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1.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237926

RESUMO

Introduction: Most of the current evidence regarding pneumococcal upper respiratory colonization in adults suggests that despite high disease burden, carriage prevalence is low. Contemporary studies on adult pneumococcal colonization have largely followed the pediatric approach by which samples are obtained mostly from the nasopharynx and bacterial detection is evaluated by routine culture alone. Recent evidence suggests that the "pediatric approach" may be insufficient in adults and pneumococcal detection in this population may be improved by longitudinal studies that include samples from additional respiratory sites combined with more extensive laboratory testing.Areas covered: In this article, relevant literature published in peer review journals on adult pneumococcal colonization, epidemiology, detection methods, and recommendations were reviewed.Expert opinion: Respiratory carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been underestimated in adults. Contemporary pneumococcal carriage studies in adults that collect samples from alternative respiratory sites such as the oropharynx, saliva, or nasal wash; are culture-enriched for pneumococcus; and use molecular diagnostic methods designed to target two pneumococcal DNA sequences should enhance pneumococcal detection in the adult respiratory tract. This finding may have implications for the interpretation of dynamics of pneumococcal transmission and vaccination.

2.
Sci Immunol ; 5(44)2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111619

RESUMO

We investigated the molecular and cellular basis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in six patients with otofaciocervical syndrome type 2 who failed to attain T cell reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, despite successful engraftment in three of them. We identified rare biallelic PAX1 rare variants in all patients. We demonstrated that these mutant PAX1 proteins have an altered conformation and flexibility of the paired box domain and reduced transcriptional activity. We generated patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells and differentiated them into thymic epithelial progenitor cells and found that they have an altered transcriptional profile, including for genes involved in the development of the thymus and other tissues derived from pharyngeal pouches. These results identify biallelic, loss-of-function PAX1 mutations as the cause of a syndromic form of SCID due to altered thymus development.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is the prototype of primary humoral immunodeficiencies. Long-term follow-up studies regarding disease-related complications and outcome are scarse. OBJECTIVE: To describe the natural history of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. METHODS: A nationwide multicenter study based on the IPINet registry was established in 2000 in Italy. Affected patients were enrolled by documenting centers and patients' laboratory, clinical and imaging data were recorded on an annual base. RESULTS: Patients' data (N=168) derived from a cumulative follow-up of 1370 patient years with a mean follow-up of 8.35 years per patient. Mean age at diagnosis decreased upon the establishment of the IPINet registry (84 months before versus 23 months after). Respiratory, skin and gastrointestinal manifestations were the most frequent clinical symptoms at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up. Regular immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduced the incidence of invasive infections. Affected patients developed chronic lung disease over time (47% after 40 years of follow-up) in the presence of chronic sinusitis (84%). Malignancies were documented in a minority of cases (3.7%). Overall survival for affected patients was significantly reduced when compared to the healthy male Italian population, and further deteriorated in the presence of chronic lung disease. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed long-term follow-up study for XLA patients revealing that while immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduces the incidence of invasive infections, it does not appear to influence the development of chronic lung disease. Overall survival of affected patients is reduced. Further studies are warranted in order to improve patients' clinical management and increase awareness among physicians.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(4): 294-297, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiologic characteristics of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease (HIBD) have markedly changed since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine worldwide. The immunization schedule against Haemophilus influenzae type b differs in Europe. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study which evaluates all the data included in the molecular surveillance register for invasive infectious diseases at the Laboratory of Molecular Diagnosis at Meyer Children's University Hospital from December 2008 to December 2018 with a diagnosis of invasive HIBD in children <5 years of age. RESULTS: We identified 4 cases of HIBD: all the cases presented signs or symptoms of invasive infection and the H. influenzae type b was identified in cerebrospinal fluid, or blood or bronchoalveolar lavage by molecular test. The crude incidence for Hib invasive disease in Tuscany is 0.26/100,000 p-y in children younger than 5 years, significantly different from the incidence rate before the introduction of the Hib vaccination. Vaccination effectiveness can be estimated at 97.9% and the impact of hexavalent (2p+1) vaccine at 99.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This work confirms the high impact of the hexavalent vaccine 2p+1 schedule for HIBD in children <5 years, emphasizing the role of molecular test for HIBD diagnosis and surveillance.

5.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(4): 547-553, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072304

RESUMO

Worldwide, lifestyle and resource disparities among adolescents contribute to unmet health needs, which have crucial present and future public health implications for both adolescents and broader communities. Risk of infection among adolescents is amplified by biological, behavioral, and environmental factors; however, infectious diseases to which adolescents are susceptible are often preventable with vaccines. Beyond these concerns, there is a lack of knowledge regarding adolescent vaccination and disease risk among parents and adolescents, which can contribute to low vaccine uptake. Promising efforts have been made to improve adolescent vaccination by programs with motivational drivers and comprehensive communication with the public. In May 2017, a multidisciplinary group of experts met in Amsterdam, Netherlands, to discuss adolescent vaccine uptake, as part of an educational initiative called the Advancing Adolescent Health Spring Forum. This article presents consensus opinions resulting from the meeting, which pertain to the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases among adolescents, reasons for low vaccine uptake, and common characteristics of successful strategies for improving adolescent vaccination.Conclusion: There is an urgent "call to action," particularly targeting healthcare providers and public health authorities, for the prioritization of adolescent vaccination as a necessary element of preventive healthcare in this age group.What is Known:• Despite increased risk of certain infectious diseases, adolescent vaccination uptake remains low.What is New:• Barriers to adolescent vaccine uptake include lack of information regarding vaccines and disease risk, health system inadequacies, and insufficient healthcare follow-up.• Successful efforts to improve adolescent vaccine uptake need cohesive leadership and involvement of multiple stakeholders, as well as youth-friendly messaging; healthcare providers and policymakers should prioritize adolescent vaccination and implement proven program strategies to improve adolescent health worldwide.

6.
J Chemother ; 32(2): 98-102, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037986

RESUMO

We present the first Italian reported case of an invasive meningococcal disease with rifampicin-resistance (Rif-R)secondary to chemoprophylaxis. The case is entered in a cluster of two IMDs registered in Tuscany, Italy, in November 2019 caused by two non-differentiable group-C Neisseria meningitidis belonging to ST-11 clonal-complex. The contact case, differently from the index, harbored H552Y mutation on rpoB gene which is known to confer Rif-R putting a high-cost fee on bacterial fitness. The extremely mild clinical presentation in the contact can constitute an in vivo demonstration of the virulence attenuation observed in vitro for H552Ymutants. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of secondary cases with induced Rif-R and keep a high level of suspicion on contacts who received rifampicin-chemoprophylaxis. Molecular characterization of Rif-R should be performed routinely directly on biological samples and not only on isolates, in order to rapidly detect rare cases of resistance and consequently modify chemoprophylaxis for contacts.

7.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 23(3): 448-453, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Granulomatous diseases are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate with a core of macrophages, epithelioid, giant cells and a corona of fibroblasts and lymphocytes. They are associated with a wide range of disorders such as mycobacterial and fungal infections, neoplasms, immunodeficiencies and systemic inflammatory disorders as sarcoidosis. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a previously healthy 9-year-old male child who presented with persistent cough, diffuse lymphadenopathy, enlargement of liver and spleen and protracted fever. Anemia, lymphopenia and reduced platelet count was reported, with an increase of inflammatory markers. High levels of Angiotensin-converting enzyme and chitotriosidases were noted. A PET-CT scan showed increased uptake of 18 F-FDG glucose in multiple lymph nodes in thorax and abdomen and in the spleen. Biopsy of inguinal and bronchial nodes showed nodal granulomatous inflammation. The child was diagnosed with sarcoidosis and treated with corticosteroids with only transient efficacy. Further tests reported panhypogammaglobulinaemia and a reduced pool of B-memory lymphocytes. Thus, the diagnosis was revised to common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). CONCLUSION: Common variable immunodeficiency is a heterogeneous condition with a highly variable clinical phenotype and a strong association with autoimmune disorders. The presence of noncaseating granuloma and pulmonary lesions, along with extrapulmonary features required a step by step approach to differentiate between CVID and sarcoidosis. This enables early introduction of immunoglobulin replacement therapy and decreases the morbidity and mortality of CVID.

8.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2019 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885296

RESUMO

Objective: T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KREC) assays have been used for severe combined immunodeficiencies newborn screening (NBS). We assessed TREC and KREC NBS values in preterm infants and investigated if perinatal characteristics affect their values.Methods: We performed a retrospective study collecting data from TREC and KREC NBS database and from mothers' and infants' medical charts.Results: TREC and KREC values were lower in preterm infants born at 23-31 or 32-36 weeks of gestation than in term infants. Gestational age <28 weeks of gestation, leukopenia, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy lowered TREC. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy lowered KREC and intrapartum fever >38 °C increased it. Low TREC and KREC values were not associated to the risk of developing early-onset sepsis and late-onset sepsis.Conclusion: TREC and KREC levels are lower in preterm than term infants, but this did not increase the risk of neonatal sepsis.

9.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1955, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507590

RESUMO

This is the first case of NBAS disease detected by NBS for primary immunodeficiency. NBS with KRECs is revealing unknown potentialities detecting conditions that benefit from early recognition like NBAS deficiency. Immune phenotyping should be mandatory in patients with NBAS deficiency since they can exhibit severe immunodeficiency with hypogammaglobulinemia as the most frequent finding. Fever during infections is a known trigger of acute liver failure in this syndrome, so immune dysfunction, should never go unnoticed in NBAS deficiency in order to start adequate therapy and prophylaxis.

10.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol ; 32(2): 70-75, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508259

RESUMO

Background: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin G (SCIG) may be a better option than intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) for patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) due to reduced systemic and serious adverse reactions and easier administration. The Infusione Bimensile di Immunoglobuline Sottocute (IBIS) study investigated the effects of Hizentra®, a 20%-concentrated SCIG, administered biweekly in patients with PID. This subanalysis aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratory outcomes in the IBIS pediatric subcohort. Methods: Thirteen children with PID were observed for 12 months retrospectively (with previous IVIG/SCIG) and prospectively with biweekly Hizentra. Results: Mean ± standard deviation serum IG levels during the retrospective (833.8 ± 175.7 mg/dL) and the prospective (842.0 ± 188.0 mg/dL) phases were comparable; there were also no differences in the number of infections. Conclusions: Biweekly Hizentra is a noninferior option with respect to previous IVIG/SCIG-based treatment.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 948, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543816

RESUMO

Background: The concern for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and anti-vaccination movements that lacked scientific evidence-based supports may reduce vaccine uptake in the general population. Thus, the aims of the present study were to characterize AEFI in general population (all age groups), in terms of frequency, preventability, and seriousness and to define predictors of their seriousness in children. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on suspected AEFI reports for children and adults who received any form of vaccinations, collected in Tuscany, Italy, between 1 January and 31 December 2017. Patients' characteristics, suspected vaccines, and AEFI description were collected. Causality and preventability were assessed using WHO and Schumock and Thornton algorithms, respectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate the reporting odds ratios of potential predictors of AEFI seriousness in children. Results: A total of 223 suspected AEFI reports were collected, and the majority of them were defined as non-serious (76.7%). Reports were mostly related to one vaccine, and to a median of two to five strains/toxoids. The total number of simultaneously administered strains/toxoids and the presence of allergens did not correlate with AEFI seriousness. Considering vaccines with a high number of administered doses (≥60,000 doses), the rates estimated for serious AEFI reports were always very low, ranging between 0.01 and 0.2/1,000 doses. Twenty-four vaccines (8,993 doses) were not related to any AEFI. Conclusion: Results of present study showed that AEFI were very rare; the vast majority of them was non-serious and, despite the claims of anti-vaccination movements, the simultaneous administration of vaccines was safe and did not influence the risk of reporting a serious AEFI, particularly in children.

12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 7(4)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554213

RESUMO

The effectiveness and impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) due to serotype 3 (ser3) has been questioned. However, the impact of PCV13 on different clinical presentations of ser3-IPD has not been studied so far. The impact of PCV13 on different clinical presentations of ser3-IPD in a population of Italian children aged 0-8 years was evaluated, comparing pre- and post-PCV13 introduction period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the diagnosis and serotyping of IPD. During the observation period (1 January 2006-1 August 2018), ser3 was detected in 60/284 (21.1%) children under 8 with serotyped IPD. The incidence of sepsis and meningitis was 0.24 per 1,000,000 person-years (p-y) in pre-PCV13 and 0.02 per 1,000,000 p-y in post-PCV13. No cases occurred in vaccinated children. In the post-PCV13 period, case reduction was 13% for all ser3 IPD and 92% for sepsis and meningitis. Vaccination impact may be underestimated due to significant improvement in pneumococcal surveillance in post-PCVC13. Our data suggest a significant impact of PCV13 on meningitis and sepsis due to ser3 and a lower impact against pneumonia. While waiting for increasingly effective anti-pneumococcal vaccines, PCV13, which guarantees protection against the most severe clinical presentations of ser3-IPD, is currently the most effective prevention option available.

14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

16.
Front Immunol ; 10: 316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031743

RESUMO

Background: Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic immune disorders. While some PIDs can manifest with more than one phenotype, signs, and symptoms of various PIDs overlap considerably. Recently, novel defects in immune-related genes and additional variants in previously reported genes responsible for PIDs have been successfully identified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), allowing the recognition of a broad spectrum of disorders. Objective: To evaluate the strength and weakness of targeted NGS sequencing using custom-made Ion Torrent and Haloplex (Agilent) panels for diagnostics and research purposes. Methods: Five different panels including known and candidate genes were used to screen 105 patients with distinct PID features divided in three main PID categories: T cell defects, Humoral defects and Other PIDs. The Ion Torrent sequencing platform was used in 73 patients. Among these, 18 selected patients without a molecular diagnosis and 32 additional patients were analyzed by Haloplex enrichment technology. Results: The complementary use of the two custom-made targeted sequencing approaches allowed the identification of causative variants in 28.6% (n = 30) of patients. Twenty-two out of 73 (34.6%) patients were diagnosed by Ion Torrent. In this group 20 were included in the SCID/CID category. Eight out of 50 (16%) patients were diagnosed by Haloplex workflow. Ion Torrent method was highly successful for those cases with well-defined phenotypes for immunological and clinical presentation. The Haloplex approach was able to diagnose 4 SCID/CID patients and 4 additional patients with complex and extended phenotypes, embracing all three PID categories in which this approach was more efficient. Both technologies showed good gene coverage. Conclusions: NGS technology represents a powerful approach in the complex field of rare disorders but its different application should be weighted. A relatively small NGS target panel can be successfully applied for a robust diagnostic suspicion, while when the spectrum of clinical phenotypes overlaps more than one PID an in-depth NGS analysis is required, including also whole exome/genome sequencing to identify the causative gene.

17.
Vaccine ; 37(20): 2704-2711, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981627

RESUMO

Etiology and serotyping of parapneumonic effusion (PPE) and the impact of vaccination was evaluated over a 12-year period, before and after the PCV13 introduction (2011) for Italian children From 0 to 16 years of age. Five hundred and two children were evaluated; 226 blood and 356 pleural fluid samples were obtained and tested using Realtime-PCR and culture. In the pre-PCV13 era S. pneumoniae was the most frequent pathogen identified (64/90; 71.1%) with a large predominance of serotypes 1 (42.4%), 3 (23.7%), 7F (5.1%) and 19A (11.9%). The impact of vaccination, calculated on children 0-8 years of age, demonstrated a significant reduction of PPE: with an incidence rate of 2.82 (95%CL 2.32-3.41) in the pre-PCV13 era and an age-standardized rate (ASR) of 0.66 (95% CL 0.37-1.99) in the post-PCV13 era, p < 0.0001. No increase in non-PCV13 serotypes was recorded. S. pneumoniae remained the most frequent pathogen identified in the post-PCV13 era in unvaccinated children with an unchanged serotype distribution: respectively 26/66 (39.4%), 25/66 (37.9%), 5/66 (7.6%), and 4/66 (6.1%) for 1, 3, 7F and 19A. On the other hand 7F and 19A disappeared in vaccinated children and serotype 1 and 3 decreased by 91.8% and 31.5%, respectively. Realtime PCR was significantly more sensitive than culture both in pleural fluid (79.7% vs 12.5%) and in blood (17.8% vs 7.4%). In conclusion, our findings indicate that routine immunization with PCV13 has significantly reduced the burden of childhood PPE in vaccinated children, without increasing PPE due to other bacteria and without serotype shift. Moreover, the impact of PCV13 may be underestimated due to the increase in pneumococcal surveillance in Italy. Data has also shown that Real-time PCR is an essential tool to better define the etiology of PPE and to monitor vaccination plans. Longer studies will be necessary to evaluate the role of herd protection in PPE prevention.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(7): 2369-2376, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) may develop severe thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia. There are no reliable predictors for the development of hematologic autoimmunity (HA) in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe the peculiar B and T subpopulation defects in patients with 22q11DS who have developed HA and test if these defects precede the development of HA. METHODS: We performed a case-control multicenter study. Patients with HA were compared with a control population of 22q11.2DS without HA (non-HA). A complete immunological evaluation was performed at diagnosis and at the last follow-up including extensive T and B phenotypes. RESULTS: Immunophenotype at the last follow-up was available in 23 HA and 45 non-HA patients. HA patients had significantly decreased percentage of naïve CD4+ cells (26.8% vs 43.2%, P = .003) and recent thymic emigrants (48.6% vs 80.5%, P = .046); decreased class-switched B cells (2.0% vs 5.9%, P = .04) and increased naive B cells (83.5% vs 71.4%, P = .02); increased CD16+/56+ both in absolute number (312 vs 199, P = .009) and percentage (20.0% vs 13.0%, P = .03). Immunophenotype was performed in 36 patients (11 HA and 25 non-HA) at diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) of immune cytopenia were estimated for both CD4 naïve ≤30% (OR 14.0, P = .002) and switched memory B cells ≤2% (OR 44.0, P = .01). The estimated survival curves reached statistical significance, respectively, P = .0001 and P = .002. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with 22q11.2DS, those with HA have characteristic lymphocyte anomalies that appear considerably before HA onset. Systematic immunophenotyping of patients with 22q11.2DS at diagnosis is advisable for early identification of patients at risk for this severe complication.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212922, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a highly lethal disease. Diagnosis is commonly performed by culture or Realtime-PCR (qPCR). AIMS: Our aim was to evaluate, retrospectively, whether culture positivity correlates with higher bacterial load and fatal outcome. Our secondary aim was to compare culture and qPCR sensitivity. METHODS: The National Register for Molecular Surveillance was used as data source. Cycle threshold (CT), known to be inversely correlated with bacterial load, was used to compare bacterial load in different samples. RESULTS: Three-hundred-thirteen patients were found positive for Neisseria meningitidis by qPCR, or culture, or both; 41 died (case fatality rate 13.1%); 128/143 (89.5%) blood samples and 138/144 (95.8%) CSF were positive by qPCR, 37/143 (25.9%) blood samples and 45/144 (31.2%) CSF were also positive in culture. qPCR was 3.5 times (blood) or 3.1 times (CSF) more sensitive than culture in achieving a laboratory diagnosis of IMD (OR 24.4; 95% CI 12.2-49.8; p < .10-4; Cohen's κ 0.08 for blood and OR 49.0; 95% CI 19.1-133.4; p<10-4; Cohen's κ 0.02; for CSF). Positivity of culture did not correlate with higher bacterial loads in blood (mean CT 27.7±5.71, and CT 28.1±6.03, p = 0.739 respectively in culture positive or negative samples) or in CSF (mean CT 23.1±4.9 and 24.7±5.4 respectively in positive or negative CSF samples, p = 0.11).CT values in blood from patients who died were significantly lower than in patients who survived (respectively mean 18.0, range 14-23 and mean 29.6, range 16-39; p<10-17). No deaths occurred in patients with CT in blood over 23. Positive blood cultures were found in 10/25 (40%) patients who died and in 32/163 (19.6%) patients who survived, p = 0.036, OR 2.73; 95% CL 1.025-7.215), however 60% of deaths would have remained undiagnosed with the use of culture only. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion our study demonstrated that qPCR is significantly (at least 3 times) more sensitive than culture in the laboratory confirmation of IMD. The study also demonstrated that culture negativity is not associated with lower bacterial loads and with less severe cases. On the other side, in patients with sepsis, qPCR can predict fatal outcome since higher bacterial load, evaluated by qPCR, appears strictly associated with most severe cases and fatal outcome. The study also showed that molecular techniques such as qPCR can provide a valuable addition to the proportion of diagnosed and serotyped cases of IMD.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana/métodos , Meningite Meningocócica/diagnóstico , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Meningite Meningocócica/microbiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/mortalidade , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
20.
Br J Pharmacol ; 176(14): 2509-2524, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stress-related catecholamines have a role in cancer and ß-adrenoceptors; specifically, ß2 -adrenoceptors have been identified as new targets in treating melanoma. Recently, ß3 -adrenoceptors have shown a pleiotropic effect on melanoma micro-environment leading to cancer progression. However, the mechanisms by which ß3 -adrenoceptors promote this progression remain poorly understood. Catecholamines affect the immune system by modulating several factors that can alter immune cell sub-population homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms of cancer immune-tolerance is one of the most intriguing challenges in modern research. This study investigates the potential role of ß3 -adrenoceptors in immune-tolerance regulation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A mouse model of melanoma in which syngeneic B16-F10 cells were injected in C57BL-6 mice was used to evaluate the effect of ß-adrenoceptor blockade on the number and activity of immune cell sub-populations (Treg, NK, CD8, MDSC, macrophages, and neutrophils). Pharmacological and molecular approaches with ß-blockers (propranolol and SR59230A) and specific ß-adrenoceptor siRNAs targeting ß2 - or ß3 -adrenoceptors were used. KEY RESULTS: Only ß3 -, but not ß2 -adrenoceptors, were up-regulated under hypoxia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and selectively expressed in immune cell sub-populations including Treg, MDSC, and NK. SR59230A and ß3 -adrenoceptor siRNAs increased NK and CD8 number and cytotoxicity, while they attenuated Treg and MDSC sub-populations in the tumour mass, blood, and spleen. SR59230A and ß3 -adrenoceptor siRNAs increased the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages and N1 granulocytes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our data suggest that ß3 -adrenoceptors are involved in immune-tolerance, which opens the way for new strategic therapies to overcome melanoma growth. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Adrenoceptors-New Roles for Old Players. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v176.14/issuetoc.

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