboflavin-overproducing derivatives previously selected using roseoflavin. A direct fluorescence spectroscopic detection method to quantify riboflavin production in bacterial culture supernatants has been tested. Comparison of the efficiency for riboflavin fluorescence quantification with and without prior HPLC fractionation showed that the developed method is a rapid and easy test for selection of B2 vitamin-producing strains. In addition, it can be used for quantitative detection of the vitamin production in real time during bacterial growth. On the basis of this and previous analyses, the L. plantarum M5MA1-B2 riboflavin overproducer was selected for in vitro and in vivo studies after being fluorescently labeled by transfer of the pRCR12 plasmid, which encodes the mCherry protein. The labeling did not affect negatively the growth, the riboflavin production nor the adhesion of the strain to Caco-2 cells. Thus, L. plantarum M5MA1-B2[pRCR12] was evaluated for its survival under digestive tract stresses in the presence of microbiota in the dynamic multistage BFBL gut model and in a murine model. After exposure to both models, M5MA1-B2[pRCR12] could be recovered and detected by the pink color of the colonies. The results indicated a satisfactory resistance of the strain to gastric and intestinal stress conditions but a low colonization capability observed both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, L. plantarum M5MA1-B2 could be proposed as a probiotic strain for the development of functional foods.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 959, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134012

RESUMO

Leuconostoc lactis AV1 strain isolated from a Tunisian avocado was characterized as a dextran producer. The promoter P dsrLL and the dsrLL gene encoding the DsrLL dextransucrase responsible for the dextran synthesis were transcriptionally fused to the mCherry coding gene generating the pRCR20 plasmid. Upon plasmid transfer, both AV1n and the dextran non-producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides CM70 became red due to expression of the mCherry from the P dsrLL-dsr-mrfp transcriptional fusion. Characterization of the polymers present in cultures supernatants revealed that the DsrLL encoded from pRCR20 in the recombinant bacteria was able to synthesize dextran. The production of dextran by the DsrLL in AV1n increased in response to low temperature, reaching 10-fold higher levels at 20°C than at 37°C (4.15 g/L versus 0.41 g/L). To analyze if this stress response includes activation at the transcriptional level and if it was only restricted to Leuconostoc, AV1n was transformed with plasmids carrying either the P dsrLL -mrfp fusion or the P dsrLS of Lactobacillus sakei MN1 fused to the mrfp gene, and the influence of temperature and carbon source on expression from the Dsr promoters was monitored by measurement of the mCherry levels. The overall expression analysis confirmed an induction of expression from P dsrLL upon growth at low temperature (20°C versus 30°C and 37°C) in the presence of sugars tested (sucrose, glucose, maltose, and fructose). In addition, the presence of sucrose, the substrate of Dsr, also resulted in activation of expression from P dsrLL . A different behavior was detected, when expression from P dsrLS was evaluated. Similar levels of fluorescence were observed irrespectively of the carbon source or temperature, besides a sequential decrease at 30°C and 20°C, when sucrose was present in the growth medium. In conclusion, the two types of regulation of expression of Dsr presented here revealed two different mechanisms for environmental adaptation of Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus that could be exploited for industrial applications.

11.
Food Microbiol ; 77: 61-68, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297057

RESUMO

Cereal-based functional beverages represent social, economic, and environmental sustainable opportunities to cope with emerging trends in food consumption and global nutrition. Here we report, for the first time, the polyphasic characterization of three cereal-based kefir-like riboflavin-enriched beverages, obtained from oat, maize and barley flours, and their comparison with classical milk-based kefir. The four matrices were successfully fermented with commercial starters: i) milk-kefir and ii) water-kefir, proving the potential of cereal ingredients in the formulation of dairy-like fermented beverages with milk-kefir starter behavior better in these matrices. In the light of their potentiality, seven riboflavin-producing Andean Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) were tested for tolerance to food stresses commonly encountered during food fermentation. Moreover, the LAB strains investigated were screened for spontaneous riboflavin overproducing derivatives. Lactobacillus plantarum M5MA1-B2 with outstanding response to stress, was selected to improve riboflavin content in an in situ fortification approach. The combination of L. plantarum M5MA1-B2 riboflavin overproducing strain with milk kefir starter in oat, lead to cover, for one serving of 100 g, 11.4% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). Besides, addition of L. plantarum M5MA1-B2 improved performance of water kefir in oat and maize matrices. Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) analysis provided the on-line Volatile Organic Compounds profiles supporting the best combination of starter, LAB and cereal matrix for novel functional foods development.


Assuntos
Bebidas/microbiologia , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Kefir/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Riboflavina/metabolismo , Animais , Avena , Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Grão Comestível/anatomia & histologia , Fermentação , Farinha , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Kefir/análise , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Leuconostoc mesenteroides/metabolismo , Leite/microbiologia , Recomendações Nutricionais , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Zea mays
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 292: 101-106, 2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594741

RESUMO

Aged-green tea extract (GTE) is known to reduce the infectivity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate, in vitro and in washing solutions. Initially, the effect of aged-GTE was evaluated on virus like particles (VLPs) of human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup I (GI) by a porcine gastric mucine (PGM)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and on HuNoV GI suspensions by an in situ capture-RT-qPCR method, suggesting that HuNoVs are very sensitive to aged-GTE treatment at 37 °C. Moreover, the potential application of aged-GTE was evaluated using model foods and simulated gastric conditions. Then, aged-GTE samples prepared in orange juice, apple juice, horchata, and milk, respectively, were individually mixed with each virus and incubated overnight at 37 °C. Aged-GTE at 5 mg/ml in apple juice reduced MNV infectivity to undetectable levels and from 1.0 to 1.8 log in milk, horchata and orange juice. Aged-GTE at 5 mg/ml in orange juice, apple juice, horchata and milk reduced HAV infectivity by 1.2, 2.1, 1.5, and 1.7 log, respectively. Additionally, aged-GTE at 5 mg/ml in simulated intestinal fluid reduced MNV titers to undetectable levels and reduced HAV infectivity by ca. 2.0 log. The results show a potential for aged-GTE as a suitable natural option for preventive strategies for foodborne viral diseases.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Manipulação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Vírus da Hepatite A/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Leite/química , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7
13.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1973, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210465

RESUMO

The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen showing a considerable increase in the number of reported cases in Europe mainly related to the ingestion of contaminated food. As with other relevant viral foodborne pathogens, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the gold standard for HEV detection in clinical, food, and environmental samples, but these procedures cannot discriminate between inactivated and potentially infectious viruses. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a viability PCR method to discriminate between native, heat-, and high-pressure processing (HPP)-treated HEV using the hepatitis A virus (HAV) as a cultivable surrogate. To this end, different concentrations of viability markers (PMAxx and platinum chloride, PtCl4) were screened firstly on purified viral RNA using different RT-qPCR assays. Reductions of HEV RNA signals of >17.5, >15.0, and >15.5 quantification cycles (Cq) were reported for PtCl4 and 1.6, 2.9, and 8.4 Cq for PMAxx, clearly indicating a better performance of PtCl4 than PMAxx irrespective of the RT-qPCR assay used. The most efficient viability pretreatment (500 µM PtCl4 incubated at 5°C for 30 min) was then assessed on native, heat-, and HPP-treated HEV suspension. The optimized viability RT-qPCR discriminated successfully between native, heat-, and HPP-treated HEV, to different extents depending on the experimental conditions. In particular, approximately 2-log10 reduction was reported by PtCl4-RT-qPCR at both 72 and 95°C compared to the control. Additionally, both viability pretreatments were tested for HPP-treated HAV without success, while PtCl4-RT-qPCR completely eliminated (>5.6-log10 reduction) the RT-qPCR signals of HPP-treated HEV. Although this viability procedure may still overestimate infectivity, the PtCl4 pretreatment represents progress to better interpreting the quantification of intact HEV, and it could be included in molecular procedures used to quantify enteric viruses in food and environmental samples.

14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 277: 34-40, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680694

RESUMO

The hepatitis E virus (HEV), which is an increasing cause of acute viral hepatitis in Europe, is a zoonotic virus that is mainly transmitted through contaminated water, consumption of raw or undercooked meat from pigs or wild boar, blood transfusion, and organ transplantation. Although the role of HEV transmission through contaminated produce has not been confirmed, the presence of HEV has been reported in irrigation waters and in vegetables. The present study used a World Health Organization (WHO) international standard and clinical samples to evaluate the performance characteristics of three RT-qPCR assays for detection and quantification of HEV. Two of the evaluated assays provided good analytical sensitivity, as 250 international units (IU) per ml could be detected. Then, experiments focused on evaluating the elution conditions suitable for HEV release from vegetables, with the method proposed by the ISO 15216:2017 selected for evaluation in three types of fresh vegetables. The concentration method proposed by the ISO 15216:2017 combined with the RT-qPCR described by Schlosser et al. (2014) resulted in average HEV recoveries of 1.29%, 0.46%, and 3.95% in lettuce, spinach, and pepper, respectively, with an average detection limit of 1.47 × 105 IU/25 g. In naturally contaminated samples, HEV was detected in sewage only (10/14), while no detection was reported in lettuce (0/36) or in irrigation water samples (0/24).


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/veterinária , Alface/virologia , Esgotos/virologia , Verduras/virologia , Animais , Capsicum/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Carne/virologia , RNA Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Spinacia oleracea/virologia , Suínos , Poluição da Água/análise
15.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 111(3): 385-399, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058140

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to analyse the diversity and dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) throughout the fermentation process in Atole agrio, a traditional maize based food of Mexican origin. Samples of different fermentation times were analysed using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Identification of LAB isolates revealed the presence of members of the genera Pediococcus, Weissella, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Lactococcus, and the predominance of Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella confusa in liquid and solid batches, respectively. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the predominance of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae at the beginning of the process. In liquid fermentation Acetobacteraceae dominate after 4 h as pH decreased. In contrast, Leuconostocaceae dominated the solid fermentation except at 12 h that were overgrown by Acetobacteraceae. Regarding LAB genera, Lactobacillus dominated the liquid fermentation except at 12 h when Weissella, Lactococcus and Streptococcus were the most abundant. In solid fermentation Weissella predominated all through the process. HTS determined that Lactobacillus plantarum and W. confusa dominated in the liquid and solid batches, respectively. Two oligotypes have been identified for L. plantarum and W. confusa populations, differing in a single nucleotide position each. Only one of the oligotypes was detected among the isolates obtained from each species, the biological significance of which remains unclear.


Assuntos
Bebidas/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillales/classificação , Lactobacillales/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Fermentação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , México , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 266: 1-7, 2018 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156242

RESUMO

Shellfish contamination by human noroviruses (HuNoVs) is a serious health and economic problem. Recently an ISO procedure based on RT-qPCR for the quantitative detection of HuNoVs in shellfish has been issued, but these procedures cannot discriminate between inactivated and potentially infectious viruses. The aim of the present study was to optimize a pretreatment using PMAxx to better discriminate between intact and heat-treated HuNoVs in shellfish and sewage. To this end, the optimal conditions (30min incubation with 100µM of PMAxx and 0.5% of Triton, and double photoactivation) were applied to mussels, oysters and cockles artificially inoculated with thermally-inactivated (99°C for 5min) HuNoV GI and GII. This pretreatment reduced the signal of thermally-inactivated HuNoV GI in cockles and HuNoV GII in mussels by >3 log. Additionally, this pretreatment reduced the signal of thermally-inactivated HuNoV GI and GII between 1 and 1.5 log in oysters. Thermal inactivation of HuNoV GI and GII in PBS, sewage and bioaccumulated oysters was also evaluated by the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment. Results showed significant differences between reductions observed in the control and PMAxx-treated samples in PBS following treatment at 72 and 95°C for 15min. In sewage, the RT-qPCR signal of HuNoV GI was completely removed by the PMAxx pretreatment after heating at 72 and 95°C, while the RT-qPCR signal for HuNoV GII was completely eliminated only at 95°C. Finally, the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment was applied to naturally contaminated sewage and oysters, resulting in most of the HuNoV genomes quantified in sewage and oyster samples (12 out of 17) corresponding to undamaged capsids. Although this procedure may still overestimate infectivity, the PMAxx-Triton pretreatment represents a step forward to better interpret the quantification of intact HuNoVs in complex matrices, such as sewage and shellfish, and it could certainly be included in the procedures based on RT-qPCR.


Assuntos
Capsídeo/metabolismo , Corantes/metabolismo , Norovirus/fisiologia , Esgotos/virologia , Frutos do Mar/virologia , Animais , Corantes/química , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
17.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 2281, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209293

RESUMO

The exopolysaccharide synthesized by Lactobacillus sakei MN1 is a dextran with antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of potential utility in aquaculture. In this work we have investigated the genetic basis of dextran production by this bacterium. Southern blot hybridization experiments demonstrated the plasmidic location of the dsrLS gene, which encodes the dextransucrase involved in dextran synthesis. DNA sequencing of the 11,126 kbp plasmid (pMN1) revealed that it belongs to a family which replicates by the theta mechanism, whose prototype is pUCL287. The plasmid comprises the origin of replication, repA, repB, and dsrLS genes, as well as seven open reading frames of uncharacterized function. Lb. sakei MN1 produces dextran when sucrose, but not glucose, is present in the growth medium. Therefore, plasmid copy number and stability, as well as dsrLS expression, were investigated in cultures grown in the presence of either sucrose or glucose. The results revealed that pMN1 is a stable low-copy-number plasmid in both conditions. Gene expression studies showed that dsrLS is constitutively expressed, irrespective of the carbon source present in the medium. Moreover, dsrLS is expressed from a monocistronic transcript as well as from a polycistronic repA-repB-orf1-dsrLS mRNA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plasmid-borne dextransucrase-encoding gene, as well as the first time that co-transcription of genes involved in plasmid maintenance and replication with a gene encoding an enzyme has been established.

18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 174: 646-657, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28821115

RESUMO

Dextrans synthesised by three Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, isolated from mammalian milks, were studied and compared with dextrans produced by Lc. mesenteroides and Lactobacillus sakei strains isolated from meat products. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering detection analysis demonstrated that the dextrans have molecular masses between 1.74×108Da and 4.41×108Da. Rheological analysis of aqueous solutions of the polymer revealed that all had a pseudoplastic behaviour under shear conditions and a random, and flexible, coil structure. The dextrans showed at shear zero a difference in viscosity, which increased as the concentration increased. Also, the purified dextrans were able to immunomodulate in vitro human macrophages, partially counteracting the inflammatory effect of Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide. During prolonged incubation on a solid medium containing sucrose, dextran-producing bacteria showed two distinct phenotypes not related to the genus or species to which they belonged. Colonies of Lc. mesenteroides CM9 from milk and Lb. sakei MN1 from meat formed stable and compact mucoid colonies, whereas the colonies of the other three Leuconostoc strains became diffuse after 72h. This differential behaviour was also observed in the ability of the corresponding strains to bind to Caco-2 cells. Strains forming compact mucoid colonies showed a high level of adhesion when grown in the presence of glucose, which decreased in the presence of sucrose (the condition required for dextran synthesis). However no influence of the carbon source was detected for the adhesion ability of the other Lc. mesenteroides strains, which showed variable levels of binding to the enterocytes.


Assuntos
Dextranos/química , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Células CACO-2 , Dextranos/biossíntese , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/microbiologia , Peso Molecular , Reologia
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 168: 22-31, 2017 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28457443

RESUMO

In this work we have investigated two dextran-producing lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus sakei MN1 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides RTF10, isolated from fermented meat products. These bacteria synthesise dextran when sucrose, but not glucose, is present in the growth medium. The influence of dextran on bacterial aggregation, adhesion and biofilm formation was investigated in cultures challenged with sucrose or glucose. For Lb. sakei MN1, the synthesis of the dextran drastically impaired the three processes; in contrast it had no effect on Lc. mesenteroides RTF10. Therefore, the influence of dextran on probiotic properties of Lb. sakei MN1 was tested in vivo using gnotobiotic zebrafish models. The bacterium efficiently colonised the fish gut and inhibited the killing activity of Vibrio anguillarum NB10[pOT11]. Furthermore, under conditions of dextran synthesis, the adhesion of Lb. sakei MN1 to the epithelial cells decreased, without greatly affecting its anti V. anguillarum activity.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Biofilmes , Dextranos/biossíntese , Lactobacillus sakei/metabolismo , Animais , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377904

RESUMO

Johne's disease is a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). We previously demonstrated that Map isolates from sheep persisted within host macrophages in lower CFUs than cattle isolates after 7 days of infection. In the current study, we hypothesize that these phenotypic differences between Map isolates may be driven be the fatty acids (FAs) present on the phosphadidyl-1-myo-inositol mannosides of the Map cell wall that mediate recognition by the mannose receptors of host macrophages. FAs modifications may influence Map's envelope fluidity ultimately affecting pathogenicity. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the responses of two Map isolates from cattle (K10 isolate) and sheep (2349/06-1) to the bovine and ovine macrophage environment by measuring the FAs content of extracellular and intracellular bacteria. For this purpose, macrophages cell lines of bovine (BOMAC) and ovine (MOCL-4) origin were infected with the two isolates of Map for 4 days at 37°C. The relative FAs composition of the two isolates recovered from infected BOMAC and MOCL-4 cells was determined by gas chromatography and compared with that of extracellular bacteria and that of bacteria grown in Middlebrook 7H9 medium. Using this approach, we demonstrated that the FAs composition of extracellular and 7H9-grown bacteria was highly conserved within each Map isolate, and statistically different from that of intracellular bacteria. Analysis of FAs composition from extracellular bacteria enabled the distinction of the two Map strains based on the presence of the tuberculostearic acid (18:0 10Me) exclusively in the K10 strain of Map. In addition, significant differences in the content of Palmitic acid and cis-7 Palmitoleic acid between both isolates harvested from the extracellular environment were observed. Once the infection established itself in BOMAC and MOCL-4 cells, the FAs profiles of both Map isolates appeared conserved. Our results suggest that the FAs composition of Map might influence its recognition by macrophages and influence the survival of the bacillus within host macrophages.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/química , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Gasosa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Viabilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos
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