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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 854-868, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585109

RESUMO

Cadherins constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The extracellular domain of cadherins consists of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, separated by calcium binding sites. The EC interacts with other cadherin molecules in cis and in trans to mechanically hold apposing cell surfaces together. CDH2 encodes N-cadherin, whose essential roles in neural development include neuronal migration and axon pathfinding. However, CDH2 has not yet been linked to a Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants (seven missense, two frameshift) in CDH2 in nine individuals with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, variable axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies. All seven missense variants (c.1057G>A [p.Asp353Asn]; c.1789G>A [p.Asp597Asn]; c.1789G>T [p.Asp597Tyr]; c.1802A>C [p.Asn601Thr]; c.1839C>G [p.Cys613Trp]; c.1880A>G [p.Asp627Gly]; c.2027A>G [p.Tyr676Cys]) result in substitution of highly conserved residues, and six of seven cluster within EC domains 4 and 5. Four of the substitutions affect the calcium-binding site in the EC4-EC5 interdomain. We show that cells expressing these variants in the EC4-EC5 domains have a defect in cell-cell adhesion; this defect includes impaired binding in trans with N-cadherin-WT expressed on apposing cells. The two frameshift variants (c.2563_2564delCT [p.Leu855Valfs∗4]; c.2564_2567dupTGTT [p.Leu856Phefs∗5]) are predicted to lead to a truncated cytoplasmic domain. Our study demonstrates that de novo heterozygous variants in CDH2 impair the adhesive activity of N-cadherin, resulting in a multisystemic developmental disorder, that could be named ACOG syndrome (agenesis of corpus callosum, axon pathfinding, cardiac, ocular, and genital defects).

2.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20092, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies, organised germline screening, independent of the personal and family cancer history, has been frequently proposed. Since ethnic and geographic populations significantly differ in their mutation spectra and prevalence, one critical prerequisite would be the knowledge of the expected carrier frequencies. OBJECTIVE: For the first time, in a retrospective non-cancer related cohort from a single Swiss genetic centre, we systematically assessed the prevalence of secondary findings in 19 genes (BRCA1/2 plus 17 non-BRCA genes) previously designated by the US National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) germline testing. DESIGN: A total of 400 individuals without a cancer diagnosis undergoing whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) from 2015 to 2017 at IMG Zurich were included after quality assessment. Among these, 180 were unaffected parental couples, 27 unaffected parental singles and 13 NDD index patients (mean age 43 years). The majority of the cohort was of Caucasian ethnicity (n = 336, 84.0%) and of Northwest European ancestry (n = 202, 50.5%), for 70 of whom (42.5%) an autochthonous Swiss descent was assumed. For WES filtering of rare, potentially actionable secondary variants in HBOC genes, an overall minor allele frequency (MAF) below 0.65% was used as cut-off. Each rare variant was manually evaluated according to the recommended ACGM-AMP standards, with some adaptations including “hypomorphic” as an additional distinct pathogenicity class. RESULTS: Overall, 526 rare secondary variants (339 different variants) were encountered, with the BRCA1/2 genes accounting for 27.2% of the total variant yield. If stratified for variant pathogenicity, for BRCA1/2, three pathogenic variants were found in three females of Italian ancestry (carrier frequency of 0.8%). In the non-BRCA genes, five carriers of (likely) pathogenic variants (1.3%) were identified, with two Swiss individuals harbouring the same CHEK2 Arg160Gly variant known to be recurrent among Caucasians. Hence, the overall carrier rate added up to 2.0%. Additionally, seven various hypomorphic HBOC predisposing alleles were detected in 22 individuals (5.5%). CONCLUSION: We provide the first evidence of a high prevalence of HBOC-related cancer susceptibility in the heterogeneous Swiss general population and relevant subpopulations, particularly in individuals of Italian descent. These pioneering data may substantiate population-based HBOC screening in Switzerland.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1210-1222, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079897

RESUMO

We delineate a KMT2E-related neurodevelopmental disorder on the basis of 38 individuals in 36 families. This study includes 31 distinct heterozygous variants in KMT2E (28 ascertained from Matchmaker Exchange and three previously reported), and four individuals with chromosome 7q22.2-22.23 microdeletions encompassing KMT2E (one previously reported). Almost all variants occurred de novo, and most were truncating. Most affected individuals with protein-truncating variants presented with mild intellectual disability. One-quarter of individuals met criteria for autism. Additional common features include macrocephaly, hypotonia, functional gastrointestinal abnormalities, and a subtle facial gestalt. Epilepsy was present in about one-fifth of individuals with truncating variants and was responsive to treatment with anti-epileptic medications in almost all. More than 70% of the individuals were male, and expressivity was variable by sex; epilepsy was more common in females and autism more common in males. The four individuals with microdeletions encompassing KMT2E generally presented similarly to those with truncating variants, but the degree of developmental delay was greater. The group of four individuals with missense variants in KMT2E presented with the most severe developmental delays. Epilepsy was present in all individuals with missense variants, often manifesting as treatment-resistant infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Microcephaly was also common in this group. Haploinsufficiency versus gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects specific to these missense variants in KMT2E might explain this divergence in phenotype, but requires independent validation. Disruptive variants in KMT2E are an under-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

4.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2043-2058, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842647

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microcephaly is a sign of many genetic conditions but has been rarely systematically evaluated. We therefore comprehensively studied the clinical and genetic landscape of an unselected cohort of patients with microcephaly. METHODS: We performed clinical assessment, high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, exome sequencing, and functional studies in 62 patients (58% with primary microcephaly [PM], 27% with secondary microcephaly [SM], and 15% of unknown onset). RESULTS: We found severity of developmental delay/intellectual disability correlating with severity of microcephaly in PM, but not SM. We detected causative variants in 48.4% of patients and found divergent inheritance and variant pattern for PM (mainly recessive and likely gene-disrupting [LGD]) versus SM (all dominant de novo and evenly LGD or missense). While centrosome-related pathways were solely identified in PM, transcriptional regulation was the most frequently affected pathway in both SM and PM. Unexpectedly, we found causative variants in different mitochondria-related genes accounting for ~5% of patients, which emphasizes their role even in syndromic PM. Additionally, we delineated novel candidate genes involved in centrosome-related pathway (SPAG5, TEDC1), Wnt signaling (VPS26A, ZNRF3), and RNA trafficking (DDX1). CONCLUSION: Our findings enable improved evaluation and genetic counseling of PM and SM patients and further elucidate microcephaly pathways.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(3): 408-421, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552426

RESUMO

Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EE) and combined developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous severely devastating conditions. Recent studies emphasized de novo variants as major underlying cause suggesting a generally low-recurrence risk. In order to better understand the full genetic landscape of EE and DEE, we performed high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis in combination with whole-exome sequencing in 63 deeply phenotyped independent patients. After bioinformatic filtering for rare variants, diagnostic yield was improved for recessive disorders by manual data curation as well as molecular modeling of missense variants and untargeted plasma-metabolomics in selected patients. In total, we yielded a diagnosis in ∼42% of cases with causative copy number variants in 6 patients (∼10%) and causative sequence variants in 16 established disease genes in 20 patients (∼32%), including compound heterozygosity for causative sequence and copy number variants in one patient. In total, 38% of diagnosed cases were caused by recessive genes, of which two cases escaped automatic calling due to one allele occurring de novo. Notably, we found the recessive gene SPATA5 causative in as much as 3% of our cohort, indicating that it may have been underdiagnosed in previous studies. We further support candidacy for neurodevelopmental disorders of four previously described genes (PIK3AP1, GTF3C3, UFC1, and WRAP53), three of which also followed a recessive inheritance pattern. Our results therefore confirm the importance of de novo causative gene variants in EE/DEE, but additionally illustrate the major role of mostly compound heterozygous or hemizygous recessive inheritance and consequently high-recurrence risk.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epilepsia/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Exoma , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 11(1)2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567240

RESUMO

Male osteoporosis often remains unrecognised. Osteoporotic fractures occur approximately 10 years later in men than in women due to higher peak bone mass. However, 30% of all hip fractures occur in men. Risk factors of osteoporotic fractures can be grouped into primary and secondary causes. We present the case of a 53-year-old man, who suffered a compression fracture of a lumbar vertebra after a generalised seizure and an atraumatic rib fracture 5 months later. We could exclude secondary causes of bone mineral loss such as primary hyperparathyroidism, glucocorticoid use and hypogonadism. However, a heterozygous missense mutation of the COL1A1 gene in exon 48 in further search of a secondary cause was found. Therapy was changed from bisphosphonate treatment to teriparatide. Considering the lack of other osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) symptoms and signs, the patient's illness can be classified as mild. OI should be considered as differential diagnosis in unexplained cases with osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Fraturas por Compressão/genética , Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Osteoporose/genética , Fraturas por Osteoporose/genética , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/genética , Densidade Óssea/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Osteoporose/complicações
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 305-316, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057029

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing combined with international data sharing has enormously facilitated identification of new disease-associated genes and mutations. This is particularly true for genetically extremely heterogeneous entities such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Through exome sequencing and world-wide collaborations, we identified and assembled 20 individuals with de novo variants in FBXO11. They present with mild to severe developmental delay associated with a range of features including short (4/20) or tall (2/20) stature, obesity (5/20), microcephaly (4/19) or macrocephaly (2/19), behavioral problems (17/20), seizures (5/20), cleft lip or palate or bifid uvula (3/20), and minor skeletal anomalies. FBXO11 encodes a member of the F-Box protein family, constituting a subunit of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex. This complex is involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus in controlling critical biological processes by regulating protein turnover. The identified de novo aberrations comprise two large deletions, ten likely gene disrupting variants, and eight missense variants distributed throughout FBXO11. Structural modeling for missense variants located in the CASH or the Zinc-finger UBR domains suggests destabilization of the protein. This, in combination with the observed spectrum and localization of identified variants and the lack of apparent genotype-phenotype correlations, is compatible with loss of function or haploinsufficiency as an underlying mechanism. We implicate de novo missense and likely gene disrupting variants in FBXO11 in a neurodevelopmental disorder with variable intellectual disability and various other features.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(2): 197-209, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321670

RESUMO

Acrocallosal syndrome (ACLS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder caused by KIF7 defects and belongs to the heterogeneous group of ciliopathies related to Joubert syndrome (JBTS). While ACLS is characterized by macrocephaly, prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, and hypertelorism, facial dysmorphism has not been emphasized in JBTS cohorts with molecular diagnosis. To evaluate the specificity and etiology of ACLS craniofacial features, we performed whole exome or targeted Sanger sequencing in patients with the aforementioned overlapping craniofacial appearance but variable additional ciliopathy features followed by functional studies. We found (likely) pathogenic variants of KIF7 in 5 out of 9 families, including the original ACLS patients, and delineated 1000 to 4000-year-old Swiss founder alleles. Three of the remaining families had (likely) pathogenic variants in the JBTS gene C5orf42, and one patient had a novel de novo frameshift variant in SHH known to cause autosomal dominant holoprosencephaly. In accordance with the patients' craniofacial anomalies, we showed facial midline widening after silencing of C5orf42 in chicken embryos. We further supported the link between KIF7, SHH, and C5orf42 by demonstrating abnormal primary cilia and diminished response to a SHH agonist in fibroblasts of C5orf42-mutated patients, as well as axonal pathfinding errors in C5orf42-silenced chicken embryos similar to those observed after perturbation of Shh signaling. Our findings, therefore, suggest that beside the neurodevelopmental features, macrocephaly and facial widening are likely more general signs of disturbed SHH signaling. Nevertheless, long-term follow-up revealed that C5orf42-mutated patients showed catch-up development and fainting of facial features contrary to KIF7-mutated patients.

9.
Mol Syndromol ; 8(5): 266-271, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878611

RESUMO

Chromosomal mosaicism, which represents a diagnostic challenge for detection and interpretation, has been described in several genetic conditions. It can contribute to a large phenotypic variation in diseases. At analysis of a well-characterized cohort of 714 patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) of unknown etiology using a high-resolution chromosomal microarray platform, we found 2 cases (0.28%) of low-level mosaicism and defined a previously detected extra chromosome in a third patient. Two of the cases were mosaics for segmental imbalances (a partial trisomy 3q26.1q27.3 and a partial monosomy 18q21.2qter with 14.6 and 20% mosaic ratios in lymphocytes, respectively), and 1 was a mosaic for an entire chromosome (trisomy 14, mosaic ratio 20%). Our diagnostic yield is in line with the ratios previously published in patients with intellectual disability. Notably, the partial trisomy 3q26.1q27.3 case is an example of a rare and unusual class of a rearranged neocentric ring chromosome, which can neither be categorized in class I, nor in class II of such rearrangements. Our cases further elucidate the phenotypes related to the aberrations of the specific chromosome segments observed and underline the important role of low-level mosaics in the pathogenesis of NDDs of unknown etiology even in the absence of clinical signs of mosaicism.

10.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 58(10): 3840-3850, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28763557

RESUMO

Purpose: To define the phenotype of C2orf71 associated retinopathy and to present novel mutations in this gene. Methods: A retrospective multicenter study of patients with retinopathy and identified C2orf71 mutations was performed. Ocular function (visual acuity, visual fields, electroretinogram [ERG] responses); retinal morphology (fundus, optical coherence tomography); and underlying mutations were analyzed. Results: Thirteen patients from 11 families, who were aged 7 to 63 years (mean: 32.1 years) at their first examination with presumed compound heterozygous (6/13 patients) or homozygous (7/13 patients) C2orf71 mutations were identified. Eight of the mutations were novel. Truncation mutations were responsible in all cases. Nyctalopia was observed in less than 50% of patients. Visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to light perception. Severe visual loss was associated with atrophic maculopathy. Full-field ERG responses showed severe progressive cone-rod or rod-cone dysfunction. Typical fundus changes were progressive symmetrical retinopathy with an early mild maculopathy and patchy circular midperipheral RPE atrophy. Normal retinal lamination was preserved despite early disruption of the ellipsoid zone and RPE irregularities. Outer retinal tubulations were associated with better-preserved visual acuity. Conclusions: On the basis of our multicenter analysis, C2orf71 might represent a more frequently mutated gene in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in some populations. The phenotype analysis over a wide age range showed a variable and progressive retinal degeneration with early onset maculopathy and a better visual potential before the age of 30 years.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Olho/genética , Mutação , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Retinite Pigmentosa/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(5): 602-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25099252

RESUMO

Recent studies revealed the power of whole-exome sequencing to identify mutations in sporadic cases with non-syndromic intellectual disability. We now identified de novo missense variants in NAA10 in two unrelated individuals, a boy and a girl, with severe global developmental delay but without any major dysmorphism by trio whole-exome sequencing. Both de novo variants were predicted to be deleterious, and we excluded other variants in this gene. This X-linked gene encodes N-alpha-acetyltransferase 10, the catalytic subunit of the NatA complex involved in multiple cellular processes. A single hypomorphic missense variant p.(Ser37Pro) was previously associated with Ogden syndrome in eight affected males from two different families. This rare disorder is characterized by a highly recognizable phenotype, global developmental delay and results in death during infancy. In an attempt to explain the discrepant phenotype, we used in vitro N-terminal acetylation assays which suggested that the severity of the phenotype correlates with the remaining catalytic activity. The variant in the Ogden syndrome patients exhibited a lower activity than the one seen in the boy with intellectual disability, while the variant in the girl was the most severe exhibiting only residual activity in the acetylation assays used. We propose that N-terminal acetyltransferase deficiency is clinically heterogeneous with the overall catalytic activity determining the phenotypic severity.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/genética , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Éxons , Facies , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal A/química , Acetiltransferase N-Terminal E/química , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência
13.
J Med Genet ; 51(10): 677-88, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25106414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite abundant evidence for pathogenicity of large copy number variants (CNVs) in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), the individual significance of genome-wide rare CNVs <500 kb has not been well elucidated in a clinical context. METHODS: By high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, we investigated the clinical significance of all rare non-polymorphic exonic CNVs sizing 1-500 kb in a cohort of 714 patients with undiagnosed NDDs. RESULTS: We detected 96 rare CNVs <500 kb affecting coding regions, of which 58 (60.4%) were confirmed. 6 of 14 confirmed de novo, one of two homozygous and four heterozygous inherited CNVs affected the known microdeletion regions 17q21.31, 16p11.2 and 2p21 or OMIM morbid genes (CASK, CREBBP, PAFAH1B1, SATB2; AUTS2, NRXN3, GRM8). Two further de novo CNVs affecting single genes (MED13L, CTNND2) were instrumental in delineating novel recurrent conditions. For the first time, we here report exonic deletions of CTNND2 causing low normal IQ with learning difficulties with or without autism spectrum disorder. Additionally, we discovered a homozygous out-of-frame deletion of ACOT7 associated with features comparable to the published mouse model. In total, 24.1% of the confirmed small CNVs were categorised as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (median size 130 kb), 17.2% as likely benign, 3.4% represented incidental findings and 55.2% remained unclear. CONCLUSIONS: These results verify the diagnostic relevance of genome-wide rare CNVs <500 kb, which were found pathogenic in ∼2% (14/714) of cases (1.1% de novo, 0.3% homozygous, 0.6% inherited) and highlight their inherent potential for discovery of new conditions.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(5): 1277-83, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24664804

RESUMO

Proximal deletions of the long arm of chromosome 13 have been reported only rarely. Here we present three unrelated patients with heterozygous, apparently de novo deletions encompassing 13q12.3. The patients present with moderate demonstrated or apparent intellectual disability, postnatal microcephaly, and eczema/atopic dermatitis as the predominant symptoms. In addition, they had pronounced feeding difficulties in early infancy. They displayed similar facial features such as malar flattening, a prominent nose with underdeveloped alae nasi, a smooth philtrum, and a thin vermillion of the upper lip. The proximal and distal breakpoints were clustered and the deletions spanned from 1.4 to 1.7 Mb, comprising at least 11 RefSeq genes. However, heterozygous deletions partially overlapping those observed in the present patients have been described in healthy parents of patients with Peters-Plus syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by inactivation of the B3GALTL gene. We therefore propose that the critical region of the 13q12.3 microdeletion syndrome contains only three genes, namely, KATNAL1, HMGB1, and LINC00426, a non-protein coding RNA. The KATNAL1 protein belongs to a family of microtubule severing enzymes that have been implicated in CNS plasticity in experimental models, but little is known about its function in humans. The HMGB1 protein is an evolutionarily conserved chromatin-associated protein involved in many biologically important processes. In summary, we propose that microdeletion 13q12.3 represents a novel clinically recognizable condition and that the microtubule severing gene KATNAL1 and the chromatin-associated gene HMGB1 are candidate genes for intellectual disability inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13 , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Dermatite Atópica , Eczema , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual , Cariotipagem , Katanina , Masculino , Microcefalia
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 21(10): 1100-4, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23403903

RESUMO

A chromosomal balanced translocation disrupting the MED13L (Mediator complex subunit13-like) gene, encoding a subunit of the Mediator complex, was previously associated with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and intellectual disability (ID), and led to the identification of missense mutations in three patients with isolated TGA. Recently, a homozygous missense mutation in MED13L was found in two siblings with non-syndromic ID from a consanguineous family. Here, we describe for the first time, three patients with copy number changes affecting MED13L and delineate a recognizable MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome. Using high resolution molecular karyotyping, we identified two intragenic de novo frameshift deletions, likely resulting in haploinsufficiency, in two patients with a similar phenotype of hypotonia, moderate ID, conotruncal heart defect and facial anomalies. In both, Sanger sequencing of MED13L did not reveal any pathogenic mutation and exome sequencing in one patient showed no evidence for a non-allelic second hit. A further patient with hypotonia, learning difficulties and perimembranous VSD showed a 1 Mb de novo triplication in 12q24.2, including MED13L and MAP1LC3B2. Our findings show that MED13L haploinsufficiency in contrast to the previously observed missense mutations cause a distinct syndromic phenotype. Additionally, a MED13L copy number gain results in a milder phenotype. The clinical features suggesting a neurocristopathy may be explained by animal model studies indicating involvement of the Mediator complex subunit 13 in neural crest induction.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Haploinsuficiência , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Fenótipo , Síndrome
16.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 27(7): 1197-200, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22415584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) shows a great phenotypic variability between patients, ranging from perinatal demise to mildly affected adults. Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (PCLD) does not manifest in childhood. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: A boy was reported with the co-occurrence of ARPKD and PCLD. He presented at the age of 16 days with pyelonephritis and urosepsis. Subsequent investigations showed enlarged kidneys and hyperechogenic renal medulla and liver parenchyma. Genetic analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the PKHD1 gene (p.Arg496X and p.Ser1862Leu). After his mother was diagnosed with PCLD, the finding of a liver cyst on ultrasound prompted analysis of the PRKCSH gene, revealing a missense mutation (p.Arg139His). At the most recent follow-up at 13 years of age, the patient's course and clinical examination was uneventful with normal renal and liver function without evidence of portal hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The patient with ARPKD and PCLD has so far demonstrated a benign clinical outcome, consistent with the great phenotypic variability of ARPKD and, apart from the liver cyst, asymptomatic manifestation of PCLD in childhood. However, close long-term follow-up is mandatory.


Assuntos
Cistos/complicações , Cistos/genética , Glucosidases/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Hepatopatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/genética , Rim Policístico Autossômico Recessivo/complicações , Rim Policístico Autossômico Recessivo/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 18(12): 1315-21, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20648054

RESUMO

Aortic dilatation/dissection (AD) can occur spontaneously or in association with genetic syndromes, such as Marfan syndrome (MFS; caused by FBN1 mutations), MFS type 2 and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (associated with TGFBR1/TGFBR2 mutations), and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) vascular type (caused by COL3A1 mutations). Although mutations in FBN1 and TGFBR1/TGFBR2 account for the majority of AD cases referred to us for molecular genetic testing, we have obtained negative results for these genes in a large cohort of AD patients, suggesting the involvement of additional genes or acquired factors. In this study we assessed the effect of COL3A1 deletions/duplications in this cohort. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of 100 unrelated patients identified one hemizygous deletion of the entire COL3A1 gene. Subsequent microarray analyses and sequencing of breakpoints revealed the deletion size of 3,408,306 bp at 2q32.1q32.3. This deletion affects not only COL3A1 but also 21 other known genes (GULP1, DIRC1, COL5A2, WDR75, SLC40A1, ASNSD1, ANKAR, OSGEPL1, ORMDL1, LOC100129592, PMS1, MSTN, C2orf88, HIBCH, INPP1, MFSD6, TMEM194B, NAB1, GLS, STAT1, and STAT4), mutations in three of which (COL5A2, SLC40A1, and MSTN) have also been associated with an autosomal dominant disorder (EDS classical type, hemochromatosis type 4, and muscle hypertrophy). Physical and laboratory examinations revealed that true haploinsufficiency of COL3A1, COL5A2, and MSTN, but not that of SLC40A1, leads to a clinical phenotype. Our data not only emphasize the impact/role of COL3A1 in AD patients but also extend the molecular etiology of several disorders by providing hitherto unreported evidence for true haploinsufficiency of the underlying gene.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/genética , Colágeno Tipo III/genética , Colágeno Tipo V/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Hemizigoto , Miostatina/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Pareamento de Bases/genética , Sequência de Bases , Quebra Cromossômica , Colágeno Tipo III/ultraestrutura , Colágeno Tipo V/ultraestrutura , Sondas de DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 17(10): 1207-15, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19277062

RESUMO

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked developmental disorder with male lethality characterized by patchy dermal hypoplasia, skeletal and dental malformations, and microphthalmia or anophthalmia. Recently, heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the PORCN gene have been described to cause FDH. FDH shows some clinical overlap with the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome, another X-linked male lethal condition, associated with mutations of HCCS in the majority of cases. We performed DNA sequencing of PORCN in 13 female patients with the clinical diagnosis of FDH as well as four female patients with MLS syndrome and no mutation in HCCS. We identified PORCN mutations in all female patients with FDH. Eleven patients seem to have constitutional PORCN alterations in the heterozygous state and two individuals are mosaic for the heterozygous sequence change in PORCN. No PORCN mutation was identified in the MLS-affected patients, providing further evidence that FDH and MLS do not overlap genetically. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) analysis revealed a random or slightly skewed XCI pattern in leukocytes of individuals with intragenic PORCN mutation suggesting that defective PORCN does not lead to selective growth disadvantage, at least in leukocytes. We conclude that the PORCN mutation detection rate is high in individuals with a clear-cut FDH phenotype and somatic mosaicism can be present in a significant proportion of patients with mild or classic FDH.


Assuntos
Hipoplasia Dérmica Focal/genética , Microftalmia/genética , Aciltransferases , Processamento Alternativo , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos X , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Hipoplasia Dérmica Focal/complicações , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Microftalmia/complicações , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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