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2.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-15, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to explore if a relationship exists between the immediate sharp increase in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions and the mortality rates in Italy. METHODS: Official epidemiological data on COVID-19 were employed. The forward lagged (0, 3, 7, 14 days) daily variations in the number of deaths according to the number of days after the outbreak started and the daily increases in ICU admissions were estimated. RESULTS: A direct relationship between the sharp increase of ICU admissions and mortality rates has been shown. Furthermore, the analysis of the forward lagged daily variations in the number of deaths showed that an increase in the daily number of ICU admissions resulted in significantly higher mortality after 3, 7, and 14 days. The most pronounced effect was detected after 7 days, with 250 deaths (95% C.I. 108.1-392.8) for the highest increase in the ICU admissions -from 100 to 200. CONCLUSIONS: These results would serve as a warning for the scientific community and the health care decision-makers to prevent a quick and out-of-control saturation of the ICU beds in case of a relapse of the COVID-19 outbreak.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with binary outcome the estimate of the marginal treatment effect can be biased by prognostic baseline covariates adjustment. Methods that target the marginal odds ratio, allowing for improved precision and power, have been developed. METHODS: The performance of different estimators for the treatment effect in the frequentist (targeted maximum likelihood estimator, inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting, parametric G-computation, and the semiparametric locally efficient estimator) and Bayesian (model averaging), adjustment for confounding, and generalized Bayesian causal effect estimation frameworks are assessed and compared in a simulation study under different scenarios. The use of these estimators is illustrated on an RCT in type II diabetes. RESULTS: Model mis-specification does not increase the bias. The approaches that are not doubly robust have increased standard error (SE) under the scenario of mis-specification of the treatment model. The Bayesian estimators showed a higher type II error than frequentist estimators if noisy covariates are included in the treatment model. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusting for prognostic baseline covariates in the analysis of RCTs can have more power than intention-to-treat based tests. However, for some classes of model, when the regression model is mis-specified, inflated type I error and potential bias on treatment effect estimate may arise.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Viés , Causalidade , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Probabilidade
4.
J Am Coll Surg ; 233(5): 583-592.e2, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2019, women accounted for 46% of surgical residents. Despite the international debate on gender disparities, no literature regarding the experience in Italy is available. The aim of this survey study was to assess satisfaction among female surgeons in Italy, and determine whether they encounter gender-based discrimination. STUDY DESIGN: An anonymous, 83-item web-based survey was distributed among female surgeons working in Italy, from November 18 to December 31, 2020. Gender equity, satisfaction, and factors associated with higher satisfaction and work-life balance were explored. RESULTS: There were 3,242 volunteer respondents, 1,833 of whom completed at least 50% of the specific questions and were included in the study. Approximately 54% of female Italian surgeons reported being satisfied with their job, but only 34% with their work-life balance. Among residents, 67% thought they were not adequately trained. The majority of respondents were responsible for most of the housekeeping (60%) and childcare duties (53%), regardless of their partner's workload, and 62% reported that gender affects the way they are treated at work, with most of them experiencing microaggressions. Sexual harassment was common (59%), but only 10% of women reported it. CONCLUSIONS: Most Italian female surgeons are satisfied with their professional choice. However, they face gender discrimination, including incidents of sexual harassment and microaggression. Due to the fact that half of surgeons working in Italian hospitals will be females in the next few years, actions are urgently required to build a culture that supports a gender-neutral environment.

5.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 133, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The end-expiratory occlusion (EEXPO) test detects preload responsiveness, but it is 15 s long and induces small changes in cardiac index (CI). It is doubtful whether the Starling bioreactance device, which averages CI over 24 s and refreshes the displayed value every 4 s (Starling-24.4), can detect the EEXPO-induced changes in CI (ΔCI). Our primary goal was to test whether this Starling device version detects preload responsiveness through EEXPO. We also tested whether shortening the averaging and refresh times to 8 s and one second, respectively, (Starling-8.1) improves the accuracy of the device in detecting preload responsiveness using EEXPO. METHODS: In 42 mechanically ventilated patients, during a 15-s EEXPO, we measured ∆CI through calibrated pulse contour analysis (CIpulse, PiCCO2 device) and using the Starling device. For the latter, we considered both CIStarling-24.4 from the commercial version and CIStarling-8.1 derived from the raw data. For relative ∆CIStarling-24.4 and ∆CIStarling-8.1 during EEXPO, we calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to detect preload responsiveness, defined as an increase in CIpulse ≥ 10% during passive leg raising (PLR). For both methods, the correlation coefficient vs. ∆CIpulse was calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were preload responders and sixteen non preload-responders. The AUROC for ∆CIStarling-24.4 was significantly lower compared to ∆CIStarling-8.1 (0.680 ± 0.086 vs. 0.899 ± 0.049, respectively; p = 0.027). A significant correlation was observed between ∆CIStarling-8.1 and ∆CIpulse (r = 0.42; p = 0.009), but not between ∆CIStarling-24.4 and ∆CIpulse. During PLR, both ∆CIStarling-24.4 and ∆CIStarling-8.1 reliably detected preload responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Shortening the averaging and refresh times of the bioreactance signal to 8 s and one second, respectively, increases the reliability of the Starling device in detection of EEXPO-induced ∆CI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: No. IDRCB: 2018-A02825-50. Registered 13 December 2018.

6.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 305, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Awake prone position is an emerging rescue therapy applied in patients undergoing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF) related to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Although applied to stabilize respiratory status, in awake patients, the application of prone position may reduce comfort with a consequent increase in the workload imposed on respiratory muscles. Thus, we primarily ascertained the effect of awake prone position on diaphragmatic thickening fraction, assessed through ultrasound, in COVID-19 patients undergoing NIV. METHODS: We enrolled all COVID-19 adult critically ill patients, admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) for hypoxemic ARF and undergoing NIV, deserving of awake prone positioning as a rescue therapy. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy and any contraindication to awake prone position and NIV. On ICU admission, after NIV onset, in supine position, and at 1 h following awake prone position application, diaphragmatic thickening fraction was obtained on the right side. Across all the study phases, NIV was maintained with the same setting present at study entry. Vital signs were monitored throughout the entire study period. Comfort was assessed through numerical rating scale (0 the worst comfort and 10 the highest comfort level). Data were presented in median and 25th-75th percentile range. RESULTS: From February to May 2021, 20 patients were enrolled and finally analyzed. Despite peripheral oxygen saturation improvement [96 (94-97)% supine vs 98 (96-99)% prone, p = 0.008], turning to prone position induced a worsening in comfort score from 7.0 (6.0-8.0) to 6.0 (5.0-7.0) (p = 0.012) and an increase in diaphragmatic thickening fraction from 33.3 (25.7-40.5)% to 41.5 (29.8-50.0)% (p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: In our COVID-19 patients assisted by NIV in ICU, the application of awake prone position improved the oxygenation at the expense of a greater diaphragmatic thickening fraction compared to supine position. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04904731. Registered on 05/25/2021, retrospectively registered. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04904731 .


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Posicionamento do Paciente , Decúbito Ventral , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Vigília , Adulto , Diafragma , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444637

RESUMO

The present study aimed to analyze sleep quality and quality of Life (QoL) in patients undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI). It was conducted at the Interventional Cardiology Unit of the Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, Vascular Sciences and Public Health of the University of Padova on 27 adult patients who underwent TAVI via the transfemoral approach. Patients completed two validated instruments, i.e., the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D-5L), on the day of discharge and one month after the hospital discharge. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled with a severe aortic stenosis diagnosis, treated with transfemoral TAVI procedure. The study population included seventeen poor sleepers and ten good sleepers with a median age of 81.92 years overall. The global PSQI evaluation revealed a small significant improvement at follow-up (p-value 0.007). Small positive changes were detected in the Self-care and Usual activity domains of the EQ-5D-5L and the EQ-VAS. No correlation was detected between EQ-5D-5L and sleep quality. The present study confirms the importance of sleep quality monitoring in patients who undergo TAVI procedure for aortic stenosis treatment.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Sono , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359385

RESUMO

The present work aims to identify the predictors of hemodynamic failure (HF) developed during pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay testing a set of machine learning techniques (MLTs), comparing their ability to predict the outcome of interest. The study involved patients admitted to PICUs between 2010 and 2020. Data were extracted from the Italian Network of Pediatric Intensive Care Units (TIPNet) registry. The algorithms considered were generalized linear model (GLM), recursive partition tree (RPART), random forest (RF), neural networks models, and extreme gradient boosting (XGB). Since the outcome is rare, upsampling and downsampling algorithms have been applied for imbalance control. For each approach, the main performance measures were reported. Among an overall sample of 29,494 subjects, only 399 developed HF during the PICU stay. The median age was about two years, and the male gender was the most prevalent. The XGB algorithm outperformed other MLTs in predicting HF development, with a median ROC measure of 0.780 (IQR 0.770-0.793). PIM 3, age, and base excess were found to be the strongest predictors of outcome. The present work provides insights for the prediction of HF development during PICU stay using machine-learning algorithms.

9.
Psychooncology ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a short, flexible, and comprehensive tool to measure psychological distress in caregivers of malignant mesothelioma (MM) patients: the Mesothelioma Psychological Distress Tool-Caregivers version (MPDT-C). METHODS: Based on a systematic review of the relevant literature, aspects associated with caregiver distress were derived. Expert researchers/clinicians developed a pool of items for each identified aspect. Content validity was assessed through a multiple mixed-methods approach. A multicenter study was conducted to explore the factorial structure of the 47-item MPDT-C through Bayesian factor analysis. RESULTS: The Bayesian exploratory factor analysis revealed an underlying three-factor structure. Factors were labeled Secondary Traumatic Stress, Engagement in Caring, and Meaningful Cognitive Restructuring. All scales showed sufficient reliability and corrected item-total correlations. Females scored higher than males for Engagement in Caring. CONCLUSIONS: Taking care of malignant mesothelioma patients is a stressful process that influences the caregiver's physical, emotional, and social wellbeing. Our study offers preliminary evidence in support of the adequate psychometric properties of the MPDT-C, and these should now be replicated. Results suggest that the MPDT-C is a reliable tool with which to detect the psychological distress of this traumatized population.

10.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 268, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) has been diffusely employed outside the intensive care unit (ICU) to face the high request of ventilatory support due to the massive influx of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) caused by coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). We sought to summarize the evidence on clinically relevant outcomes in COVID-19 patients supported by NIV outside the ICU. METHODS: We searched PUBMED®, EMBASE®, and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical trials register, along with medRxiv and bioRxiv repositories for pre-prints, for observational studies and randomized controlled trials, from inception to the end of February 2021. Two authors independently selected the investigations according to the following criteria: (1) observational study or randomized clinical trials enrolling ≥ 50 hospitalized patients undergoing NIRS outside the ICU, (2) laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, and (3) at least the intra-hospital mortality reported. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines were followed. Data extraction was independently performed by two authors to assess: investigation features, demographics and clinical characteristics, treatments employed, NIRS regulations, and clinical outcomes. Methodological index for nonrandomized studies tool was applied to determine the quality of the enrolled studies. The primary outcome was to assess the overall intra-hospital mortality of patients under NIRS outside the ICU. The secondary outcomes included the proportions intra-hospital mortalities of patients who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation following NIRS failure and of those with 'do-not-intubate' (DNI) orders. RESULTS: Seventeen investigations (14 peer-reviewed and 3 pre-prints) were included with a low risk of bias and a high heterogeneity, for a total of 3377 patients. The overall intra-hospital mortality of patients receiving NIRS outside the ICU was 36% [30-41%]. 26% [21-30%] of the patients failed NIRS and required intubation, with an intra-hospital mortality rising to 45% [36-54%]. 23% [15-32%] of the patients received DNI orders with an intra-hospital mortality of 72% [65-78%]. Oxygenation on admission was the main source of between-study heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 outbreak, delivering NIRS outside the ICU revealed as a feasible strategy to cope with the massive demand of ventilatory assistance. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ , CRD42020224788, December 11, 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia
11.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(23): 2617-2631, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the prevalence of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of HRD in PDAC from PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases, and online cancer genomic data sets. The main outcome was pooled prevalence of somatic and germline mutations in the better characterized HRD genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, ATR, CHEK2, RAD51, and the FANC genes). The secondary outcomes were prevalence of germline mutations overall, and in sporadic and familial cases; prevalence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ); and prevalence of HRD based on other definitions (ie, alterations in other genes, genomic scars, and mutational signatures). Random-effects modeling with the Freeman-Tukey transformation was used for the analyses. PROSPERO registration number: (CRD42020190813). RESULTS: Sixty studies with 21,842 participants were included in the systematic review and 57 in the meta-analysis. Prevalence of germline and somatic mutations was BRCA1: 0.9%, BRCA2: 3.5%, PALB2: 0.2%, ATM: 2.2%, CHEK2: 0.3%, FANC: 0.5%, RAD51: 0.0%, and ATR: 0.1%. Prevalence of germline mutations was BRCA1: 0.9% (2.4% in AJ), BRCA2: 3.8% (8.2% in AJ), PALB2: 0.2%, ATM: 2%, CHEK2: 0.3%, and FANC: 0.4%. No significant differences between sporadic and familial cases were identified. HRD prevalence ranged between 14.5%-16.5% through targeted next-generation sequencing and 24%-44% through whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing allowing complementary genomic analysis, including genomic scars and other signatures (surrogate markers of HRD). CONCLUSION: Surrogate readouts of HRD identify a greater proportion of patients with HRD than analyses limited to gene-level approaches. There is a clear need to harmonize HRD definitions and to validate the optimal biomarker for treatment selection. Universal HRD screening including integrated somatic and germline analysis should be offered to all patients with PDAC.

12.
Wound Manag Prev ; 67(4): 24-34, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stomal and peristomal skin complications represent a significant burden on the physical and psychological well-being of patients. PURPOSE: To develop a predictive tool for identifying the risk of complications in patients following ostomy surgery. METHODS: The oStomY regiSTry prEdictive ModelIng outCome (SYSTEMIC) project was developed to improve patient-oriented outcomes. Demographic, medical history, and stoma-related variables were obtained from patients at the wound ostomy clinic of the University Hospital of Padova, Italy. A follow-up assessment was completed 30 days after stoma surgery. Two (2) Bayesian machine learning approaches (naïve Bayes) were carried out to define an automatic peristomal complication predictive tool. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the possible effects of the prior choices on naïve Bayes performance. RESULTS: The algorithms were based on preliminary data from 52 patients (28 [53.3%] had a colostomy and 24 [46.7%] had an ileostomy). In terms of postoperative complications, no significant differences were observed between patients with different body mass indices (P = .16), those who underwent elective surgery compared with those who underwent emergency surgery (P = .66), and those who had or had not been preoperatively sited (P = .44). The algorithms showed an overall moderate ability to correctly classify patients according to the presence of peristomal complications (accuracy of nearly 70% in both models). In the the data-driven prior model, the probability of developing complications was greater for  participants with malignancies or other diseases (0.3314 for both levels) than for patients with diverticula and bowel perforation (0.1453) or inflammatory bowel disease (0.1918). CONCLUSION: The development of an easy-to-use algorithm may help nonspecialized nurses evaluate the likelihood of future peristomal complications in patients with an ostomy and implement preemptive measures.

13.
Children (Basel) ; 8(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202693

RESUMO

One of the most relevant public health issues among pediatric injuries concerns foreign body (FB) aspiration. The risk perception of choking hazards (CH) and risk perception, in general, are complex multifactorial problems that play a significant role in defining protective behavior. Risk prevention policies should take this aspect into account. A lack of scientific knowledge of FB injury risk perception may be evidenced in Brazil and other newly developed countries. This study aims to characterize the differences and peculiarities in risk perception of CH between Italian and Brazilian populations. The risk perception among adults in Italy and Brazil between September and October 2017 was investigated in a survey. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis was carried out to identify the latent components characterizing the risk perception in Italian and Brazilian population samples. The most relevant dimension characterizing risk perception is the "Professional-educational status and the related perception of Risk" (13% of factorial inertia). The Italians identify batteries and magnets as the most dangerous choking risks (20% of responses). On the other hand, Brazilian people, mainly manual laborers (22%) with secondary or primary education (94%), perceive coins as the most dangerous items (30% of responses, p < 0.001). Socio-economic issues characterize the subjective risk perception of Italian and Brazilian survey respondents. In this framework, data-driven prevention strategies could be helpful to tailor intervention strategies to the cultural context to which they are addressed.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281037

RESUMO

Delirium is a psycho-organic syndrome common in hospitalized patients, especially the elderly, and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study aims to identify the predictors that are mostly associated with the risk of delirium episodes using a machine learning technique (MLT). A random forest (RF) algorithm was used to evaluate the association between the subject's characteristics and the 4AT (the 4 A's test) score screening tool for delirium. RF algorithm was implemented using information based on demographic characteristics, comorbidities, drugs and procedures. Of the 78 patients enrolled in the study, 49 (63%) were at risk for delirium, 32 (41%) had at least one episode of delirium during the hospitalization (38% in orthopedics and 31% both in internal medicine and in the geriatric ward). The model explained 75.8% of the variability of the 4AT score with a root mean squared error of 3.29. Higher age, the presence of dementia, physical restraint, diabetes and a lower degree are the variables associated with an increase of the 4AT score. Random forest is a valid method for investigating the patients' characteristics associated with delirium onset also in small case-series. The use of this model may allow for early detection of delirium onset to plan the proper adjustment in healthcare assistance.


Assuntos
Delírio , Idoso , Algoritmos , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Programas de Rastreamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281108

RESUMO

Wearable devices (WDs) can objectively assess patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) in clinical trials. In this study, the feasibility and acceptability of using commercial WDs in elderly patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) will be explored. This is a prospective observational study. Participants were trained to use a WD and a smartphone to collect data on their physical activity, rest heart rate and number of hours of sleep. Validated questionnaires were also used to evaluate these outcomes. A technology acceptance questionnaire was used at the end of the follow up. In our participants an overall good compliance in wearing the device (75.1% vs. 79.8%, SAVR vs. TAVR) was assessed. Half of the patients were willing to continue using the device. Perceived ease of use is one of the domains that scored higher in the technology acceptance questionnaire. In this study we observed that the use of a WD is accepted in our frail population for an extended period. Even though commercial WDs are not tailored for clinical research, they can produce useful information on patient behavior, especially when coordinated with intervention tailored to the single patient.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073448

RESUMO

Recent literature has reported a high percentage of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic cases in subjects with COVID-19 infection. This proportion can be difficult to quantify; therefore, it constitutes a hidden population. This study aims to develop a proof-of-concept method for estimating the number of undocumented infections of COVID-19. This is the protocol for the INCIDENT (Hidden COVID-19 Cases Network Estimation) study, an online, cross-sectional survey with snowball sampling based on the network scale-up method (NSUM). The original personal network size estimation method was based on a fixed-effects maximum likelihood estimator. We propose an extension of previous Bayesian estimation methods to estimate the unknown network size using the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. On 6 May 2020, 1963 questionnaires were collected, 1703 were completed except for the random questions, and 1652 were completed in all three sections. The algorithm was initialized at the first iteration and applied to the whole dataset. Knowing the number of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases is extremely important for reducing the spread of the virus. Our approach reduces the number of questions posed. This allows us to speed up the completion of the questionnaire with a subsequent reduction in the nonresponse rate.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Rede Social
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13418, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183764

RESUMO

In patients intubated for hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) related to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), we retrospectively compared two weaning strategies, early extubation with immediate non-invasive ventilation (NIV) versus standard weaning encompassing spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), with respect to IMV duration (primary endpoint), extubation failures and reintubations, rate of tracheostomy, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay and mortality (additional endpoints). All COVID-19 adult patients, intubated for hypoxemic ARF and subsequently extubated, were enrolled. Patients were included in two groups, early extubation followed by immediate NIV application, and conventionally weaning after passing SBT. 121 patients were enrolled and analyzed, 66 early extubated and 55 conventionally weaned after passing an SBT. IMV duration was 9 [6-11] days in early extubated patients versus 11 [6-15] days in standard weaning group (p = 0.034). Extubation failures [12 (18.2%) vs. 25 (45.5%), p = 0.002] and reintubations [12 (18.2%) vs. 22 (40.0%) p = 0.009] were fewer in early extubation compared to the standard weaning groups, respectively. Rate of tracheostomy, ICU mortality, and ICU length of stay were no different between groups. Compared to standard weaning, early extubation followed by immediate NIV shortened IMV duration and reduced the rate of extubation failure and reintubation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Traqueostomia
18.
J Pers Med ; 11(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064001

RESUMO

Poor recognition of delirium among hospitalized elderlies is a typical challenge for health care professionals. Considering methodological insufficiency for assessing time-varying diseases, a continuous-time Markov multi-state transition model (CTMMTM) was used to investigate delirium evolution in elderly patients. This is a longitudinal observational study performed in September 2016 in an Italian hospital. Change of delirium states was modeled according to the 4AT score. A Cox model (CM) and a CTMMTM were used for identifying factors affecting delirium onset both with a two-state and three-state model. In this study, 78 patients were enrolled and evaluated for 5 days. Both the CM and the CTMMTM show that urine catheter (UC), aging, drugs, and invasive devices (ID) are risk factors for delirium onset. The CTMMTM model shows that transition from no-delirium/cognitive impairment to delirium was associated with aging (HR = 1.14; 95%CI, 1.05, 1.23) and neuroleptics (HR = 4.3; 1.57, 11.77), dopaminergic drugs (HR = 3.89; 1.2, 12.6), UC (HR = 2.92; 1.09, 7.79) and ID (HR = 1.67; 103, 2.71). These results are confirmed by the multivariable model. Aging, ID, antibiotics, drugs affecting the central nervous system, and absence of moving ability are identified as the significant predictors of delirium. Additionally, it seems that modeling with CTMMTM may show associations that are not directly detectable with the traditional CM.

19.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 1475-1488, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168460

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the psychological impact of the lockdown measures contrasting the COVID-19 outbreak between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and general population. Patients and Methods: From July 15th to August 15th 2020, a retrospective survey referring to the period March 9th to May 18th 2020 was administered to SLE patients and the results of the survey, called LEPRE (Lupus Erythematosus PREsto) study, were compared with those from the PRESTO (imPact of quaRantine mEasures againST cOvid19) project, the same survey provided to the general population. Consecutive patients >18 years old affected by SLE and regularly followed in a single rheumatologic centre were involved. Primary outcome was to compare the scores of the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) and the Center for Epidemiological Depression Scale (CES-D) between patients and general population. Results: A total of 64 patients completed the survey. After a propensity score matching, they were compared to 128 people from PRESTO project. The median age among patients was 43 years (I-III interquartile range 35-54.5), 88% were female and 100% Caucasian. IES-R [(score>23: 57% (34) vs 49% (58)], GHQ-12 [(score>13: 85% (52) vs 88% (106)], and CES-D [(score>15: 45% (28) vs 40% (46)] scores were not statistically different between patients and controls (p>0.05). Conclusion: Restrictive measures for COVID-19 pandemic had no greater impact on patients with SLE than in the general population. Strategy for coping to the SLE might be useful during lockdown measures and may be helpful for other chronic conditions.

20.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(11): 3681-3692, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral dexamethasone in reducing kidney scars in infants with a first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: Children aged between 2 and 24 months with their first presumed UTI, at high risk for kidney scarring based on procalcitonin levels (≥1 ng/mL), were randomly assigned to receive dexamethasone in addition to routine care or routine care only. Kidney scars were identified by kidney scan at 6 months after initial UTI. Projections of enrollment and follow-up completion showed that the intended sample size could not be reached before funding and time to complete the study ran out. An amendment to the protocol was approved to conduct a Bayesian analysis. RESULTS: We randomized 48 children, of whom 42 had a UTI and 18 had outcome kidney scans (instead of 128 planned). Kidney scars were found in 0/7 and 2/11 patients in the treatment and control groups respectively. The probability that dexamethasone could prevent kidney scarring was 99% in the setting of an informative prior probability distribution (which fully incorporated in the final inference the information on treatment effect provided by previous studies) and 98% in the low-informative scenario (which discounted the prior literature information by 50%). The probabilities that dexamethasone could reduce kidney scar formation by up to 20% were 61% and 53% in the informative and low-informative scenario, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dexamethasone is highly likely to reduce kidney scarring, with a more than 50% probability to reduce kidney scars by up to 20%. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EudraCT number: 2013-000388-10; registered in 2013 (prospectively registered) A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

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