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1.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 131: 597-617, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571119

RESUMO

The Roman High- (RHA) and Low-(RLA) avoidance rat lines/strains were generated through bidirectional selective breeding for rapid (RHA) vs. extremely poor (RLA) two-way active avoidance acquisition. Compared with RLAs and other rat strains/stocks, RHAs are characterized by increased impulsivity, deficits in social behavior, novelty-induced hyper-locomotion, impaired attentional/cognitive abilities, vulnerability to psychostimulant sensitization and drug addiction. RHA rats also exhibit decreased function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, increased functional activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system and a dramatic deficit of central metabotropic glutamate-2 (mGlu2) receptors (due to a stop codon mutation at cysteine 407 in Grm2 -cys407*-), along with increased density of 5-HT2A receptors in the PFC, alterations of several synaptic markers and increased density of pyramidal "thin" (immature) dendrític spines in the PFC. These characteristics suggest an immature brain of RHA rats, and are reminiscent of schizophrenia features like hypofrontality and disruption of the excitation/inhibition cortical balance. RHA rats represent a promising heuristic model of neurodevelopmental schizophrenia-relevant features and comorbidity with drug addiction vulnerability.

2.
Physiol Behav ; 240: 113547, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364851

RESUMO

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating that is impaired in many clinical conditions, including schizophrenia. The inbred Roman high-avoidance (RHA) rats, compared to their low-avoidance (RLA) counterparts, show distinct schizophrenia-like phenotypes, such as spontaneous deficits in PPI accompanied by decreased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity and volume. Schizophrenia-like deficits are usually attenuated by antipsychotic drugs, but these drugs often produce severe side effects. In order to reduce these side effects, the neuropeptide oxytocin has been proposed as an alternative natural antipsychotic for schizophrenia. Here, we examined the effects of peripheral oxytocin administration (saline, 0.04, and 0.2 mg/kg) on PPI in the RHA vs. RLA rats, as well as in the outbred heterogeneous stock (HS) rats. Our results showed that oxytocin increased PPI in the HS rats and attenuated PPI deficits in the RHA rats, but it did not significantly affect PPI in the RLAs. To explore whether these divergent effects were associated with differences in oxytocinergic mechanisms, we analyzed gene expression of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the regulator of oxytocin release (CD38) in the mPFC of the Roman rats. Consistent with the differential oxytocin effects on PPI (RHA > RLA), constitutive CD38 expression was reduced in the RHA rats compared to the RLAs, while oxytocin administration increased OXTR expression in both strains. Overall, the present work reveals that oxytocin administration shows antipsychotic-like effects on PPI in outbred and inbred rats, and it suggests that these effects may be related to basal differences in oxytocin-mediated mechanisms in the mPFC.

3.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation contributes to the progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases. We recently found that the isoform b of the co-chaperone DNAJB6 is a strong suppressor of α-syn aggregation in vivo and in vitro. However, nothing is known about the role of the endogenous isoform b of DNAJB6 (DNAJB6b) in health and disease, due to lack of specific antibodies. OBJECTIVE: Here we generated a novel anti-DNAJB6b antibody to analyze the localization and expression of this isoform in cells, in tissue and in clinical material. METHODS: To address this we used immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, as well as a novel quantitative DNAJB6 specific ELISA method. RESULTS: The endogenous protein is mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and in neurites in vitro, where it is found more in dendrites than in axons. We further verified in vivo that DNAJB6b is expressed in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), which is a neuronal subpopulation highly sensitive to α-syn aggregation, that degenerate to a large extend in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). When we analyzed the expression levels of DNAJB6b in brain material from PD and MSA patients, we found a downregulation of DNAJB6b by use of ELISA based quantification. Interestingly, this was also true when analyzing tissue from patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, a taupathic atypical parkinsonian disorder. However, the total level of DNAJB6 was upregulated in these three diseases, which may indicate an upregulation of the other major isoform of DNAJB6, DNAJB6a. CONCLUSION: This study shows that DNAJB6b is downregulated in several different neurodegenerative diseases, which makes it an interesting target to further investigate in relation to amyloid protein aggregation and disease progression.

4.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 98, 2021 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Validation of self-reported tools, such as physical activity (PA) questionnaires, is crucial. The aim of this study was to determine test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and the concurrent, construct, and predictive validity of the short semi-quantitative Physical Activity Unit 7 item Screener (PAU-7S), using accelerometry as the reference measurement. The effect of linear calibration on PAU-7S validity was tested. METHODS: A randomized sample of 321 healthy children aged 8-16 years (149 boys, 172 girls) from the nationwide representative PASOS study completed the PAU-7S before and after wearing an accelerometer for at least 7 consecutive days. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Cronbach alpha was calculated for internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was determined by intra-class correlation (ICC). Concurrent validity was assessed by ICC and Spearman correlation coefficient between moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) derived by the PAU-7S and by accelerometer. Concordance between both methods was analyzed by absolute agreement, weighted kappa, and Bland-Altman statistics. Multiple linear regression models were fitted for construct validity and predictive validity was determined by leave-one-out cross-validation. RESULTS: The PAU-7S overestimated MVPA by 18%, compared to accelerometers (106.5 ± 77.0 vs 95.2 ± 33.2 min/day, respectively). A Cronbach alpha of 0.76 showed an acceptable internal consistency of the PAU-7S. Test-retest reliability was good (ICC 0.71 p < 0.001). Spearman correlation and ICC coefficients of MVPA derived by the PAU-7S and accelerometers increased from 0.31 to 0.62 and 0.20 to 0.62, respectively, after calibration of the PAU-7S. Between-methods concordance improved from a weighted kappa of 0.24 to 0.50 after calibration. A slight reduction in ICC, from 0.62 to 0.60, yielded good predictive validity. Multiple linear regression models showed an inverse association of MVPA with standardized body mass index (ß - 0.162; p < 0.077) and waist to height ratio (ß - 0.010; p < 0.014). All validity dimensions were somewhat stronger in boys compared to girls. CONCLUSION: The PAU-7S shows a good test-retest reliability and acceptable internal consistency. All dimensions of validity increased from poor/fair to moderate/good after calibration. The PAU-7S is a valid instrument for measuring MVPA in children and adolescents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number ISRCTN34251612 .


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Acelerometria/normas , Adolescente , Calibragem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Sedentário
5.
Neuroimage Clin ; 30: 102675, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease leading to damage of white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to assess brain damage in MS, but there is an unmet need in MRI for achieving higher sensitivity and specificity to MS-related microstructural alterations in WM and GM. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether tensor-valued diffusion MRI (dMRI) can yield sensitive microstructural read-outs for focal demyelination in cerebral WM and deep GM (DGM). METHODS: Eight rats underwent L-α-Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) injections in the WM and striatum to introduce focal demyelination. Multimodal MRI was performed at 7 Tesla after 7 days. Tensor-valued dMRI was complemented by diffusion tensor imaging, quantitative MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). RESULTS: Quantitative MRI and MRS confirmed that LPC injections caused inflammatory demyelinating lesions in WM and DGM. Tensor-valued dMRI illustrated a significant decline of microscopic fractional anisotropy (µFA) in both LPC-treated WM and DGM (P < 0.005) along with a marked increase of isotropic kurtosis (MKI) in DGM (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Tensor-valued dMRI bears considerable potential for microstructural imaging in MS, suggesting a regional µFA decrease may be a sensitive indicator of MS lesions, while a regional MKI increase may be particularly sensitive in detecting DGM lesions of MS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Substância Branca , Animais , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos , Roedores , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207424

RESUMO

Environmental factors play an important role in obesity-related behaviors. Evidence indicates significant associations between weight and urban green spaces in adults, but it is not clear whether this relationship applies to adolescents. Therefore, our aim was to determine the associations between urban green spaces, greenness exposure and species richness in residential environments with physical activity and body mass index. Sixty-two adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age answered a self-administered questionnaire, providing information on height, weight, age, sex and home address. Data on socioeconomic deprivation were obtained from the European Index of Deprivation for Small Portuguese Areas. Physical activity levels were assessed using accelerometers. Urban green space counts and the normalized difference vegetation index values were measured using buffers along the roads with distances of 300, 500, 1000 and 1500 m from each participant's residence. To quantify the species richness, the species richness index was used. Linear regression models were fitted to analyze whether urban green spaces, exposure to green spaces and species richness counts for each distance were associated with physical activity and self-reported body mass index. We did not find significant associations between the independent variables and the probability of overweight or obesity. The relationship between environmental variables, adolescents' physical activity and body weight seems to be complex and further studies may contribute to better understanding of the topic.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Portugal/epidemiologia
7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234281

RESUMO

Familial Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with rare genetic mutations, but the etiology in most patients with sporadic (s)PD is largely unknown, and the basis for its progression to dementia (sPDD) is poorly characterized. We have identified that loss of IFNß or IFNAR1, the receptor for IFNα/ß, causes pathological and behavioral changes resembling PDD, prompting us to hypothesize that dysregulated genes in IFNß-IFNAR signaling pathway predispose one to sPD. By transcriptomic analysis, we found defective neuronal IFNß-IFNAR signaling, including particularly elevated PIAS2 associated with sPDD. With meta-analysis of GWASs, we identified sequence variants in IFNß-IFNAR-related genes in sPD patients. Furthermore, sPDD patients expressed higher levels of PIAS2 mRNA and protein in neurons. To determine its function in brain, we overexpressed PIAS2 under a neuronal promoter, alone or with human α-synuclein, in the brains of mice, which caused motor and cognitive impairments and correlated with intraneuronal phosphorylated (p)α-synuclein accumulation and dopaminergic neuron loss. Ectopic expression of neuronal PIAS2 blocked mitophagy, increased the accumulation of senescent mitochondrial and oxidative stress, as evidenced by excessive oxDJ1 and 8OHdG, by inactivating ERK1/2-P53 signaling. Conversely, PIAS2 knockdown rescued the clinicopathological manifestations of PDD in Ifnb-/- mice on restoring mitochondrial homeostasis, oxidative stress, and pERK1/2-pP53 signaling. The regulation of JAK-STAT2-PIAS2 signaling was crucial for neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival and excitability and thus might prevent cognitive impairments. Our findings provide insights into the progression of sPD and dementia and have implications for new therapeutic approaches.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063921

RESUMO

Active commuting to school in children and adolescents can help achieve compliance with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for physical activity. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the mode of transport used to go to school and the mode of transport used to go to extracurricular sports practice. Multistage random cluster sampling was conducted to include 128 schools with the participation of 11,017 students between the ages of 5 and 19. Participants completed the survey of sports habits designed by the National Sports Council. The results revealed that the mode of transport used to go to school is significantly related to the mode of transport used to go to sports practice. A total of 54.3% of students aged 5 to 19 years walk to school. A total of 23.7% of boys walk and 7.9% bike to extracurricular physical activities vs. 24.1% of girls who walk. The fact that girls only walk to extracurricular physical activities implies that the organized sports activities were nearby. Therefore, it seems crucial to have a wide range of physical activities on offer locally to promote extracurricular physical activity participation for girls.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Esportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transportes , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
9.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 87: 98-104, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ubiquitous naturally occurring autoantibodies (nAbs) against alpha-synuclein (α-syn) may play important roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we reported reduced high-affinity/avidity anti-α-syn nAbs levels in plasma from MSA and PD patients, along with distinct inter-group immunoglobulin (Ig)G subclass distributions. The extent to which these observations in plasma may reflect corresponding levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is unknown. METHODS: Using competitive and indirect ELISAs, we investigated the affinity/avidity of CSF anti-α-syn nAbs as well as the CSF and plasma distribution of IgG subclasses and IgM nAbs in a cross-sectional cohort of MSA and PD patients. RESULTS: Repertoires of high-affinity/avidity anti-α-syn IgG nAbs were reduced in CSF samples from MSA and PD patients compared to controls. Furthermore, anti-α-syn IgM nAb levels were relatively lower in CSF and plasma from MSA patients but were reduced only in plasma from PD patients. Interestingly, anti-α-syn IgG subclasses presented disease-specific profiles both in CSF and plasma. Anti-α-syn IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 levels were relatively increased in CSF of MSA patients, whereas PD patients showed increased anti-α-syn IgG2 and reduced anti-α-syn IgG4 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the plasma/CSF distribution of anti-α-syn nAbs seem to be a common feature of synucleinopathies. Our data add further support to the notion that MSA and PD patients may have compromised immune reactivity towards α-syn. The differing α-syn-specific systemic immunological responses may reflect their specific disease pathophysiologies. These results are encouraging for further investigation of these immunological mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases.

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669366

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate if screen time and parents' education levels are associated with adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. This cross-sectional study analyzed a representative sample of 3333 children and adolescents (8 to 16 years) included in the Physical Activity, Sedentarism, lifestyles and Obesity in Spanish youth (PASOS) study in Spain (which ran from March 2019 to February 2020). Data on screen time (television, computer, video games, and mobile phone) per day, Mediterranean diet adherence, daily moderate or vigorous physical activity, and parents' education levels were gathered using questionnaires. A descriptive study of the variables according to sex and parents' education level was performed. Logistic regression models (adjusted by sex and weight status) were fitted to evaluate the independent association between screen time and Kids' level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (KIDMED) index, as well as some of its items. A greater amount of screen time was associated with worse adherence to the Mediterranean diet; a lower consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, legumes, and nuts; and a greater consumption of fast food, sweets, and candies. A lower parents' education level was associated with worse adherence to the Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to promote the responsible, limited use of screen time, especially in children with parents with a lower education level.

11.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(4): 914-924, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423302

RESUMO

This study examines trends in the rates of active commuting to school (ACS) in Spanish children (n = 18 343; 8.93 ± 1.68) and adolescents (n = 18 438; 14.11 ± 1.58) aged 6-18 years from 2010 to 2017. Given the study period included the economic crisis in Spain (2008-2013), the second aim of this study was to compare ACS rates during and after the economic crisis. Data were obtained from 28 studies conducted across Spain. The overall trends in ACS were evaluated using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Among Spanish children and adolescents, the rates of ACS to school ranged around 60% between 2010 and 2017. The rates of ACS in Spanish youth did not change significantly during the 2010-2017 period, except a sporadic increase in the rate of ACS in adolescents in 2012-2013. No significant association between the ACS and the economic crisis time period in youth was found. As conclusion, the ACS remains stable in Spain during the last decade, which is a promising result regarding the evidenced decreasing trend in many countries. Further educational and policy strategies are important to continue promoting this behavior in children and adolescents in the long term.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418907

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, entire populations were instructed to live in home-confinement to prevent the expansion of the disease. Spain was one of the countries with the strictest conditions, as outdoor physical activity was banned for nearly two months. This study aimed to analyse the changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Spanish university students before and during the confinement by COVID-19 with special focus on gender. We also analysed enjoyment, the tools used and motivation and impediments for doing physical activity. An online questionnaire, which included the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form and certain "ad hoc" questions, was designed. Students were recruited by distributing an invitation through the administrative channels of 16 universities and a total of 13,754 valid surveys were collected. Overall, university students reduced moderate (-29.5%) and vigorous (-18.3%) physical activity during the confinement and increased sedentary time (+52.7%). However, they spent more time on high intensity interval training (HIIT) (+18.2%) and mind-body activities (e.g., yoga) (+80.0%). Adaptation to the confinement, in terms of physical activity, was handled better by women than by men. These results will help design strategies for each gender to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour during confinement periods.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Ioga , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize alterations in the quality and quantity of anti-43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); therefore, we assessed relative binding properties of anti-TDP-43 NAbs composite in plasma from patients with ALS in comparison with healthy individuals. METHODS: ELISA competition assay was used to explore the apparent avidity/affinity of anti-TDP-43 NAbs in plasma from 51 normal controls and 30 patients with ALS. Furthermore, the relative levels of anti-TDP-43 NAbs within the immunoglobulin (Ig) classes of IgG (isotype IgG1-4) and IgMs were measured using classical indirect ELISA. The occurring results were hereafter correlated with the measures of disease duration and disease progression. RESULTS: High-avidity/affinity anti-TDP-43 NAbs levels were significantly reduced in plasma samples from patients with ALS. In addition, a significant decrease in relative levels of anti-TDP-43 IgG3 and IgM NAbs and a significant increase in anti-TDP-43 IgG4 NAbs were observed in ALS plasma vs controls. Furthermore, a decrease in global IgM and an increase in IgG4 levels were observed in ALS. These aberrations of humoral immunity correlated with disease duration, but did not correlate with ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our results may suggest TDP-43-specific immune aberrations in patients with ALS. The skewed immune profiles observed in patients with ALS could indicate a deficiency in the clearance capacity and/or blocking of TDP-43 transmission and propagation. The decrease in levels of high affinity/avidity anti-TDP-43 NAbs and IgMs correlates with disease progression and may be disease predictors.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322327

RESUMO

Healthy aging makes the practice of physical activity (PA) a necessity. However, PA guidelines achievement in older adults is scarce. The use of behavioral theories such as Transtheoretical Model (TTM), helps in older adults PA promotion. The aim of this review was to identify the use of TTM for PA in older adults (>60 years). PubMed, SPORTdiscus, and Medline databases were used to conduct the search. All steps of the process followed the recommendations of the PRISMA flow-diagram. We identified eight studies: Six were descriptive cross-sectional studies, one prospective-cohort study and one with a quasi-experimental design. Only two papers evaluated the four behavior change dimensions within the same study, three evaluated the processes of change and the decisional balance, four evaluated the exercise self-efficacy and all assessed the stages of change for PA behavior. From this review, we can conclude that TTM is a useful and suitable behavior model in creating, developing, and evaluating interventions with the aim of acquiring and improving PA habits in the older adults. However, there is paucity of research in this area, and more studies including the four behavioral change dimensions are needed to analyze the effect of TTM on the promotion of PA in the older adults.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Modelo Transteórico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e036210, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967871

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) is essential to healthy mental and physical development in early life. However, the prevalence of physical inactivity, which is considered a key modifiable driver of childhood obesity, has reached alarming levels among European youth. There is a need to update the data for Spain, in order to establish if current measures are effective or new approaches are needed. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We present the protocol for Physical Activity, Sedentarism, lifestyles and Obesity in Spanish youth (PASOS). This observational, nationally representative, multicentre study aims to determine the PA levels, sedentary behaviours and prevalence of physical inactivity (defined as <60 min of moderate to vigorous PA per day) in a representative sample of Spanish children and adolescents. The PASOS study has recruited a representative random sample of children and adolescents aged 8-16 years from 242 educational centres in the 17 'autonomous regions' into which Spain is divided. The aim is to include a total of 4508 youth participants and their families. Weight, height and waist circumference will be measured by standardised procedures. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet, quality of life, sleep duration, PA and sedentary behaviour are being measured by validated questionnaires. PA is measured by the Physical Activity Unit 7-item Screener. A representative subsample (10% of participants) was randomly selected to wear accelerometers for 9 days to obtain objective data on PA. Parents are asked about their educational level, time spent doing PA, diet quality, self-perceived stress, smoking habit, weight, height, their child's birth weight and if the child was breast fed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain. Main findings of the study will be disseminated to the scientific community and to general public by media conferences, social media and a website. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN34251612.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Espanha/epidemiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12559, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704154

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722543

RESUMO

Extracurricular physical activity in children and adolescents can help achieve compliance with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors in school and family environments of children and adolescents in Spain that could be related to the practice of extracurricular physical activity. Multistage random cluster sampling was conducted to include 128 schools with the participation of 10,096 students between the ages of 7 and 16. Participants completed the survey of sports habits designed by the National Sports Council. The results revealed a higher participation in extracurricular sports activities among boys (OR: 1.67 (1.5-1.9)) and students in primary education (up to 12 years old) (OR: 1.8 (1.7-2.0)). Likewise, a statistically significant relationship (p < 0.005) was observed between families where another family member practiced sports and lower number of screen time hours, improved academic performance, and better self-perceived health. Participation of children and adolescents in extracurricular sports activities seems to be associated with their immediate environment. It is therefore essential to emphasize the importance of establishing physical activity habits from an early age in family and school environments.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Esportes , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
18.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 195: 172951, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439454

RESUMO

In rodents, prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) has been associated with increased risk for development of cognitive and emotional disturbances, but the findings are somewhat conflicting. Lack of behavioral alterations following PNE could be due to the variety of methods available for nicotine delivery, exposure time and species used, with inbred strains being mostly employed. Such differences suggest the need to investigate the behavioral phenotype in each PNE model available if we are to find models with enhanced translational value. In this study, we assessed sex-dependent effects of PNE on ADHD-related behaviors and on the levels of mRNA coding for glutamate receptor subunits within the prefrontal cortex in the outbred NMRI mice exposed to nicotine via maternal drinking water during gestation. Cotinine levels were assessed in newborn pups. Behaviors related to anxiety, compulsivity, working memory, and locomotion were evaluated in both sexes of young adult offspring using the elevated zero maze, marble burying, spontaneous alternation behavior, and locomotor activity tests. Expression of mRNA coding for different glutamate receptors subunits within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured using RT-qPCR. Cotinine levels in the serum of newborns confirmed fetal nicotine exposure. Both male and female offspring showed ADHD-like behaviors, such as deficit in the SAB test and hyperactivity. In addition, PNE male mice displayed anxiety- and compulsive-like behaviors, effects that were absent in female offspring. Finally, PNE reduced the mRNA expression of GluN1-, GluN2B-, and mGluR2-related genes within the PFC of male offspring, whereas it reduced the expression of mRNA coding for GluA2 subunit in female mice. PNE in NMRI mice induced sex-dependent behavioral changes, which parallels clinical findings following maternal cigarette smoke exposure. Alterations detected in PFC mRNA glutamate receptor proteins could contribute to the abnormal behavioral responses observed, but other signaling pathways or brain regions are likely involved in the behavioral susceptibility of PNE individuals.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipercinese/induzido quimicamente , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Agonistas Nicotínicos/efeitos adversos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Receptores de Glutamato/genética , Animais , Ansiedade/sangue , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Feminino , Hipercinese/sangue , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Nicotina/sangue , Agonistas Nicotínicos/sangue , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Receptores de Glutamato/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Behav Brain Res ; 390: 112592, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417273

RESUMO

Fronto-limbic structures and serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT2A) have been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of compulsive spectrum disorders. Schedule-Induced Polydipsia (SIP), characterized by the development of excessive drinking under intermittent food reinforcement schedules, is a valid preclinical model for studying the compulsive phenotype. In the present study, we explored the individual differences and effect of SIP in brain volume and 5-HT2A receptor binding in fronto-limbic structures in rats selected according to their compulsive drinking behavior. Rats were divided into high (HD) and low drinkers (LD) by SIP (20 sessions); later, we analyzed the brains of HD and LD selected rats, in two different conditions: non-re-exposure (NRE) or re-exposure to SIP (RE), with four groups: LD-NRE, LD-RE, HD-NRE and HD-RE. Histological analyses were carried out for volumetric (stereology) and receptor binding (autoradiography) in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex, dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. After SIP re-exposure, HD-RE showed an increased basolateral amygdala and a reduced hippocampus volume compared to HD-NRE rats, and also compared to LD-RE rats. No differences were found between HD and LD in NRE condition. Moreover, HD rats exhibit a lower 5-HT2A receptor binding in the basolateral amygdala, independently of SIP re-exposure, compared to LD rats. However, LD-RE showed a decreased 5-HT2A receptor binding in basolateral amygdala compared to LD-NRE. No differences were found in the remaining structures. These findings suggest that SIP might be differentially impacting HD and LD brains, pointing towards a possible explanation of how the latent vulnerability to compulsivity is triggered.

20.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 38, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levels of physical activity and variation in physical activity and sedentary time by place and person in European children and adolescents are largely unknown. The objective of the study was to assess the variations in objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in children and adolescents across Europe. METHODS: Six databases were systematically searched to identify pan-European and national data sets on physical activity and sedentary time assessed by the same accelerometer in children (2 to 9.9 years) and adolescents (≥10 to 18 years). We harmonized individual-level data by reprocessing hip-worn raw accelerometer data files from 30 different studies conducted between 1997 and 2014, representing 47,497 individuals (2-18 years) from 18 different European countries. RESULTS: Overall, a maximum of 29% (95% CI: 25, 33) of children and 29% (95% CI: 25, 32) of adolescents were categorized as sufficiently physically active. We observed substantial country- and region-specific differences in physical activity and sedentary time, with lower physical activity levels and prevalence estimates in Southern European countries. Boys were more active and less sedentary in all age-categories. The onset of age-related lowering or leveling-off of physical activity and increase in sedentary time seems to become apparent at around 6 to 7 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Two third of European children and adolescents are not sufficiently active. Our findings suggest substantial gender-, country- and region-specific differences in physical activity. These results should encourage policymakers, governments, and local and national stakeholders to take action to facilitate an increase in the physical activity levels of young people across Europe.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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