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1.
J Clin Psychol ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Self-focused attention is a maintaining factor for social anxiety disorder. It was shown that self-focused attention correlates with trait mindfulness, but not with attention control. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the self-focused attention (J-SFA) scale. METHOD: Students (N = 502) completed a set of questionnaires, measuring self-focused attention, social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and attention control. RESULTS: A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the J-SFA scale has a bi-factor structure. The Cronbach's α coefficient was high. Correlation analysis showed that each factor of the J-SFA scale was significantly weakly to moderately correlated with social anxiety symptoms and trait mindfulness, and the J-SFA scale's factors were significantly or non-significantly very weakly correlated with attentional control functions. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the J-SFA demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity for our sample and provide impetus for future research into the measure for clinical and nonclinical samples in Japan.

2.
Midwifery ; 97: 102969, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the Wijma Delivery Expectation Questionnaire (W-DEQ-A) and the one-item Fear of Childbirth-Postpartum-Visual Analogue Scale (FOCP-VAS) - measuring high FOC - are useful tools in predicting requested and received non-urgent obstetric interventions in pregnant women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. POPULATION AND SETTING: Self-selected pregnant women from midwifery care settings (n=401). METHODS: W-DEQ-A and FOCP-VAS were assessed at two timepoints in pregnancy. Measures of non-urgent obstetric interventions which were derived from medical files were: induction of labour, epidural analgesia, augmentation with oxytocin due to failure to progress and self-requested caesarean section. Hierarchical logistics regression models were used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The change in the Nagelkerke R2 was examined for three models predicting two outcome measures: (1) explicitly requested non-urgent obstetric interventions during pregnancy and (2) received non-urgent obstetric interventions during labour. The first model only included participants' characteristics, the second model also included FOCP-VAS ≥5, and in the third model the W-DEQ-A ≥66 was added. RESULTS: High FOC measured with FOCP-VAS≥5 predicted requested (pseudo-R2=0.33, X2=59.82, P<0.001) and received non-urgent obstetric interventions (pseudo-R2=0.19, X2=32.81, P<0.001) better than high FOC measured with W-DEQ-A≥66. CONCLUSION: This study is the first evaluating self-reported FOC and postpartum based on VAS (subjective outcome) in relation to actual pregnancy and childbirth outcomes derived from medical files (objective outcome). Non-urgent obstetric interventions could already be predicted in the first half of pregnancy by means of a simple FOC assessment with the one-item FOCP-VAS. Implementing this easy to use one-item screening tool in midwifery care is suggested.

3.
Cogn Emot ; : 1-15, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724152

RESUMO

Dual process models posit that combinations of impulsive and reflective processes drive behaviour, and that the capacity to engage in effortful cognitive processing moderates the relation between measures of impulsive or reflective processes and actual behaviour. When cognitive resources are low, impulsive processes are more likely to drive behaviour, while when cognitive resources are high, reflective processes will drive behaviour. In our current study, we directly addressed this hypothesis by comparing the capacity of implicit and explicit measures to predict fear and anxiety, either with or without additional cognitive load. In Experiment 1 (N = 83), only explicit measures of spider fear were predictive of spider avoidance, and manipulating cognitive load did not affect these relations. Experiment 2 (N = 70) confirmed these findings, as the capacity of explicit and implicit measures to predict self-reported and physiological responses to a social stressor was not moderated by cognitive load. In two experiments, we thus found no empirical support for the central dual process model assumption that cognitive control moderates the predictive value of implicit and explicit measures. While implicit measures and dual process accounts may still be valuable, we show that results in this field are not necessarily replicable and inconsistent.

4.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484370

RESUMO

This study investigated the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a concurrent mindfulness program (MYmind) on Chinese adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their parents in Hong Kong, China using a randomized controlled trial with a waitlist control group. Results showed the study had 80% compliance rate, 0% dropout rate, and 89% response rate. Between-group comparisons showed mindfulness had trend effects on parent's rumination (g = 1.16), mindful parenting (d = 0.6), parenting style (d = 0.59), and parenting stress (d = 0.5). The study demonstrated the feasibility of the MYmind program in the Chinese context. A larger trial with longer follow-up period is suggested to better examine the effect of mindfulness on adolescents with ASD and their parents.

5.
Mindfulness (N Y) ; : 1-13, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193907

RESUMO

Objectives: Growing academic interest in mindful parenting (MP) requires a reliable and valid measure for use in research and clinical setting. Because MP concerns the way parents relate to, and nurture, their children, it is important to evaluate the associations between self-reported MP and observed parenting and parent-child interaction measures. Methods: Seventy-three mothers who experience difficulties with their young children aged 0-48 months admitted for a Mindful with your baby/toddler training (63% in a mental health care and 27% in a preventative context) were included. Mothers completed the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting scale (IM-P) and video-observations of parent-child interactions were coded for maternal sensitivity, acceptance, mind-mindedness, and emotional communication (EC). Results: The IM-P total score was positively associated only with mothers' gaze to the child (EC). IM-P subscale Listening with Full Attention negatively predicted non-attuned mind-mindedness, Compassion with the Child positively predicted maternal sensitivity and positive facial expression (EC), and Emotional Awareness of Self positively predicted mothers' gaze to the child (EC) and dyadic synchrony of positive affect (EC). Conclusions: The current study provides support for the hypothesis that the IM-P total score is predictive of maternal actual attention for the child during a face-to-face interaction. When the IM-P is administered with the aim to gain understanding of different aspects of parenting behavior and the parent-child interaction, it is important not only to employ the IM-P total score but also to incorporate the individual IM-P subscales, as meaningful associations between IM-P subscales and observed parenting and parent-child interactions were found.

6.
J Atten Disord ; : 1087054720945023, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727260

RESUMO

Objective: We describe qualitative results on facilitators and barriers to participating in a family mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) for youth with ADHD and their parents and perceived effects on child and parent. Method: Sixty-nine families started the 8-week protocolized group-based MBI called "MYmind." After the MBI, individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of parents (n = 20), children (n = 17, ages 9-16 years), and mindfulness teachers (n = 3). Interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Results: Facilitators and barriers regarding contextual factors (e.g., time investment), MBI characteristics (e.g., parallel parent-child training), and participant characteristics (e.g., ADHD-symptoms) are described. Perceived effects were heterogeneous: no/adverse effects, awareness/insight, acceptance, emotion regulation/reactivity, cognitive functioning, calmness/relaxation, relational changes, generalization. Conclusion: MYmind can lead to a variety of transferable positively perceived effects beyond child ADHD-symptom decrease. Recommendations on MYmind participant inclusion, program characteristics, mindfulness teachers, and evaluating treatment efficacy are provided.

7.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 22(6): 28, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377882

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review mechanisms of blushing and fear of blushing from physiological, neuropharmacological and psychological viewpoints, and to evaluate current forms of treatment for blushing-related fear. RECENT FINDINGS: Blushing appears to be driven primarily by sympathetic adrenomedullary and neural vasodilator discharge, possibly in association with secondary neurovascular inflammation. Psychological risk factors for fear of blushing include social anxiety, coupled with heightened self-focused attention and inflated beliefs about the likelihood and social costs of blushing. In addition, schemas of emotional inhibition, social isolation and alienation may underlie blushing-related fears. Established psychological treatments for fear of blushing include task concentration training, exposure, cognitive therapy, social skills training, psychoeducation and applied relaxation. More novel approaches include mindfulness and mindful self-compassion, video feedback and imagery rescripting. There are no established pharmacological treatments specifically for fear of blushing. However, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective treatments for social anxiety disorder and may thus help some patients manage their fear of blushing. A reactive sympathetic nervous system may interact with psychological predispositions to intensify fear of blushing. These physiological and psychological risk factors could be promising targets for treatment.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Fobia Social , Transtornos Fóbicos , Afogueamento , Medo , Humanos
8.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101137, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mindful2Work is a 6-week program combining physical activity, yoga and mindfulness meditations, targeting (work-related) stress complaints from a body-mind perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We combined a top-down approach (researcher-driven outcome measures) with a bottom-up approach (personal goals and interview data) to investigate the effects on 98 employees with at least moderate (work-related) stress. Effects on personal goals, well-being (stress, anxiety, depression, sleep, affect, happiness), functioning at work (dropout, mental and physical workability, work satisfaction), and training-specific aspects (mindful awareness, self-compassion, emotion regulation strategies) were assessed. RESULTS: Nearly all measures showed no change during the wait-list period, with only negative affect and physical workability showing small statistically significant improvements. Medium to large effect size improvements directly after training and at all follow-ups were found on primary outcomes stress (0.62-1.17), and risk for dropout from work (0.55-1.00), and largest effects occurred on personal goals (0.98-1.46). Improvements in well-being and functioning at work were medium directly after training, and at follow-up 1 (six weeks later) and 2 (six months later), and large at follow-up 3 (one year later). The training-specific measures showed small to medium effects after training and at follow-up 1. Further, from the interviews (n = 9), two main categories of effects emerged: well-being and acquired insights. CONCLUSION: Mindful2Work showed substantial and long-lasting improvements according to researcher-driven measures as well as participants' own reports.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Atenção Plena , Ioga/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Empatia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Atten Disord ; : 1087054720915256, 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338110

RESUMO

Objective: This study was the first attempt to explore the efficacy of a mindfulness protocol for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and their parents. Method: Fifty male children with ADHD and ODD diagnosis, aged 8 to 12, were randomly assigned to the mindfulness intervention (n = 25) or the wait-list (n = 25) group. Outcome measures included children, parents', and teachers' reports and objective measures of attention. Results: Children from the intervention group had a greater reduction in hyperactive behaviors in the school context (effect size [ES] = 0.59) and a greater improvement in visual sustained attention (ES = 0.77) and in Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire scores (ES = 0.43) than those in the wait-list control group. No significant effect of the intervention on aggressive behaviors was revealed. Conclusion: A mindfulness intervention for children and their parents showed partial beneficial effects in children with ADHD + ODD.

10.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 61(12): 1339-1348, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-conscious emotional reactivity and its physiological marker - blushing has been proposed to be an etiological mechanism of social anxiety disorder (SAD), but so far, untested in longitudinal designs. This study tested, for the first time, whether self-conscious emotional reactivity (indexed as physiological blushing) contributes to the development of SAD symptoms over and above social behavioral inhibition (BI), which has been identified as the strongest predictor of SAD development in early childhood. METHODS: One hundred fifteen children (45% boys) and their mothers and fathers participated at ages 2.5, 4.5, and 7.5 years. Social BI was observed at all time points in a stranger approach task, and physiological blushing (blood volume, blood pulse amplitude, and temperature increases) was measured during a public performance (singing) and watching back the performance at ages 4.5 and 7.5. Child early social anxiety was reported by both parents at 4.5 years, and SAD symptoms were diagnosed by clinicians and reported by both parents at 7.5 years. RESULTS: Higher social BI at 2.5 and 4.5 years predicted greater social anxiety at 4.5 years, which, in turn, predicted SAD symptoms at 7.5 years. Blushing (temperature increase) at 4.5 years predicted SAD symptoms at 7.5 years over and above the influence of social BI and early social anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: That blushing uniquely contributes to the development of SAD symptoms over and above social BI suggests two pathways to childhood SAD: one that entails early high social BI and an early onset of social anxiety symptoms, and the other that consists of heightened self-conscious emotional reactivity (i.e. blushing) in early childhood.

11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 60, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children and adolescents suffer from problematic levels of anxiety, but the multitude of these children do not receive an intervention. It is of importance to increase the accessibility and availability of child anxiety interventions, as to identify and treat anxious children early and successfully. Online platforms that include information, assessments and intervention can contribute to this goal. Interventions for child anxiety are frequently based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, because of its strong theoretical and empirical basis. However, the working mechanisms of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in children are poorly studied. To our knowledge, mediation studies on child anxiety are non-existent regarding online Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. METHODS: We will aim at children aged 8-13 years with problematic anxiety. We recruit these children via the community setting, and refer them to our online platform 'Learn to Dare!' (in Dutch: 'Leer te Durven!'), https://leertedurven.ou.nl, where information about child anxiety and our research is freely accessible. After an active informed consent procedure, the participants can access the screening procedure, which will select the children with problematic anxiety levels. Thereafter, these children will be randomized to an online intervention based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (n = 120) or to a waitlist control (WL, n = 120). The intervention consists of 8 sessions with minimal therapist support and contains psycho-education, exposure (based on inhibitory learning), cognitive restructuring and relapse prevention. Child anxiety symptoms and diagnoses, cognitions, avoidance behavior and level of abstract reasoning are measured. Assessments are the same for both groups and are performed before and after the proposed working mechanisms are offered during the intervention. A follow-up assessment takes place 3 months after the final session, after which children in the waitlist control group are offered to take part in the intervention. DISCUSSION: This protocol paper describes the development of the online platform 'Learn to Dare!', which includes information about child anxiety, the screening procedure, anxiety assessments, and the online intervention. We describe the development of the online intervention. Offering easy accessible interventions and providing insight into the working mechanisms of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy contributes to optimizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for anxious youth.

12.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 38(2): 319-336, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064647

RESUMO

The current study aimed to investigate the discrepancy between self-reported and peer-reported likeability among children, and the relation with social anxiety, depression, and social support. In total, 532 children between 7 and 12 years completed questionnaires about social anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and social support, estimated their own likeability, and indicated how much they liked their classmates. Children with higher levels of social anxiety or depression overestimated their likeability less or even underestimated their likeability. Social anxiety symptoms, but not depressive symptoms, were significant predictors of the discrepancy. Social support was positively related to likeability and negatively related to social anxiety, but did not moderate the association between social anxiety symptoms and perception accuracy of likeability. These results are in line with cognitive theories of childhood social anxiety, and they stress the importance of using multi-informant measures when studying the relation between social anxiety and social functioning in children.

13.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 61(11): 1203-1212, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autonomic hyperarousal has been proposed as a dispositional risk factor for anxiety disorders (ADs). Therefore, we studied physiological arousal in offspring of fathers and mothers with and without ADs and whether infant hyperarousal predicts subsequent fearful temperament. METHODS: Infants (N = 128; age = 4 months) did a novel stimuli task (exposure to visual, olfactory, and acoustic stimuli and an unfamiliar male) and a habituation task (exposure to a repeated acoustic stimulus). Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured during baseline, stimuli and post-stimuli rest. Parents' AD status and severity were measured using a diagnostic interview and their fearful temperament using a questionnaire. Child fearful temperament was measured at 4 months, 1 year and 2.5 years with observations during structured tasks. RESULTS: Parents' fearful temperament (significant in the habituation task), AD status (significant in the novel stimuli task) and AD severity (significant in both tasks) predicted a higher HR in their infants. Infants' higher HR reactivity to novel stimuli and diminished HR recovery at 4 months predicted a more fearful temperament during infancy and toddlerhood. Infants' higher HR at 4 months predicted a more fearful temperament at 2.5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Parental prenatal anxiety (disorders) predicted infants' autonomic arousal, which in turn predicted later fearful temperament in children. Outcomes suggest that autonomic hyperarousal is a dispositional risk factor of ADs.

14.
Cogn Emot ; 34(2): 217-228, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044648

RESUMO

Although attentional bias (AB) is considered a key characteristic of anxiety problems, the psychometric properties of most AB measures are either problematic or unknown. We conducted two experiments in which we addressed the reliability, convergent validity, and concurrent validity of different AB measures in unselected student samples. In Experiment 1 (N = 66), the visual probe task and the emotional flanker task yielded unreliable estimates of AB. Both the relevant and irrelevant feature visual search task yielded better reliability estimates, yet AB scores did not correlate significantly with each other nor with self-reported social anxiety. In Experiment 2 (N = 60), we retained only the visual search tasks. The relevant feature visual search task was again highly reliable, but it did not correlate significantly with anxiety measures. The irrelevant feature visual search task yielded only small reliability estimates, yet one of the scores was significantly correlated with implicit (but not self-reported or physiological) measures of social anxiety. Together, our results advocate the use of variants of visual search tasks to measure AB and they underline the importance of fundamental psychometric testing in AB research.

15.
J Atten Disord ; 24(5): 681-692, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222027

RESUMO

Objective: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical attention. Mindfulness-based programs (MBPs), with self-regulation of attention as a basic component, could benefit these children. Method: We investigated how 49 children with ASD differed from 51 typically developing (TD) children in their attention systems; and whether their attention systems were improved by an MBP for children and their parents (MYmind), using a cognitive measure of attention, the Attention Network Test. Results: Children with ASD did not differ from TD children in the speed of the attention systems, but were somewhat less accurate in their orienting and executive attention. Also, MYmind did not significantly improve attention, although trend effects indicated improved orienting and executive attention. Robustness checks supported these improvements. Conclusion: Trend effects of the MBP on the attention systems of children with ASD were revealed, as well as minor differences between children with ASD and TD children in their attention systems.

16.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1550, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379646

RESUMO

Objectives: The prevalence of maternal stress in early years of parenting can negatively impact child development. Therefore, there is a need for an early intervention that is easily accessible and low in costs. The current study examined the effectiveness of an 8-session online mindful parenting training for mothers with elevated levels of parental stress. Methods: A total of 76 mothers were randomized into an intervention (n = 43) or a waitlist control group (n = 33). The intervention group completed pretest assessment prior to the online intervention. Participants completed a post intervention assessment after the 10 weeks intervention and a follow-up assessment 10 weeks later. The waitlist group completed waitlist assessment, followed by a 10-week waitlist period. After these 10 weeks, a pretest assessment took place, after which the waitlist group participants also started the intervention, followed by the posttest assessment. Participating mothers completed questionnaires on parental stress (parent-child interaction problems, parenting problems, parental role restriction) and other maternal (over-reactive parenting discipline, self-compassion, symptoms of depression and anxiety) and child outcomes (aggressive behavior and emotional reactivity) while the non-participating parents (father or another mother) were asked to also report on child outcomes. Results: The online mindful parenting intervention was shown to be significantly more effective at a 95% level than a waitlist period with regard to over-reactive parenting discipline and symptoms of depression and anxiety (small and medium effect sizes), and significantly more effective at a 90% level with regard to self-compassion, and mother-rated child aggressive behavior and child emotional reactivity (small effect sizes). The primary outcome, parental stress, was found to have a 95% significant within-group effect only for the subscale parental role restriction (delayed small effect size improvement at follow-up). No significant improvements on child outcomes were found for the non-participating parent. Conclusion: To conclude, the results provide first evidence that an online mindful parenting training may be an easily accessible and valuable intervention for mothers with elevated levels of parental stress.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 391, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316398

RESUMO

Mental illness is highly prevalent and runs in families. Mental disorders are considered to enhance the risk for the development of psychopathology in the offspring. This heightened risk is related to the separate and joint effects of inherited genetic vulnerabilities for psychopathology and environmental influences. The early years of life are suggested to be a key developmental phase in the intergenerational psychopathology transmission. Available evidence supports the idea that early exposure to parental psychopathology, during the pregnancy and first postpartum year, may be related to child psychological functioning beyond the postpartum period, up to adulthood years. This not only highlights the importance of intervening early to break the chain of intergenerational transmission of psychopathology but also raises the question of whether early interventions targeting parental mental disorders in this period may alleviate these prolonged adverse effects in the infant offspring. The current article focuses on the specific risk of psychopathology conveyed from mentally ill parents to the offspring during the pregnancy and first postpartum year. We first present a summary of the available evidence on the associations of parental perinatal mental illness with infant psychological outcomes at the behavioral, biological, and neurophysiological levels. Next, we address the effects of early interventions and discuss whether these may mitigate the early intergenerational transmission of risk for psychopathology. The summarized evidence supports the idea that psychopathology-related changes in parents' behavior and physiology in the perinatal period are related to behavioral, biological, and neurophysiological correlates of infant psychological functioning in this period. These alterations may constitute risk for later development of child and/or adult forms of psychopathology and thus for intergenerational transmission. Targeting psychopathology or mother-infant interactions in isolation in the postnatal period may not be sufficient to improve outcomes, whereas interventions targeting both maternal psychopathology and mother-infant interactions seem promising in alleviating the risk of early transmission.

18.
J Exp Psychopathol ; 7(1): 18-30, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156802

RESUMO

Cognitive models of social anxiety disorder propose self-focused attention as a key maintenance factor of the disorder. However, whether this holds true for different cultural contexts has not been investigated. The present experiment investigated the influence of self-construal (interdependent versus independent) on self-focused attention in high and low socially anxious individuals. Eighty-seven participants, divided into high versus low socially anxious and interdependent versus independent self-construal, performed a self-focused attention probe detection paradigm. A reaction time metric relating to attention deployment on the self versus the other served as an index of self-focused attention. In individuals with an interdependent self-construal those who are highly socially anxious showed decreased self-focused attention compared to those who are low socially anxious. In individuals with an independent self-construal the effect of social anxiety was less strong and in the opposite direction (but congruent with cognitive models). These results indicate that self-focused attention in social anxiety depends on self-construal. These findings implicate different therapies for people with social anxiety disorder, depending on their self-construal.

19.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(7): 775-787, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169393

RESUMO

This study examined changes in mothers' and fathers' rejection and psychological control during parent-child interactions after cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children's anxiety disorders. We studied whether family CBT reduced rejection (vs. warmth) and psychological control (vs. autonomy-granting) more than child CBT, and whether parents own anxiety disorders resulted in smaller decreases in these parenting behaviors. Participants were 128 clinically referred children and adolescents (52 boys; Mage = 12.4, SDage = 2.7) with anxiety disorders and their parents, randomly assigned to either family CBT (n = 64) or child CBT (n = 64). The Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule was used to assess children's and parents' anxiety disorders. Before and after treatment, parents' rejection and psychological control toward their child was rated during conflict and anxiety discussions of mother-child dyads, father-child dyads, and mother-father-child triads. As expected, during dyadic and triadic interactions, mothers' and fathers' rejection toward their child decreased after child and family CBT. Unexpectedly, during triadic conflict interactions, mothers, after child CBT and family CBT, as well as fathers, after child CBT, displayed increased psychological control. During triadic anxiety interactions, only mothers, after child CBT, showed increased psychological control. Changes in parenting did not depend on whether or not parents had anxiety disorders themselves. Thus, CBT for anxiety-disordered children can successfully reduce parents' rejection. The unexpected findings of increased psychological control after treatment, particularly by mothers in the presence of the father, suggests potential benefits of mothers' psychological control with anxious children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Relações Pais-Filho , Rejeição em Psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia
20.
Psychol Assess ; 31(8): 1006-1018, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070449

RESUMO

Questionnaire measures offer a time and cost-effective alternative to full diagnostic assessments for identifying and differentiating between potential anxiety disorders and are commonly used in clinical practice. Little is known, however, about the capacity of questionnaire measures to detect specific anxiety disorders in clinically anxious preadolescent children. This study aimed to establish the ability of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) subscales to identify children with specific anxiety disorders in a large clinic-referred sample (N = 1,438) of children aged 7 to 12 years. We examined the capacity of the Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety, and Physical Injury Fears (phobias) subscales to discriminate between children with and without the target disorder. We also identified optimal cutoff scores on subscales for accurate identification of children with the corresponding disorder, and examined the contribution of child, mother, and father reports. The Separation Anxiety subscale was able to accurately identify children with separation anxiety disorder, and this was replicated across all 3 reporters. Mother- and father-reported Social Phobia subscales also accurately identified children with social anxiety disorder, although child report was only able to accurately detect social anxiety disorder in girls. Using 2 or more reporters improved the sensitivity of the Separation Anxiety and Social Phobia subscales but reduced specificity. The Generalized Anxiety and Physical Injury Fears subscales failed to accurately identify children with the corresponding disorders. These findings have implications for the potential use of mother-, father-, and child-report SCAS subscales to detect specific disorders in preadolescent children in clinical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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