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1.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727541

RESUMO

Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging has emerged as a useful imaging tool in diagnosing and characterizing the progression of myopathies and muscular dystrophies. Whole-body MRI indications and diagnostic efficacy are becoming better defined with the increasing number of cases, publications and discussions within multidisciplinary working groups. Advanced Whole-body MRI protocols are rapid, lower cost, and well-tolerated by patients. Accurate interpretation of muscle Whole-body MRI requires a detailed knowledge of muscle anatomy and differential pattern of involvement in muscle diseases. With the surge in recently identified novel genetic myopathies, Whole-body MRI will become increasingly useful for phenotypic validation of genetic variants of unknown significance. In addition, Whole-body MRI will be progressively used as a biomarker for disease progression and quantify response to therapy with the emergence of novel disease modifying treatments. This review outlines Whole-body MRI indications and updates refined protocols and provides a comprehensive overview of the diagnostic utility and suggested methodology of Whole-body MRI for pediatric and adult patients with muscle diseases.

2.
Science ; 366(6463): 351-356, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601707

RESUMO

Transcriptome data can facilitate the interpretation of the effects of rare genetic variants. Here, we introduce ANEVA (analysis of expression variation) to quantify genetic variation in gene dosage from allelic expression (AE) data in a population. Application of ANEVA to the Genotype-Tissues Expression (GTEx) data showed that this variance estimate is robust and correlated with selective constraint in a gene. Using these variance estimates in a dosage outlier test (ANEVA-DOT) applied to AE data from 70 Mendelian muscular disease patients showed accuracy in detecting genes with pathogenic variants in previously resolved cases and led to one confirmed and several potential new diagnoses. Using our reference estimates from GTEx data, ANEVA-DOT can be incorporated in rare disease diagnostic pipelines to use RNA-sequencing data more effectively.

3.
Neurology ; 93(21): e1932-e1943, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the rate of change of clinical outcome measures in children with 2 types of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), COL6-related dystrophies (COL6-RDs) and LAMA2-related dystrophies (LAMA2-RDs). METHODS: Over the course of 4 years, 47 individuals (23 with COL6-RD and 24 with LAMA2-RD) 4 to 22 years of age were evaluated. Assessments included the Motor Function Measure 32 (MFM32), myometry (knee flexors and extensors, elbow flexors and extensors), goniometry (knee and elbow extension), pulmonary function tests, and quality-of-life measures. Separate linear mixed-effects models were fitted for each outcome measurement, with subject-specific random intercepts. RESULTS: Total MFM32 scores for COL6-RDs and LAMA2-RDs decreased at a rate of 4.01 and 2.60 points, respectively, each year (p < 0.01). All muscle groups except elbow flexors for individuals with COL6-RDs decreased in strength between 1.70% (p < 0.05) and 2.55% (p < 0.01). Range-of-motion measurements decreased by 3.21° (p < 0.05) at the left elbow each year in individuals with LAMA2-RDs and 2.35° (p < 0.01) in right knee extension each year in individuals with COL6-RDs. Pulmonary function demonstrated a yearly decline in sitting forced vital capacity percent predicted of 3.03% (p < 0.01) in individuals with COL6-RDs. There was no significant change in quality-of-life measures analyzed. CONCLUSION: Results of this study describe the rate of change of motor function as measured by the MFM32, muscle strength, range of motion, and pulmonary function in individuals with COL6-RDs and LAMA2-RDs.

4.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(10): 1980-1988, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the natural history and clinical features of myopathies caused by mono-allelic, dominantly acting pathogenic variants in COL12A1. METHODS: Patients with dominant COL12A1-related myopathies were characterized by history and clinical examination, muscle imaging, and genetic analysis. Pathogenicity of the variants was assessed by immunostaining patient-derived dermal fibroblast cultures for collagen XII. RESULTS: Four independent families with childhood-onset weakness due to novel, dominantly acting pathogenic variants in COL12A1 were identified. Adult patients exhibited distal-predominant weakness. Three families carried dominantly acting glycine missense variants, and one family had a heterozygous, intragenic, in-frame deletion of exon 52 of COL12A1. All pathogenic variants resulted in increased intracellular retention of collagen XII in patient-derived fibroblasts as well as loss of extracellular, fibrillar collagen XII deposition. Since haploinsufficiency for COL12A1 is largely clinically asymptomatic, we designed and evaluated small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that specifically target the mutant allele containing the exon 52 deletion. Immunostaining of the patient fibroblasts treated with the siRNA showed a near complete correction of collagen XII staining patterns. INTERPRETATION: This study characterizes a distal myopathy phenotype in adults with dominant COL12A1 pathogenic variants, further defining the phenotypic spectrum and natural history of COL12A1-related myopathies. This work also provides proof of concept of a precision medicine treatment approach by proposing and validating allele-specific knockdown using siRNAs specifically designed to target a patient's dominant COL12A1 disease allele.

5.
Neurology ; 93(16): e1535-e1542, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better characterize adult myotubularin 1 (MTM1)-related myopathy carriers and recommend a phenotypic classification. METHODS: This cohort study was performed at the NIH Clinical Center. Participants were required to carry a confirmed MTM1 mutation and were recruited via the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry (n = 8), a traveling local clinic of the Neuromuscular and Neurogenetic Disorders of Childhood Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH and Cure CMD (n = 1), and direct physician referral (n = 1). Neuromuscular examinations, muscle MRI, dynamic breathing MRI, cardiac MRI, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), physical therapy assessments including the Motor Function Measure 32 (MFM-32) scale, and X chromosome inactivation (XCI) studies were performed. RESULTS: Phenotypic categories were proposed based on ambulatory status and muscle weakness. Carriers were categorized as severe (nonambulatory; n = 1), moderate (minimal independent ambulation/assisted ambulation; n = 3), mild (independent ambulation but with evidence of muscle weakness; n = 4), and nonmanifesting (no evidence of muscle weakness; n = 2). Carriers with more severe muscle weakness exhibited greater degrees of respiratory insufficiency and abnormal signal on muscle imaging. Skeletal asymmetries were evident in both manifesting and nonmanifesting carriers. Skewed XCI did not explain phenotypic severity. CONCLUSION: This work illustrates the phenotypic range of MTM1-related myopathy carriers in adulthood and recommends a phenotypic classification. This classification, defined by ambulatory status and muscle weakness, is supported by muscle MRI, PFT, and MFM-32 scale composite score findings, which may serve as markers of disease progression and outcome measures in future gene therapy or other clinical trials.

6.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 6(4): 475-483, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498126

RESUMO

Calpainopathy, also known as limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2A (LGMD2A) or LGMD R1 Calpain3-related, is one of the most common genetically characterized forms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy with a wide range of phenotypic severity. We evaluated a consanguineous family with a clinical phenotype consistent with calpainopathy in whom conventional sequencing did not detect any mutations in the CAPN3 gene. Using whole exome sequencing paired with haplotype analysis, we identified a homozygous deep intronic single base pair deletion in CAPN3 (c.946-29delT). Familial segregation studies were consistent with recessive inheritance. Immunoblotting of muscle tissue from the patient showed complete absence of calpain 3. In silico analysis predicted the deletion to disrupt the branch point and subsequently alter splicing of exon 7. Studies of patient fibroblasts and muscle tissue confirmed altered splicing, resulting in an inclusion of a 389-bp intronic sequence upstream of exon 7, originating from a cryptic splice acceptor site in intron 6. This out-of-frame insertion results in a premature stop codon, leading to an apparent absence of protein likely due to degradation of the transcript via nonsense-mediated decay. We then designed phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) as splice modulators to block the new splice acceptor site. This approach successfully prevented the aberrant splicing - reverting the majority of the splice to the wildtype transcript. These results confirm the pathogenicity of this novel deep intronic mutation and provide a mutation-specific therapeutic strategy. Thus, deep intronic mutations in CAPN3 may be pathogenic and should be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. The identification of mutations which may be missed by traditional Sanger sequencing is essential as they may be excellent targets for individualized therapeutic strategies using RNA-directed splice modulation.

8.
Sci Adv ; 5(7): eaaw1297, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281886

RESUMO

The canonical view is that touch is signaled by fast-conducting, thickly myelinated afferents, whereas pain is signaled by slow-conducting, thinly myelinated ("fast" pain) or unmyelinated ("slow" pain) afferents. While other mammals have thickly myelinated afferents signaling pain (ultrafast nociceptors), these have not been demonstrated in humans. Here, we performed single-unit axonal recordings (microneurography) from cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents in healthy participants. We identified A-fiber high-threshold mechanoreceptors (A-HTMRs) that were insensitive to gentle touch, encoded noxious skin indentations, and displayed conduction velocities similar to A-fiber low-threshold mechanoreceptors. Intraneural electrical stimulation of single ultrafast A-HTMRs evoked painful percepts. Testing in patients with selective deafferentation revealed impaired pain judgments to graded mechanical stimuli only when thickly myelinated fibers were absent. This function was preserved in patients with a loss-of-function mutation in mechanotransduction channel PIEZO2. These findings demonstrate that human mechanical pain does not require PIEZO2 and can be signaled by fast-conducting, thickly myelinated afferents.

9.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 6(2): 263-266, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127729

RESUMO

Muscle strength testing is routine in clinical practice. Here we provide an aid to the documentation and visual conceptualization of those results - MuscleViz: a free, open-source application for visualizing the results of muscle strength testing. Its use in clinical settings streamlines the communication of physical examination findings. The tool is also useful for presenting patient data in case reports or case series. A push towards free, open-source software has benefitted other areas of science; we believe a similar effort dedicated to the development of clinical tools is worth pursuing.

10.
Neurogenetics ; 20(3): 129-143, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041561

RESUMO

We previously reported a pathogenic de novo p.R342W mutation in the transcriptional corepressor CTBP1 in four independent patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities [1]. Here, we report the clinical phenotypes of seven additional individuals with the same recurrent de novo CTBP1 mutation. Within this cohort, we identified consistent CtBP1-related phenotypes of intellectual disability, ataxia, hypotonia, and tooth enamel defects present in most patients. The R342W mutation in CtBP1 is located within a region implicated in a high affinity-binding cleft for CtBP-interacting proteins. Unbiased proteomic analysis demonstrated reduced interaction of several chromatin-modifying factors with the CtBP1 W342 mutant. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis in human glioblastoma cell lines expressing -CtBP1 R342 (wt) or W342 mutation revealed changes in the expression profiles of genes controlling multiple cellular processes. Patient-derived dermal fibroblasts were found to be more sensitive to apoptosis during acute glucose deprivation compared to controls. Glucose deprivation strongly activated the BH3-only pro-apoptotic gene NOXA, suggesting a link between enhanced cell death and NOXA expression in patient fibroblasts. Our results suggest that context-dependent relief of transcriptional repression of the CtBP1 mutant W342 allele may contribute to deregulation of apoptosis in target tissues of patients leading to neurodevelopmental phenotypes.

11.
Clin Genet ; 96(3): 207-215, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066047

RESUMO

Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous conditions. We launched a nationwide study to determine the frequency of CMD in the Chinese population and assess the status of diagnosis and disease management for CMD in China. Cases were chosen from databases in 34 tertiary academic hospitals from 29 first-level administrative divisions (provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions, and special administrative regions), and medical records were reviewed to confirm the diagnoses. The study included 409 patients, of those patients who consented to genetic testing (n = 340), mutations were identified in 286 of them. The most common forms identified were LAMA2-related CMD (36.4%), followed by COL6-related CMD (23.2%) and α-dystroglycanopathy (21.0%). The forms of CMD related to mutations in LMNA and SEPN1 were less frequent (12.5% and 2.4%, respectively). We also recorded a significant difference in the diagnostic capabilities and disease management of CMD, with this being relatively backward in research centers from less developed regions. We provide, for the first time, comprehensive epidemiologic information of CMD in a large cohort of Chinese people. To our knowledge, this is the largest sample size of its kind so far highlighting the prevalence of CMD in China.

12.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 29: 44-54, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060725

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of muscle most importantly encompass the congenital muscular dystrophies as well as the congenital myopathies. With the broader availability of next generation genetic testing there has been an expansion of phenotypes and genotypes, while the very large genes such as titin, nebulin, and RYR1 have also become accessible to complete sequencing. This development has had considerable diagnostic power while at the same time also creating challenges in the interpretation of the many variants of uncertain significance that will need a solid clinical plausibility test, based on "deep" phenotyping, taking into account clinical, extended clinical, histological, and physiological data. One tool in this context is imaging of skeletal muscle, including by ultrasound. Muscle ultrasound is a useful, noninvasive, child-friendly technique for visualizing normal and pathological skeletal muscle. By virtue of its different mode of image acquisition compared to muscle MRI, it allows for the assessment of different and often earlier changes, also circumventing the need for sedation. Herein we highlight the important role of muscle ultrasound as a diagnostic tool and an extension of the physical exam in the work-up of congenital onset muscle disease, presenting various relevant clinical scenarios. We show how muscle ultrasound can confirm or refute skeletal muscle involvement and yield information about the nature of the involvement (myopathic vs neurogenic). Muscle ultrasound can also guide the appropriate next diagnostic steps and recognize diagnostically important qualitative patterns to help confirm or refute genetic considerations raised by next generation sequencing. We illustrate specific muscle ultrasound involvement patterns, which constitute accessible diagnostic hints and show that muscle ultrasound, in conjunction with the clinical phenotype, the histological appearance of the muscle biopsy (when available), and the ascertained genotype, can be a very powerful tool in integrating all available information into a final accurate and precise diagnosis in the age of next generation sequencing.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 86(1): 129-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define a distinct, dominantly inherited, mild skeletal myopathy associated with prominent and consistent tremor in two unrelated, three-generation families. METHODS: Clinical evaluations as well as exome and panel sequencing analyses were performed in affected and nonaffected members of two families to identify genetic variants segregating with the phenotype. Histological assessment of a muscle biopsy specimen was performed in 1 patient, and quantitative tremor analysis was carried out in 2 patients. Molecular modeling studies and biochemical assays were performed for both mutations. RESULTS: Two novel missense mutations in MYBPC1 (p.E248K in family 1 and p.Y247H in family 2) were identified and shown to segregate perfectly with the myopathy/tremor phenotype in the respective families. MYBPC1 encodes slow myosin binding protein-C (sMyBP-C), a modular sarcomeric protein playing structural and regulatory roles through its dynamic interaction with actin and myosin filaments. The Y247H and E248K mutations are located in the NH2 -terminal M-motif of sMyBP-C. Both mutations result in markedly increased binding of the NH2 terminus to myosin, possibly interfering with normal cross-bridge cycling as the first muscle-based step in tremor genesis. The clinical tremor features observed in all mutation carriers, together with the tremor physiology studies performed in family 2, suggest amplification by an additional central loop modulating the clinical tremor phenomenology. INTERPRETATION: Here, we link two novel missense mutations in MYBPC1 with a dominant, mild skeletal myopathy invariably associated with a distinctive tremor. The molecular, genetic, and clinical studies are consistent with a unique sarcomeric origin of the tremor, which we classify as "myogenic tremor." ANN NEUROL 2019.

14.
JCI Insight ; 4(6)2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895940

RESUMO

The clinical application of advanced next-generation sequencing technologies is increasingly uncovering novel classes of mutations that may serve as potential targets for precision medicine therapeutics. Here, we show that a deep intronic splice defect in the COL6A1 gene, originally discovered by applying muscle RNA sequencing in patients with clinical findings of collagen VI-related dystrophy (COL6-RD), inserts an in-frame pseudoexon into COL6A1 mRNA, encodes a mutant collagen α1(VI) protein that exerts a dominant-negative effect on collagen VI matrix assembly, and provides a unique opportunity for splice-correction approaches aimed at restoring normal gene expression. Using splice-modulating antisense oligomers, we efficiently skipped the pseudoexon in patient-derived fibroblast cultures and restored a wild-type matrix. Similarly, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to precisely delete an intronic sequence containing the pseudoexon and efficiently abolish its inclusion while preserving wild-type splicing. Considering that this splice defect is emerging as one of the single most frequent mutations in COL6-RD, the design of specific and effective splice-correction therapies offers a promising path for clinical translation.

15.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 6(1): 133-141, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RYR1-related disorders (RYR1-RD), are a spectrum of genetic neuromuscular disorders. Affected individuals frequently experience fatigue yet appropriate tools to assess RYR1-RD-associated fatigue remain underdeveloped. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the reliability and validity of two self-report questionnaires, the multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) and adult/pediatric functional assessment of chronic illness-fatigue (FACIT-F/Peds-FACIT-F) as potential fatigue measures in RYR1-RD affected individuals. METHODS: Participants (n = 37) were enrolled in an RYR1-RD combined natural history study and clinical trial. At baseline, participants completed fatigue questionnaires, six-minute walk test (6MWT), cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and saliva collection for fatigue biomarker index (FBI) quantification. RESULTS: All questionnaires exhibited good test-retest reliability (n = 18, ICC > 0.80). MFI-20 (n = 37), and FACIT-F (n = 28) also showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α> 0.80). All MFI-20 subscales, except mental fatigue, and FACIT-F demonstrated evidence of criterion validity when correlated against percent predicted 6MWT distance (MFI-20 n = 37; r = -0.34 to -0.47, all p < 0.05, mental fatigue, r = -0.16, p = 0.35; FACIT-F n = 28, r = 0.41, p = 0.03). This was not the case for percent predicted VO2 peak (all p > 0.05). FBI correlated with MFI-20 general fatigue dimension only (r = -0.35, p = 0.03). Comparison of standardized questionnaire scores revealed that RYR1-RD affected individuals experience significantly greater fatigue than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: MFI-20 and FACIT-F are valid and reliable tools for assessing RYR1-RD-associated fatigue, a symptom centrally implicated in this rare disorder.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 797, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770808

RESUMO

FXR1 is an alternatively spliced gene that encodes RNA binding proteins (FXR1P) involved in muscle development. In contrast to other tissues, cardiac and skeletal muscle express two FXR1P isoforms that incorporate an additional exon-15. We report that recessive mutations in this particular exon of FXR1 cause congenital multi-minicore myopathy in humans and mice. Additionally, we show that while Myf5-dependent depletion of all FXR1P isoforms is neonatal lethal, mice carrying mutations in exon-15 display non-lethal myopathies which vary in severity depending on the specific effect of each mutation on the protein.


Assuntos
Genes Recessivos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mutação , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/genética , Oftalmoplegia/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/deficiência , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Éxons/genética , Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/congênito , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/metabolismo , Oftalmoplegia/congênito , Oftalmoplegia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/genética , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo
17.
Acta Neuropathol ; 137(3): 501-519, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701273

RESUMO

The identification of genes implicated in myopathies is essential for diagnosis and for revealing novel therapeutic targets. Here we characterize a novel subclass of congenital myopathy at the morphological, molecular, and functional level. Through exome sequencing, we identified de novo ACTN2 mutations, a missense and a deletion, in two unrelated patients presenting with progressive early-onset muscle weakness and respiratory involvement. Morphological and ultrastructural analyses of muscle biopsies revealed a distinctive pattern with the presence of muscle fibers containing small structured cores and jagged Z-lines. Deeper analysis of the missense mutation revealed mutant alpha-actinin-2 properly localized to the Z-line in differentiating myotubes and its level was not altered in muscle biopsy. Modelling of the disease in zebrafish and mice by exogenous expression of mutated alpha-actinin-2 recapitulated the abnormal muscle function and structure seen in the patients. Motor deficits were noted in zebrafish, and muscle force was impaired in isolated muscles from AAV-transduced mice. In both models, sarcomeric disorganization was evident, while expression of wild-type alpha-actinin-2 did not result in muscle anomalies. The murine muscles injected with mutant ACTN2 displayed cores and Z-line defects. Dominant ACTN2 mutations were previously associated with cardiomyopathies, and our data demonstrate that specific mutations in the well-known Z-line regulator alpha-actinin-2 can cause a skeletal muscle disorder.

18.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(1): e523, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588482

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical features of anti-HMGCR myopathy among patients with presumed limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) in whom genetic testing has failed to elucidate causative mutations. Methods: Patients with presumed LGMD and unrevealing genetic testing were selected based on a few clinico-pathologic features and tested for anti-HMGCR autoantibodies (n = 11). These clinico-pathologic features are peak creatine kinase (CK) greater than 1,000 IU/L and at least 3 of the following features: (1) limb-girdle pattern of weakness, (2) selective involvement of posterior thigh on clinical examination or muscle imaging, (3) dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy, and (4) no family history of muscular dystrophy. Results: Six patients tested positive for anti-HMGCR autoantibodies. In 4, there was a presymptomatic phase, lasting as long as 10 years, characterized by elevated CK levels without weakness. Muscle biopsies revealed variable degrees of a dystrophic pathology without prominent inflammation. In an independent cohort of patients with anti-HMGCR myopathy, 17 of 51 (∼33%) patients were initially presumed to have a form of LGMD based on clinico-pathologic features but were ultimately found to have anti-HMGCR myopathy. Most of these patients responded favorably to immunomodulatory therapies, evidenced by reduction of CK levels and improved strength. Conclusions: Anti-HMGCR myopathy can resemble LGMD. Diagnosis of patients with a LGMD-like presentation of anti-HMGCR myopathy is critical because these patients may respond favorably to immunotherapy, especially those with shorter disease duration.

19.
Dis Model Mech ; 11(12)2018 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578246

RESUMO

Dystroglycan is a cell membrane protein that binds to the extracellular matrix in a variety of mammalian tissues. The α-subunit of dystroglycan (αDG) is heavily glycosylated, including a special O-mannosyl glycoepitope, relying upon this unique glycosylation to bind its matrix ligands. A distinct group of muscular dystrophies results from specific hypoglycosylation of αDG, and they are frequently associated with central nervous system involvement, ranging from profound brain malformation to intellectual disability without evident morphological defects. There is an expanding literature addressing the function of αDG in the nervous system, with recent reports demonstrating important roles in brain development and in the maintenance of neuronal synapses. Much of these data are derived from an increasingly rich array of experimental animal models. This Review aims to synthesize the information from such diverse models, formulating an up-to-date understanding about the various functions of αDG in neurons and glia of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Where possible, we integrate these data with our knowledge of the human disorders to promote translation from basic mechanistic findings to clinical therapies that take the neural phenotypes into account.


Assuntos
Distroglicanas/metabolismo , Distrofias Musculares/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Distroglicanas/química , Humanos , Distrofias Musculares/genética , Fenótipo
20.
Muscle Nerve ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412272

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Centronuclear myopathies (CNMs) are a subtype of congenital myopathies (CMs) characterized by muscle weakness, predominant type 1 fibers, and increased central nuclei. SPEG (striated preferentially expressed protein kinase) mutations have recently been identified in 7 CM patients (6 with CNMs). We report 2 additional patients with SPEG mutations expanding the phenotype and evaluate genotype-phenotype correlations associated with SPEG mutations. METHODS: Using whole exome/genome sequencing in CM families, we identified novel recessive SPEG mutations in 2 patients. RESULTS: Patient 1, with severe muscle weakness requiring respiratory support, dilated cardiomyopathy, ophthalmoplegia, and findings of nonspecific CM on muscle biopsy carried a homozygous SPEG mutation (p.Val3062del). Patient 2, with milder muscle weakness, ophthalmoplegia, and CNM carried compound heterozygous mutations (p.Leu728Argfs*82) and (p.Val2997Glyfs*52). CONCLUSIONS: The 2 patients add insight into genotype-phenotype correlations of SPEG-associated CMs. Clinicians should consider evaluating a CM patient for SPEG mutations even in the absence of CNM features. Muscle Nerve, 2018.

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