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1.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805903

RESUMO

Paediatric glaucoma leads to a decreased thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) and of the macula. These changes can be precisely quantified using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Despite abundant reports in adults, studies on the diagnostic capacity of macular SD-OCT in paediatric glaucoma are rare. The aim of this study was to compare the glaucoma discriminative ability of pRNFL and macular segment thickness in paediatric glaucoma patients and healthy children. Data of 72 children aged 5-17 years (glaucoma: 19 (26.4%), healthy: 53 (73.6%)) examined with SD-OCT (SPECTRALIS®, Heidelberg Engineering) were analysed retrospectively. The thickness of pRNFL sectors and of macular segment subfields were compared between diseased and healthy participants. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity from logistic regression were used to evaluate the glaucoma discriminative capacity of single and combined pRNFL and macular segments' thickness. The results revealed a reduced thickness of the pRNFL and of the three inner macular layers in glaucoma patients, which correlates highly with the presence of glaucoma. The highest glaucoma discriminative ability was observed for the combination of pRNFL sectors or inner macular segments (AUC: 0.83 and 0.85, respectively), although sensitivity remained moderate (both 63% at 95% specificity). In conclusion, while confirmation from investigations in larger cohorts is required, SD-OCT-derived pRNFL and macular thickness measurements seem highly valuable for the diagnosis of paediatric glaucoma.

2.
Clin Cardiol ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. In SPRINT an intensive versus standard BP lowering strategy resulted in a lower rate of cardiovascular events and death. Whether BP reduction only or also the choice of anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with outcomes remains to be elucidated. AIMS: We aim to study the association of BP and different anti-hypertensive drugs with several cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: Time-updated Cox and mixed-effects models. The primary outcome was a composite of first myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, heart failure, or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: A total of 9361 patients were included. The anti-hypertensive agents most frequently used were ACEi/ARBs, with an almost 20% higher prescription rate in the intensive arm (80% vs. 61%), followed by thiazide-type diuretics (65% vs. 42%), calcium-channel blockers (57% vs. 39%), and beta-blockers (52% vs. 26%). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists were rarely used (≤7% of the observations). In multivariate analysis, the use of ACEi/ARBs, especially in combination with thiazides, were independently associated with a lower primary outcome event-rate (HR [95%CI] 0.75 [0.61-0.92], p = .006), whereas a DBP <60 mmHg was independently associated with a higher event-rate (HR [95%CI] 1.36 [1.07-1.71], p = .011). SBP <120 mmHg was associated with lower rate of cardiovascular and all-cause death on intensive treatment but not on the standard arm (interaction p < .05 for both). CONCLUSIONS: In SPRINT, an intensive therapy strategy achieving SBP <120 mmHg with a DBP ≥60 mmHg, and using ACEi/ARBs plus thiazides was associated with a lower event-rate.

4.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734143

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify potentially targetable psychosocial factors associated with nonadherence to prescribed antihypertensive medications in patients presenting with hypertensive urgencies at an emergency department. METHODS: This prospective study included patients treated with antihypertensive drugs who presented with hypertensive urgencies (SBP ≥180 mmHg and/or DBP ≥110 mmHg) at the emergency department of a tertiary referral clinic between April 2018 and April 2019. Health literacy was assessed using the Newest Vital Sign test. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to quantify symptoms of anxiety and depression. Patients were classified nonadherent if less than 80% of the prescribed antihypertensive drugs were detectable in urine or plasma using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients (62% women) presenting with hypertensive urgencies with a median SBP of 200 mmHg (IQR 190-212) and DBP of 97.5 mmHg (IQR 87-104) were included. Twenty-five patients (24%) were nonadherent to their antihypertensive medication. Nonadherent patients were more often men (66 versus 23%, P = 0.039), prescribed higher numbers of antihypertensive drugs (median 3, IQR 3-4 versus 2, IQR 1-3; P < 0.001), and more often treated with calcium channel blockers (76 versus 25%; P < 0.001) and/or diuretics (64 versus 40%; P = 0.030). There was no difference in health literacy (P = 0.904) or the scores on the HADS subscales for depression (P = 0.319) and anxiety (P = 0.529) between adherent and nonadherent patients. CONCLUSION: Male sex, higher numbers of antihypertensive drugs, and treatment with diuretics and/or calcium channel blockers were associated with nonadherence. We did not identify a specific psychosocial characteristic associated with nonadherence.

5.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663906

RESUMO

In this document, we propose a universal definition of heart failure (HF) as the following: HF is a clinical syndrome with symptoms and or signs caused by a structural and/or functional cardiac abnormality and corroborated by elevated natriuretic peptide levels and or objective evidence of pulmonary or systemic congestion. We propose revised stages of HF as follows. At-risk for HF (Stage A), for patients at risk for HF but without current or prior symptoms or signs of HF and without structural or biomarkers evidence of heart disease. Pre-HF (stage B), for patients without current or prior symptoms or signs of HF, but evidence of structural heart disease or abnormal cardiac function, or elevated natriuretic peptide levels. HF (Stage C), for patients with current or prior symptoms and/or signs of HF caused by a structural and/or functional cardiac abnormality. Advanced HF (Stage D), for patients with severe symptoms and/or signs of HF at rest, recurrent hospitalizations despite guideline-directed management and therapy (GDMT), refractory or intolerant to GDMT, requiring advanced therapies such as consideration for transplant, mechanical circulatory support, or palliative care. Finally, we propose a new and revised classification of HF according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The classification includes HF with reduced EF (HFrEF): HF with an LVEF of ≤40%; HF with mildly reduced EF (HFmrEF): HF with an LVEF of 41% to 49%; HF with preserved EF (HFpEF): HF with an LVEF of ≥50%; and HF with improved EF (HFimpEF): HF with a baseline LVEF of ≤40%, a ≥10-point increase from baseline LVEF, and a second measurement of LVEF of >40%.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a component of standard care for patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). Procedural inducibility of AF following PVI has been suggested as predictor of AF recurrence but is discussed controversially. This meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the relevance of electrophysiological inducibility of AF following PVI for future AF recurrences. METHODS: A literature search of MEDLINE and Web of Science was performed until April 2020. Prospective trials of PVI in patients with AF and post-procedural atrial stimulation to test for inducibility of AF as well as adequate follow-up for AF recurrence (defined as AF >10 s to >10 min at follow-up) were included. Odds ratios (ORs) were analyzed using random-effects models. RESULTS: A total of 11 trials with 1544 patients (follow-up 7-39 months, age 56 ± 6 years, predominantly male 74 ± 6%) were included. Inducibility of AF post-PVI was predictive for AF recurrence during follow-up (OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.25 to 3.46). Prediction for AF recurrence at follow-up was better for patients with paroxysmal AF (OR 4.06; 95% CI 1.39 to 11.91), stimulation in the CS (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.17 to 6.79). A trend towards higher ORs was seen without the use of isoproterenol (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.17 to 5.07), as well as few stimulations during induction and a short definition of AF in meta-regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Electrophysiological inducibility of AF following PVI was predictive for future recurrence of AF, in particular in patients with paroxysmal AF, stimulation in only CS and no use of isoproterenol.

7.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(3): e007421, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension is the most common comorbidity in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and mediates adverse hemodynamics through related aortic stiffness and increased pulsatile load. We aimed to investigate the clinical and hemodynamic implications of renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) in patients with HFpEF and uncontrolled arterial hypertension. METHODS: Patients undergoing RDN between 2011 and 2018 in a single-center were retrospectively analyzed and classified as HFpEF (n=99) or no HF (n=65). Stroke volume index and aortic distensibility were measured through cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic properties were assessed echocardiographically. RESULTS: At baseline, patients with HFpEF had higher stroke volume index (median 40 [interquartile range, 33-48] versus 33 [26-40] mL/m2, P=0.002), pulse pressure (69 [63-77] versus 61 [55-67] mm Hg, P<0.001), but lower LV-VPES100mm Hg (18 [10-28] versus 24 [15-40] mL, P=0.007) and aortic distensibility (1.5 [1.1-2.6] versus 2.7 [1.1-3.5] 10-3 mm Hg-1, P=0.013) as compared to no-HF patients. Systolic blood pressure decreased comparable in patients with HFpEF and no-HF patients following RDN (-9 [-16 to -2], P<0.001). After RDN stroke volume index (-3 [-9 to +3] mL/m2, P=0.011) decreased and aortic distensibility (0.2 [-0.1 to +1.1] 10-3 mm Hg-1, P=0.007) and systolic stiffness (P<0.001) increased in HFpEF patients. LV diastolic stiffness and LV filling pressures as well as NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) decreased after RDN in patients with HFpEF (P=0.032, P=0.043, and P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HFpEF undergoing RDN showed increased stroke volume index, vascular, and LV stiffness as compared to no-HF patients. Following RDN those hemodynamic alterations and reduced systolic and diastolic LV stiffness were partly normalized, implying RDN might be a potential therapeutic strategy for arterial hypertension and HFpEF.

8.
Circulation ; 143(11): 1157-1172, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720773

RESUMO

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit an elevated cardiovascular risk manifesting as coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Although the incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular events is already significantly higher in patients with early CKD stages (CKD stages 1-3) compared with the general population, patients with advanced CKD stages (CKD stages 4-5) exhibit a markedly elevated risk. Cardiovascular rather than end-stage kidney disease (CKD stage 5) is the leading cause of death in this high-risk population. CKD causes a systemic, chronic proinflammatory state contributing to vascular and myocardial remodeling processes resulting in atherosclerotic lesions, vascular calcification, and vascular senescence as well as myocardial fibrosis and calcification of cardiac valves. In this respect, CKD mimics an accelerated aging of the cardiovascular system. This overview article summarizes the current understanding and clinical consequences of cardiovascular disease in CKD.

9.
Am J Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757788

RESUMO

Prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increases with age, along with comorbidities and, thus, polypharmacy. Non-adherence is associated with polypharmacy. This study aimed to identify patients at risk for cardiovascular events according to their pharmacological treatment intensity and adherence. Patients (n=18,113) with a mean age of 71.5±8.7 years, at high cardiovascular risk were followed between December 2005 until December 2007 for a median time of 2 years. The association between polypharmacy and adherence and their impact on cardiovascular and bleeding events were explored. Adherence was defined as a study drug intake of ≥80%. Patients with more co-medications had a higher body mass index, higher prevalence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus (all p<0.0001) compared to ≤4 or 5-8 co-medications, but no differences in history of stroke (p=0.68) or transient ischemic attack (p=0.065). Across all treatments, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) increased in patients with more co-medications (>=9 vs <=4) for all-cause death (HR 1.30; 1.06-1.59), major bleeding (HR 1.65; 1.33-2.05), and all bleeding events (HR 1.44; 1.31-1.59). Yearly event rates were higher in non-adherent than adherent patients for stroke and systemic embolism (SSE) (3.14 vs 1.00), all-cause death (7.76 vs. 2.66), major bleeding (6.21 vs. 2.65), and all bleeding (28.71 vs. 19.05; all p<0.0001). After an event the patients were more likely to become non-adherent (adherence after SSE 30.3%, after major bleeding 33.4%, after all bleeding 66.7%; all p<0.0001). The treatment effects were consistent to the overall group in the different polypharmacy groups. In conclusion, polypharmacy and non-adherence are risk indicators for increased adverse cardiovascular and bleeding events. Dabigatran is safe to use across the full spectrum of AF patients, independent of the number of co-medications and adherence. Patients with co-medications and comorbidities require special attention and encouragement to adhere to oral anticoagulation.

10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(4): 254-264, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in patients taking or not taking an mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) at baseline in the DAPA-HF (Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse outcomes in Heart Failure) trial. BACKGROUND: MRAs and sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors each have diuretic activity, lower blood pressure, and reduce glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Therefore, it is important to investigate the safety, as well as efficacy, of their combination. METHODS: A total of 4,744 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were randomized to placebo or dapagliflozin 10 mg daily. The efficacy of dapagliflozin on the primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death or episode of worsening heart failure) and its components was examined according to MRA use, as were predefined safety outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 3,370 patients (71%) were treated with an MRA and they were younger (65 vs. 69 years of age), less often from North America (9% vs. 26%), had worse New York Heart Association functional class (35% vs. 25% in class III/IV), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (30.7% vs. 31.9%) and systolic blood pressure (120.3 vs. 125.5 mm Hg), but higher estimated GFR (67.1 vs. 62.6 ml/min/1.73 m2), than patients not taking an MRA. The benefit of dapagliflozin compared with placebo was similar in patients taking or not taking an MRA: hazard ratio: 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63 to 0.87) versus 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57 to 0.95), respectively, for the primary endpoint (p value for interaction = 0.97); similar findings were observed for secondary endpoints. In both MRA subgroups, safety outcomes were similar in patients randomized to dapagliflozin or placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin was similarly efficacious and safe in patients with HFrEF taking or not taking an MRA, supporting the use of both drugs together. (Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on the Incidence of Worsening Heart Failure or Cardiovascular Death in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure [DAPA-HF]; NCT03036124).

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590579

RESUMO

Left ventricular ejection time (LVET) is defined as the time interval from aortic valve opening to aortic valve closure, and is the phase of systole during which the left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta. LVET has been used for several decades to assess left ventricular function and contractility. However, there is a recent interest in LVET as a measure of therapeutic action for novel drugs in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), since LVET is shortened in these patients. This review provides an overview of the available information on LVET including methods of measuring LVET, mechanistic understanding of LVET, association of LVET with outcomes, mechanisms behind shortened LVET in HFrEF and the potential implications of drugs that affect and normalize LVET.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605000

RESUMO

In this document, we propose a universal definition of heart failure (HF) as a clinical syndrome with symptoms and/or signs caused by a structural and/or functional cardiac abnormality and corroborated by elevated natriuretic peptide levels and/or objective evidence of pulmonary or systemic congestion. We also propose revised stages of HF as: At-risk for HF (Stage A), Pre-heart failure (Stage B), Symptomatic HF (Stage C) and Advanced HF (Stage D). Finally, we propose a new and revised classification of HF according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). These include HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF): symptomatic HF with LVEF ≤40%; HF with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF): symptomatic HF with LVEF 41-49%; HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF): symptomatic HF with LVEF ≥50%; and HF with improved ejection fraction (HFimpEF): symptomatic HF with a baseline LVEF ≤40%, a ≥10 point increase from baseline LVEF, and a second measurement of LVEF > 40%.

13.
J Hypertens ; 39(4): 766-774, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes and hypertension are risk factors for renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Data on the association of achieved blood pressure (BP) with renal outcomes in patients with and without diabetes are sparse. We investigated the association of achieved SBP, DBP with renal outcomes and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in people with vascular disease. METHODS: In this pooled analysis, we assessed renal outcome data from high-risk patients aged 55 years or older with a history of cardiovascular disease, 70% of whom had hypertension, randomized to The Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial and to Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease trials investigating telmisartan, ramipril and their combination with a median follow-up of 56 months. Standardized office BP was measured every 6 months, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and UAE at baseline, 2 years and study end. Associations of mean achieved BP on treatment were investigated on major renal outcomes including end-stage renal disease (ESRD), decline of eGFR by at least 40%, doubling of creatinine and the composites thereof and on UAE. Analyses were by Cox regression analysis, analysis of variance and Chi2-test. Of 30 937 patients with complete data, 19 450 patients without and 11 487 with diabetes were enrolled between 1 December 2001 and 31 July 2003 and followed until 31 July 2008. Data were pooled as the outcomes for telmisartan 80 mg/day (n = 2903) or placebo (n = 2907) for Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease and ramipril 10 mg/day (n = 8407), telmisartan 80 mg/day (n = 8386) or the combination of both (n = 8334) were similar. RESULTS: For both those with and without diabetes, the hazard ratios for the composites ESRD or doubling of serum creatinine (707 events overall) and ESRD or 40% eGFR loss (2371 events overall) reached a nadir at achieved SBP of 120 to less than 140 mmHg, and increased with higher and lower SBP with similar relative risk with or without diabetes. For example, risk for the former composite reached a hazard ratios 3.06 (confidence interval 1.90-4.92) with a mean achieved SBP more than 160 mmHg compared with 120 to less than 130 mmHg with diabetes and hazard ratios 2.14 (1.09-4.26) without diabetes. In contrast, the development of new microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria (3002 and 846 events overall) associated linearly over the whole range of achieved SBP (apart from a slight increase in risk at SBP less than 120 mmHg only in those without diabetes). Absolute risks for the composite and albuminuria outcomes were consistently greater in those with diabetes as compared with without diabetes with high event rates over the whole SBP spectrum. The increased renal risk at low SBP was not related to a meaningful reduction of mandated study drugs or open label renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition. CONCLUSION: In patients at high cardiovascular risk, SBP levels more than 140 mmHg and less than 120 are associated with increased risk for renal outcomes. Renal risk was greater in diabetes across the whole range of achieved SBP and DBP. These data suggest similar target BP range in patients with and without diabetes to prevent renal outcomes, a frequent complication in high-risk vascular patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial registration: http://clinicaltrials.gov.Unique identifier: NCT00153101.

14.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587963

RESUMO

Despite the availability of safe and effective antihypertensive drugs, blood pressure (BP) control to guideline-recommended target values is poor. Several device-based therapies have been introduced to lower BP. The most extensively investigated approach is catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN), which aims to interrupt the activity of afferent and efferent renal sympathetic nerves by applying radiofrequency energy, ultrasound energy, or injection of alcohol in the perivascular space. The second generation of placebo-controlled trials have provided solid evidence for the BP-lowering efficacy of radiofrequency- and ultrasound-based RDN in patients with and without concomitant pharmacological therapy. In addition, the safety profile of RDN appears to be excellent in all registries and clinical trials. However, there remain unsolved issues to be addressed. This review summarizes the rationale as well as the current evidence and discusses open questions and possible future indications of catheter-based RDN.

15.
Am J Hypertens ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic anti-hypertensive (HT) treatment reduces cardiovascular risk. However, many patients are non-adherent due to perceived or real concern about sexual-related side-effects. OBJECTIVES: In a subset of the SPRINT (a randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control) trial, we sought to investigate the impact of anti-HT treatment on sexual activities of men and women over time, and whether this impact varied with a more or less intensive anti-HT therapy. METHODS: Random-effects models for panel/longitudinal data. RESULTS: Among the 1268 men and 613 women included in this sub-study, 862 (68%) men and 178 (29%) women declared to be engaged in sexual activity of any kind. Compared with women and men not engaged in sexual activity, those engaged were younger (64 vs. 69yr for women and 65 vs. 75yr for men). Women had an overall low satisfaction with their sexual life but their sexual health was not affected by anti-HT therapy over time nor modified by an intensive treatment. Men's erections were slightly deteriorated over time (-0.1 to -0.2 points on a scale of 1 (worse) to 5 (best); p<0.05), but were not aggravated by intensive anti-HT therapy (p>0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Self-declared women`s sexual health was not affected by an intensive anti-HT therapy. Men, reported a slight deterioration in the quality of their erections, irrespective of standard or intensive therapy. These findings may help reassuring patients about the sexual safety of intensive anti-HT therapy, therefore, potentially improving adherence to intensive therapy strategy.

16.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(2): 861-871, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569926

RESUMO

AIMS: Failure to prescribe key medicines at evidence-based doses is associated with increased mortality and hospitalization for patients with Heart Failure with reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF). We assessed titration patterns of guideline-recommended HFrEF medicines internationally and explored associations with patient characteristics in the global, prospective, observational, longitudinal registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were collected from September 2013 through December 2014, with 7095 patients from 36 countries [>18 years, previous HF hospitalization within 1-15 months, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%] enrolled, with dosage data at baseline and up to 18 months from 4368 patients. In 4368 patients (mean age 63 ± 17 years, 75% male) ≥ 100% target doses at baseline: 30.6% (ACEIs), 2.9% (ARBs), 13.9% (BBs), 53.8% (MRAs), 26.2% (ivabradine). At final follow-up, ≥100% target doses achieved in more patients for ACEI (34.8%), BB (18.0%), and ivabradine (30.5%) but unchanged for ARBs (3.2%) and MRAs (53.7%). Adjusting for baseline dosage, uptitration during follow-up was more likely with younger age, higher systolic blood pressure, and in absence of chronic kidney disease or diabetes for ACEIs/ARBs; younger age, higher body mass index, higher heart rate, lower LVEF, and absence of coronary artery disease for BBs. For ivabradine, uptitration was more likely with higher resting heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: The international QUALIFY Registry suggests that few patients with HFrEF achieve target doses of disease-modifying medication, especially older patients and those with co-morbidity. Quality improvement initiatives are urgently required.

17.
Am Heart J ; 234: 1-11, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock the use of mechanical circulatory support devices remains controversial and data from randomized clinical trials are very limited. Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) - venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation - provides the strongest hemodynamic support in addition to oxygenation. However, despite increasing use it has not yet been properly investigated in randomized trials. Therefore, a prospective randomized adequately powered clinical trial is warranted. STUDY DESIGN: The ECLS-SHOCK trial is a 420-patient controlled, international, multicenter, randomized, open-label trial. It is designed to compare whether treatment with ECLS in addition to early revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention or alternatively coronary artery bypass grafting and optimal medical treatment is beneficial in comparison to no-ECLS in patients with severe infarct-related cardiogenic shock. Patients will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to one of the two treatment arms. The primary efficacy endpoint of ECLS-SHOCK is 30-day mortality. Secondary outcome measures such as hemodynamic, laboratory, and clinical parameters will serve as surrogate endpoints for prognosis. Furthermore, a longer follow-up at 6 and 12 months will be performed including quality of life assessment. Safety endpoints include peripheral ischemic vascular complications, bleeding and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: The ECLS-SHOCK trial will address essential questions of efficacy and safety of ECLS in addition to early revascularization in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

18.
Herz ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394059

RESUMO

Valvular heart disease (VHD) is common in patients with impaired renal function, especially in those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing dialysis. Progressive sclerosis and calcification of the valves and valvular annuli are major components of the etiology. These processes typically affect the aortic and mitral valve and can lead to both valvular insufficiency and stenosis. As recommended by the 2017 ESC/EACTS Guidelines for the management of VHD, surgical treatment remains the standard care for most cases of severe VHD. However, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased mortality when compared with patients with preserved renal function. Interventional treatment options have emerged as an effective and safe alternative for patients older than 75 years and/or with increased surgical risk. Consequently, in patients with CKD at increased surgical risk who have suitable anatomical morphology, transcatheter replacement and/or repair should be discussed in the interdisciplinary "heart team."

19.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437020

RESUMO

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases and its treatment requires multimodal therapeutic approaches. This review aims to provide a summary and update on relevant evidence in hypertension research published in 2019/2020. These include trials dealing with the prognostic effect of systolic and diastolic blood pressure values, the association between hypertension and valve disease, reproducibility of masked and white-coat hypertension, and the prognostic importance of ambulatory and night-time blood pressure measurements. Treatment of hypertension focusing on elderly patients but also the potential cancer risk of thiazide diuretics, the valsartan recall, chronotherapy, and device-based hypertension therapy are discussed.

20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 6, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial (Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial) treatment with the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin significantly reduced heart failure hospitalization (HHF) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and established cardiovascular disease. The early separation of the HHF event curves within the first 3 months of the trial suggest that immediate hemodynamic effects may play a role. However, hitherto no data exist on early effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on hemodynamic parameters and cardiac function. Thus, this study examined early and delayed effects of empagliflozin treatment on hemodynamic parameters including systemic vascular resistance index, cardiac index, and stroke volume index, as well as echocardiographic measures of cardiac function. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind, exploratory study patients with T2D were randomized to empagliflozin 10 mg or placebo for a period of 3 months. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters were assessed after 1 day, 3 days and 3 months of treatment. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were not different in the empagliflozin (n = 22) and placebo (n = 20) group. Empagliflozin led to a significant increase in urinary glucose excretion (baseline: 7.3 ± 22.7 g/24 h; day 1: 48.4 ± 34.7 g/24 h; p < 0.001) as well as urinary volume (1740 ± 601 mL/24 h to 2112 ± 837 mL/24 h; p = 0.011) already after one day compared to placebo. Treatment with empagliflozin had no effect on the primary endpoint of systemic vascular resistance index, nor on cardiac index, stroke volume index or pulse rate at any time point. In addition, echocardiography showed no difference in left ventricular systolic function as assessed by left ventricular ejections fraction and strain analysis. However, empagliflozin significantly improved left ventricular filling pressure as assessed by a reduction of early mitral inflow velocity relative to early diastolic left ventricular relaxation (E/e') which became significant at day 1 of treatment (baseline: 9.2 ± 2.6; day 1: 8.5 ± 2.2; p = 0.005) and remained apparent throughout the study. This was primarily attributable to reduced early mitral inflow velocity E (baseline: 0.8 ± 0.2 m/s; day 1: 0.73 ± 0.2 m/sec; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Empagliflozin treatment of patients with T2D has no significant effect on hemodynamic parameters after 1 or 3 days, nor after 3 months, but leads to rapid and sustained significant improvement of diastolic function. Trial registration EudraCT Number: 2016-000172-19; date of registration: 2017-02-20 (clinicaltrialregister.eu).

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