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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1): 324-326, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350930

RESUMO

In April 2017, surveillance detected a surge in severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in Bangladesh. We collected specimens from SARI patients and asymptomatic controls for analysis with multipathogen diagnostic tests. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was associated with the SARI epidemic, suggesting that introducing vaccines and empiric antiviral drugs could be beneficial.

2.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020430, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274066

RESUMO

Background: Influenza burden estimates help provide evidence to support influenza prevention and control programs at local and international levels. Methods: Through a systematic review, we aimed to identify all published articles estimating rates of influenza-associated hospitalizations, describe methods and data sources used, and identify regions of the world where estimates are still lacking. We evaluated study heterogeneity to determine if we could pool published rates to generate global estimates of influenza-associated hospitalization. Results: We identified 98 published articles estimating influenza-associated hospitalization rates from 2007-2018. Most articles (65%) identified were from high-income countries, with 34 of those (53%) presenting estimates from the United States. While we identified fewer publications (18%) from low- and lower-middle-income countries, 50% of those were published from 2015-2018, suggesting an increase in publications from lower-income countries in recent years. Eighty percent (n = 78) used a multiplier approach. Regression modelling techniques were only used with data from upper-middle or high-income countries where hospital administrative data was available. We identified variability in the methods, case definitions, and data sources used, including 91 different age groups and 11 different categories of case definitions. Due to the high observed heterogeneity across articles (I2 >99%), we were unable to pool published estimates. Conclusions: The variety of methods, data sources, and case definitions adapted locally suggests that the current literature cannot be synthesized to generate global estimates of influenza-associated hospitalization burden.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280235

RESUMO

We assessed EV-D68 epidemiology and phylogenetics among children aged ≤9 years hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illnesses at five sites in Panama and El Salvador during 2012-2013. Respiratory specimens positive for enterovirus or rhinovirus were tested by real-time RT-PCR for EV-D68, and partial VP1 gene sequences were determined. Of 715 enrolled children, 17 from sites in both countries were EV-D68-positive and commonly had a history of asthma or wheezing. Phylogenetically, 15 of 16 sequences fell into Clade B1, and one into Clade A2. The Central American EV-D68s were closely related genetically to contemporaneous strains from North America, South America, and the Caribbean.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza surveillance helps time prevention and control interventions especially where complex seasonal patterns exist. We assessed influenza surveillance sustainability in Africa where influenza activity varies and external funds for surveillance have decreased. METHODS: We surveyed African Network for Influenza Surveillance and Epidemiology (ANISE) countries about 2011-2017 surveillance system characteristics. Data were summarized with descriptive statistics and analyzed with univariate and multivariable analyses to quantify sustained or expanded influenza surveillance capacity in Africa. RESULTS: Eighteen (75%) of 24 ANISE members participated in the survey; their cumulative population of 710 751 471 represent 56% of Africa's total population. All 18 countries scored a mean 95% on WHO laboratory quality assurance panels. The number of samples collected from severe acute respiratory infection case-patients remained consistent between 2011 and 2017 (13 823 vs 13 674 respectively) but decreased by 12% for influenza-like illness case-patients (16 210 vs 14 477). Nine (50%) gained capacity to lineage-type influenza B. The number of countries reporting each week to WHO FluNet increased from 15 (83%) in 2011 to 17 (94%) in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Despite declines in external surveillance funding, ANISE countries gained additional laboratory testing capacity and continued influenza testing and reporting to WHO. These gains represent important achievements toward sustainable surveillance and epidemic/pandemic preparedness.

6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1641-1647, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151921

RESUMO

Studies suggest that pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe illness associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1,2). This report provides updated information about symptomatic women of reproductive age (15-44 years) with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. During January 22-October 3, CDC received reports through national COVID-19 case surveillance or through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) of 1,300,938 women aged 15-44 years with laboratory results indicative of acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Data on pregnancy status were available for 461,825 (35.5%) women with laboratory-confirmed infection, 409,462 (88.7%) of whom were symptomatic. Among symptomatic women, 23,434 (5.7%) were reported to be pregnant. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions, pregnant women were significantly more likely than were nonpregnant women to be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) (10.5 versus 3.9 per 1,000 cases; adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6-3.4), receive invasive ventilation (2.9 versus 1.1 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.9; 95% CI = 2.2-3.8), receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (0.7 versus 0.3 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5-4.0), and die (1.5 versus 1.2 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.4). Stratifying these analyses by age and race/ethnicity highlighted disparities in risk by subgroup. Although the absolute risks for severe outcomes for women were low, pregnant women were at increased risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness. To reduce the risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19, pregnant women should be counseled about the importance of seeking prompt medical care if they have symptoms and measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection should be strongly emphasized for pregnant women and their families during all medical encounters, including prenatal care visits. Understanding COVID-19-associated risks among pregnant women is important for prevention counseling and clinical care and treatment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adolescente , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination during pregnancy prevents influenza among women and their infants but remains underused among pregnant women. We aimed to quantify the risk of antenatal influenza and examine its association with perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study in pregnant women in India, Peru, and Thailand. Before the 2017 and 2018 influenza seasons, we enrolled pregnant women aged 18 years or older with expected delivery dates 8 weeks or more after the season started. We contacted women twice weekly until the end of pregnancy to identify illnesses with symptoms of myalgia, cough, runny nose or nasal congestion, sore throat, or difficulty breathing and collected mid-turbinate nasal swabs from symptomatic women for influenza real-time RT-PCR testing. We assessed the association of antenatal influenza with preterm birth, late pregnancy loss (≥13 weeks gestation), small for gestational age (SGA), and birthweight of term singleton infants using Cox proportional hazards models or generalised linear models to adjust for potential confounders. FINDINGS: Between March 13, 2017, and Aug 3, 2018, we enrolled 11 277 women with a median age of 26 years (IQR 23-31) and gestational age of 19 weeks (14-24). 1474 (13%) received influenza vaccines. 310 participants (3%) had influenza (270 [87%] influenza A and 40 [13%] influenza B). Influenza incidences weighted by the population of women of childbearing age in each study country were 88·7 per 10 000 pregnant woman-months (95% CI 68·6 to 114·8) during the 2017 season and 69·6 per 10 000 pregnant woman-months (53·8 to 90·2) during the 2018 season. Antenatal influenza was not associated with preterm birth (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1·4, 95% CI 0·9 to 2·0; p=0·096) or having an SGA infant (adjusted relative risk 1·0, 95% CI 0·8 to 1·3, p=0·97), but was associated with late pregnancy loss (aHR 10·7, 95% CI 4·3 to 27·0; p<0·0001) and reduction in mean birthweight of term, singleton infants (-55·3 g, 95% CI -109·3 to -1·4; p=0·0445). INTERPRETATION: Women had a 0·7-0·9% risk of influenza per month of pregnancy during the influenza season, and antenatal influenza was associated with increased risk for some adverse pregnancy outcomes. These findings support the added value of antenatal influenza vaccination to improve perinatal outcomes. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. TRANSLATIONS: For the Thai, Hindi, Marathi and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends case definitions for influenza surveillance that are also used in public health research, though their performance has not been assessed in many risk groups, including pregnant women in whom influenza may manifest differently. We evaluated the performance of symptom-based definitions to detect influenza in a cohort of pregnant women in India, Peru, and Thailand. METHODS: In 2017 and 2018, we contacted 11,277 pregnant women twice weekly during the influenza season to identify illnesses with new or worsened cough, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing or myalgia, and collected data on other symptoms and nasal swabs for influenza rRT-PCR testing. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of each symptom-predictor, WHO respiratory illness case definitions and a de novo definition derived from results of multivariable modelling. RESULTS: Of 5,444 eligible illness episodes among 3,965 participants, 310 (6%) were positive for influenza. In a multivariable model, measured fever ≥38° Celsius (adjusted odds ratio = 4.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1, 6.8), myalgia (3.0, 95% CI: 2.2, 4.0), cough (2.7, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.9), and chills (1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) were independently associated with influenza illness. A definition based on these four (measured fever, cough, chills or myalgia), was 95% sensitive and 27% specific. The WHO influenza-like illness (ILI) definition was 16% sensitive and 98% specific. CONCLUSIONS: The current WHO ILI case definition was highly specific but had low sensitivity. The intended use of case definitions should be considered when evaluating the tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105825

RESUMO

Household air pollution (HAP) due to solid fuel use during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The real-life effectiveness of clean cooking interventions has been disappointing overall yet variable, but the sociodemographic determinants are not well described. We measured personal 24-h PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) thrice in pregnant women (n = 218) gravimetrically with Teflon filter, impactor, and personal pump setups. To estimate the effectiveness of owning chimney and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves (i.e., proportion of PM2.5 exposure that would be prevented) and to predict subject-specific typical exposures, we used linear mixed-effects models with log (PM2.5) as dependent variable and random intercept for subject. Median (IQR) personal PM2.5 in µg/m3 was 148 (90-249) for open fire, 78 (51-125) for chimney stove, and 55 (34-79) for LPG stoves. Adjusted effectiveness of LPG stoves was greater in women with ≥6 years of education (49% (95% CI: 34, 60)) versus <6 years (26% (95% CI: 5, 42)). In contrast, chimney stove adjusted effectiveness was greater in women with <6 years of education (50% (95% CI: 38, 60)), rural residence (46% (95% CI: 34, 55)) and lowest SES (socio-economic status) quartile (59% (95% CI: 45, 70)) than ≥6 years education (16% (95% CI: 22, 43)), urban (23% (95% CI: -164, 42)) and highest SES quartile (-44% (95% CI: -183, 27)), respectively. A minority of LPG stove owners (12%) and no chimney owner had typical exposure below World Health Organization Air Quality guidelines (35 µg/m3). Although having a cleaner stove alone typically does not lower exposure enough to protect health, understanding sociodemographic determinants of effectiveness may lead to better targeting, implementation, and adoption of interventions.

10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1305-1309, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941415

RESUMO

After recognition of widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by mid- to late February 2020, indicators of influenza activity began to decline in the Northern Hemisphere. These changes were attributed to both artifactual changes related to declines in routine health seeking for respiratory illness as well as real changes in influenza virus circulation because of widespread implementation of measures to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Data from clinical laboratories in the United States indicated a 61% decrease in the number of specimens submitted (from a median of 49,696 per week during September 29, 2019-February 29, 2020, to 19,537 during March 1-May 16, 2020) and a 98% decrease in influenza activity as measured by percentage of submitted specimens testing positive (from a median of 19.34% to 0.33%). Interseasonal (i.e., summer) circulation of influenza in the United States (May 17-August 8, 2020) is currently at historical lows (median = 0.20% tests positive in 2020 versus 2.35% in 2019, 1.04% in 2018, and 2.36% in 2017). Influenza data reported to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) FluNet platform from three Southern Hemisphere countries that serve as robust sentinel sites for influenza from Oceania (Australia), South America (Chile), and Southern Africa (South Africa) showed very low influenza activity during June-August 2020, the months that constitute the typical Southern Hemisphere influenza season. In countries or jurisdictions where extensive community mitigation measures are maintained (e.g., face masks, social distancing, school closures, and teleworking), those locations might have little influenza circulation during the upcoming 2020-21 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. The use of community mitigation measures for the COVID-19 pandemic, plus influenza vaccination, are likely to be effective in reducing the incidence and impact of influenza, and some of these mitigation measures could have a role in preventing influenza in future seasons. However, given the novelty of the COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertainty of continued community mitigation measures, it is important to plan for seasonal influenza circulation in the United States this fall and winter. Influenza vaccination of all persons aged ≥6 months remains the best method for influenza prevention and is especially important this season when SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus might cocirculate (1).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Austrália/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9): 2087-2096, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818393

RESUMO

In Bangladesh, live bird market environments are frequently contaminated with avian influenza viruses. Shop-level biosecurity practices might increase risk for environmental contamination. We sought to determine which shop-level biosecurity practices were associated with environmental contamination. We surveyed 800 poultry shops to describe biosecurity practices and collect environmental samples. Samples from 205 (26%) shops were positive for influenza A viral RNA, 108 (14%) for H9, and 60 (8%) for H5. Shops that slaughtered poultry, kept poultry overnight, remained open without rest days, had uneven muddy floors, held poultry on the floor, and housed sick and healthy poultry together were more frequently positive for influenza A viruses. Reported monthly cleaning seemed protective, but disinfection practices were not otherwise associated with influenza A virus detection. Slaughtering, keeping poultry overnight, weekly rest days, infrastructure, and disinfection practices could be targets for interventions to reduce environmental contamination.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Influenza may result in primary pneumonia or be associated with secondary bacterial pneumonia. While the association with secondary pneumonia has been established ecologically, individual-level evidence remains sparse and the risk period for pneumonia following influenza poorly defined. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study and a prospective cohort study among Nicaraguan children aged 0-14 years from 2011-2018. Physicians diagnosed pneumonia cases based on Integrated Management for Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines. Cases were matched with up to 4 controls on age (months) and study week. We fit conditional logistic regression models to assess the association between influenza subtype and subsequent pneumonia development, and a Bayesian non-linear survival model to estimate pneumonia hazard following influenza. RESULTS: Participants with influenza had greater risk of developing pneumonia in the 30 days following onset compared to those without influenza (matched odds ratio [mOR]: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.9). Odds of developing pneumonia were highest for participants following A(H1N1)pdm09 illness (mOR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.0, 6.9), followed by influenza B, and A(H3N2). Participants' odds of pneumonia following influenza were not constant, showing distinct peaks 0-6 days (mOR: 8.3, 95% CI: 4.8, 14.5) and 14-20 (mOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.5) days post influenza infection. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza is a significant driver of both primary and secondary pneumonia among children. Distinct periods of elevated pneumonia risk in the 30 days following influenza supports multiple etiological pathways.

13.
Vaccine ; 38(27): 4325-4335, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a large burden of influenza in middle income countries, pediatric vaccination coverage remains low. The aims of this study were to (1) describe mothers' knowledge and attitudes about influenza illnesses and vaccination, and (2) identify characteristics associated with mothers' intent to vaccinate their child. METHODS: From 2015 to 2017, infants 0-11 months old in Nicaragua, Philippines, Jordan, and Albania were enrolled from community settings and hospitals. Interviewers administered a questionnaire to their mothers. Mothers of infants aged 6-11 months rated their intention (small-to-moderate vs. large chance) to accept pediatric vaccination if it was offered at no-cost. The importance of knowledge, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics in predicting influenza vaccination intention was measured as the mean decrease in Gini index when that factor was excluded from 1000 decision trees in a random forest analysis. RESULTS: In total, 1,308 mothers were enrolled from the community setting and 3,286 from the hospital setting. Prevalence of at least some knowledge of influenza illness ranged from 34% in Philippines to 88% in Albania (in the community sample), and between 23% in Philippines to 88% in Jordan (in the hospital sample). In the community sample, most mothers in Albania (69%) and Philippines (58%) would accept the influenza vaccine, and these proportions were higher in the hospital sample for all countries except Albania (48%) (P < 0.0001). Perceived vaccine safety (mean decrease in Gini index = 61) and effectiveness (55), and perceived knowledge of influenza vaccine (45) were the most important predictors of influenza vaccination intention in models that also included country and community versus hospital sample. CONCLUSION: Intent to vaccinate infants aged 6-11 months in four middle income countries was tied primarily to knowledge of the vaccine and perceptions of vaccine safety and effectiveness. These findings were noted among mothers interviewed in the community and mothers of recently hospitalized infants.

14.
J Infect ; 81(1): 48-56, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Findings during the 2009 pandemic suggest severe maternal infection with pandemic influenza had adverse perinatal health consequences. Limited data exist evaluating the perinatal health effects of severe seasonal influenza and non-influenza infections during pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of pregnant women from Australia, Canada, Israel, and the United States was established using birth records to identify pregnancies and birth outcomes and hospital and laboratory testing records to identify influenza and non-influenza associated acute respiratory or febrile illness (ARFI) hospitalizations. ARFI hospitalized women were matched to non-hospitalized women (1:4) by country and season of conception. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate the relative risk (aRR) of preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and low birthweight (LBW) birth, adjusting for pre-existing medical conditions, maternal age, and parity. RESULTS: 950 pregnant women hospitalized with an ARFI were matched with 3,800 non-hospitalized pregnant women. Compared to non-hospitalized women, risk of PTB was greater among women hospitalized with influenza-associated ARFI (aRR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.15-2.15) and non-influenza ARFI (aRR: 2.78; 95% CI: 2.12-3.65). Similar results were observed for LBW; there were no associations with SGA birth. CONCLUSIONS: ARFI hospitalization during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of PTB and LBW.

15.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 14(4): 391-402, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Estudio Vacuna de Influenza Peru (VIP) cohort aims to describe the frequency of influenza virus infection, identify predictors of vaccine acceptance, examine the effects of repeated influenza vaccination on immunogenicity, and evaluate influenza vaccine effectiveness among HCP. METHODS: The VIP cohort prospectively followed HCP in Lima, Peru, during the 2016-2018 influenza seasons; a fourth year is ongoing. Participants contribute blood samples before and after the influenza season and after influenza vaccination (for vaccinees). Weekly surveillance is conducted to identify acute respiratory or febrile illnesses (ARFI). When an ARFI is identified, participants self-collect nasal swabs that are tested for influenza viruses by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Influenza vaccination status and 5-year vaccination history are ascertained. We analyzed recruitment and enrollment results for 2016-2018 and surveillance participation for 2016-2017. RESULTS: In the first 3 years of the cohort, VIP successfully contacted 92% of potential participants, enrolled 76% of eligible HCP, and retained >90% of participants across years. About half of participants are medical assistants (54%), and most provide "hands-on" medical care (76%). Sixty-nine percent and 52% of participants completed surveillance for >70% of weeks in years 1 and 2, respectively. Fewer weeks of completed surveillance was associated with older age (≥50 years), being a medical assistant, self-rated health of fair or poor, and not receiving the influenza vaccine during the current season (P-values < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The VIP cohort provides an opportunity to address knowledge gaps about influenza virus infection, vaccination uptake, effectiveness and immunogenicity among HCP.

16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(4): e497-e510, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza virus is a common cause of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in young children. In 2008, we estimated that 20 million influenza-virus-associated ALRI and 1 million influenza-virus-associated severe ALRI occurred in children under 5 years globally. Despite this substantial burden, only a few low-income and middle-income countries have adopted routine influenza vaccination policies for children and, where present, these have achieved only low or unknown levels of vaccine uptake. Moreover, the influenza burden might have changed due to the emergence and circulation of influenza A/H1N1pdm09. We aimed to incorporate new data to update estimates of the global number of cases, hospital admissions, and mortality from influenza-virus-associated respiratory infections in children under 5 years in 2018. METHODS: We estimated the regional and global burden of influenza-associated respiratory infections in children under 5 years from a systematic review of 100 studies published between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2018, and a further 57 high-quality unpublished studies. We adapted the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the risk of bias. We estimated incidence and hospitalisation rates of influenza-virus-associated respiratory infections by severity, case ascertainment, region, and age. We estimated in-hospital deaths from influenza virus ALRI by combining hospital admissions and in-hospital case-fatality ratios of influenza virus ALRI. We estimated the upper bound of influenza virus-associated ALRI deaths based on the number of in-hospital deaths, US paediatric influenza-associated death data, and population-based childhood all-cause pneumonia mortality data in six sites in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. FINDINGS: In 2018, among children under 5 years globally, there were an estimated 109·5 million influenza virus episodes (uncertainty range [UR] 63·1-190·6), 10·1 million influenza-virus-associated ALRI cases (6·8-15·1); 870 000 influenza-virus-associated ALRI hospital admissions (543 000-1 415 000), 15 300 in-hospital deaths (5800-43 800), and up to 34 800 (13 200-97 200) overall influenza-virus-associated ALRI deaths. Influenza virus accounted for 7% of ALRI cases, 5% of ALRI hospital admissions, and 4% of ALRI deaths in children under 5 years. About 23% of the hospital admissions and 36% of the in-hospital deaths were in infants under 6 months. About 82% of the in-hospital deaths occurred in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. INTERPRETATION: A large proportion of the influenza-associated burden occurs among young infants and in low-income and lower middle-income countries. Our findings provide new and important evidence for maternal and paediatric influenza immunisation, and should inform future immunisation policy particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. FUNDING: WHO; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Estações do Ano
17.
J Infect Dis ; 221(3): 356-366, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) treatment on length of stay (LoS) in patients hospitalized with influenza is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a one-stage individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis exploring the association between NAI treatment and LoS in patients hospitalized with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) infection. Using mixed-effects negative binomial regression and adjusting for the propensity to receive NAI, antibiotic, and corticosteroid treatment, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Patients with a LoS of <1 day and those who died while hospitalized were excluded. RESULTS: We analyzed data on 18 309 patients from 70 clinical centers. After adjustment, NAI treatment initiated at hospitalization was associated with a 19% reduction in the LoS among patients with clinically suspected or laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection (IRR, 0.81; 95% CI, .78-.85), compared with later or no initiation of NAI treatment. Similar statistically significant associations were seen in all clinical subgroups. NAI treatment (at any time), compared with no NAI treatment, and NAI treatment initiated <2 days after symptom onset, compared with later or no initiation of NAI treatment, showed mixed patterns of association with the LoS. CONCLUSIONS: When patients hospitalized with influenza are treated with NAIs, treatment initiated on admission, regardless of time since symptom onset, is associated with a reduced LoS, compared with later or no initiation of treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Pandemias , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(10): 2029-2035, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality among children worldwide, commonly through acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI). To assess the incidence rate of symptomatic RSV illness among young children, we conducted a prospective birth cohort study following children from 0-2 years of age in Managua, Nicaragua. METHODS: Children meeting the testing criteria (fever, history of fever, or severe respiratory symptoms [apnea, stridor, nasal flaring, wheezing, chest indrawing, and/or central cyanosis]) were tested for RSV infections using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. An acute lower respiratory infection was defined as a diagnosis of pneumonia, bronchiolitis, bronchitis, or bronchial hyperreactivity. The incidence rate was calculated, and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a Poisson distribution. RESULTS: A total of 833 children participated in the cohort: 289 (34.7%) had at least 1 episode of laboratory-confirmed RSV, and 156 (18.7%) of had an episode of RSV-associated ALRI (RSV-ALRI). The incidence rate of symptomatic RSV was 248.1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 223.2-275.7). While infants aged 6-11 months had the highest incidence of symptomatic RSV (361.3/1000 person-years, 95% CI 304.4-428.8), infants <3 months had the highest incidence of severe RSV (RSV-associated hospitalizations and/or severe ALRI). RSV was also associated with 25.0-37.5% of deaths from medical causes (n = 8). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial burden of RSV exists among children aged <2 years in Nicaraguan communities. RSV was also a leading cause of infant mortality among study participants. The development and implementation of effective RSV prevention and treatment measures represent an opportunity to substantially reduce severe illness and death among children worldwide.

19.
Vaccine ; 38(3): 608-619, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying optimal priming strategies for children <2 years could substantially improve the public health benefits of influenza vaccines. Adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines were designed to promote a better immune response among young vaccine-naïve children. METHODS: We systematically reviewed randomized trials to assess hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody response to MF59-adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine (aIIV) versus nonadjuvanted IIV among children. We estimated pooled ratios of post-vaccination HAI geometric mean titer (GMT) for aIIV versus IIV and confidence intervals (CIs) using the pooled variances derived from reported CIs. RESULTS: Mean age was 28 months (range, 6-72 months). Children received vaccines with either 7.5 µg (6-35 months) or 15 µg (≥36 months) hemagglutinin of each strain depending on age. Seven of eight trials administered trivalent vaccines and one used quadrivalent vaccine. Pooled post-vaccination GMT ratios against the three influenza vaccine strains were 2.5-3.5 fold higher after 2-dose-aIIV versus 2-dose-IIV among children 6-72 months, and point estimates were higher among children 6-35 months compared with older children. When comparing 1-dose-aIIV to 2-dose-IIV doses, pooled GMT ratios were not significantly different against A/H1N1 (1.0; 95% CI: 0.5-1.8; p = 0.90) and A/H3N2 viruses (1.0; 95% CI: 0.7-1.5; p = 0.81) and were significantly lower against B viruses (0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8; p < 0.001) for both age groups. Notably, GMT ratios for vaccine-mismatched heterologous viruses after 2-dose-aIIV compared with 2-dose-IIV were higher against A/H1N1 (2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.4), A/H3N2 (2.9; 95% CI: 1.9-4.2), and B-lineage viruses (2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.6). CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of adjuvanted IIV consistently induced better humoral immune responses against Type A and B influenza viruses compared with nonadjuvanted IIVs in young children, particularly among those 6-35 months. One adjuvanted IIV dose had a similar response to two nonadjuvanted IIV doses against Type A influenza viruses. Longer-term benefits from imprinting and cell-mediated immunity, including trials of clinical efficacy, are gaps that warrant investigation.

20.
Vaccine ; 38(5): 1152-1159, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National seasonal influenza programs have been recommended as a foundation for pandemic preparedness. During the 2009 pandemic, WHO aimed to increase Member States' equitable access to influenza vaccines through pandemic vaccine donation. METHODS: This analysis explores whether the presence of a seasonal influenza program contributed to more rapid national submission of requirements to receive vaccine during the 2009 influenza pandemic. Data from 2009 influenza vaccine donation, deployment, and surveillance initiatives were collected during May-September 2018 from WHO archival material. Data about the presence of seasonal influenza vaccine programs prior to 2009 were gathered from the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between presence of a seasonal influenza program and time to submission of a national deployment and vaccination plan and to vaccine delivery. FINDING: Of 97 countries eligible to receive WHO-donated vaccine, 83 (86%) submitted national deployment and vaccination plans and 77 (79%) received vaccine. Countries with a seasonal influenza vaccine program were more likely to submit a national deployment and vaccination plan (hazards ratio [HR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]. Countries with regulatory delays were less likely to receive vaccine than those without these delays (HR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.6). INTERPRETATION: During the 2009 pandemic, eligible countries with a seasonal influenza vaccine program weremore ready to receive and use donated vaccines than those without a program. Our findings suggest that robust seasonal influenza vaccine programs increase national familiarity with the management of influenza vaccines and therefore enhance pandemic preparedness. FUNDING: N/A.

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