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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004144

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and pathological cardiac aging share a complex pathophysiology, including extracellular matrix remodelling (EMR). Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) deficiency is associated with EMR. The roles of PAR1 and PAR2 have not been studied in HFpEF, age-dependent cardiac fibrosis, or diastolic dysfunction (DD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Evaluation of endomyocardial biopsies from patients with HFpEF (n = 14) revealed that a reduced cardiac PAR2 expression was associated with aggravated DD and increased myocardial fibrosis (r = -0.7336, P = 0.0028). In line, 1-year-old PAR2-knockout (PAR2ko) mice suffered from DD with preserved systolic function, associated with an increased age-dependent α-smooth muscle actin expression, collagen deposition (1.7-fold increase, P = 0.0003), lysyl oxidase activity, collagen cross-linking (2.2-fold increase, P = 0.0008), endothelial activation, and inflammation. In the absence of PAR2, the receptor-regulating protein caveolin-1 was down-regulated, contributing to an augmented profibrotic PAR1 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß)-dependent signalling. This enhanced TGF-ß/PAR1 signalling caused N-proteinase (ADAMTS3) and C-proteinase (BMP1)-related increased collagen I production from cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). PAR2 overexpression in PAR2ko CFs reversed these effects. The treatment with the PAR1 antagonist, vorapaxar, reduced cardiac fibrosis by 44% (P = 0.03) and reduced inflammation in a metabolic disease model (apolipoprotein E-ko mice). Patients with HFpEF with upstream PAR inhibition via FXa inhibitors (n = 40) also exhibited reduced circulating markers of fibrosis and DD compared with patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (n = 20). CONCLUSIONS: Protease-activated receptor 2 is an important regulator of profibrotic PAR1 and TGF-ß signalling in the heart. Modulation of the FXa/FIIa-PAR1/PAR2/TGF-ß-axis might be a promising therapeutic approach to reduce HFpEF.

2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 66(1): 7-15, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24378723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about HIV infection in older persons is becoming increasingly important. CD4⁺ T cells are essential for protective immunity, but little is known about the effect of age on the CD4⁺ T-cell impairment in HIV infection. METHODS: Treatment-naive patients aged older than 50 or younger than 40 years were studied for absolute and relative frequencies of CD31⁺ naive and CD31⁻ naive CD4⁺ T cells, central memory, effector memory, and terminally differentiated CD4⁺ T cells, and compared with age-matched controls. In addition, cellular proliferation and cytokine secretion properties were determined. CD4⁺ T-cell reconstitution was analyzed in older and younger patients with <350 or ≥ 350 CD4⁺ T cells per microliter at initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). RESULTS: CD4⁺ T cells of older but not younger HIV-infected patients showed age-inappropriate low levels of CD31⁻ naive cells, increased levels of effector memory cells, and enhanced interferonγ and interleukin-17 secretion. Impaired CD4⁺ T-cell composition persisted in patients who initiated cART at <350 CD4⁺ T cells per microliter. In patients with CD4⁺ T cells ≥ 350 per microliter, alterations were less pronounced and were reversible with cART. Compared with age-matched controls, total CD4⁺ T-cell counts did not differ between treated younger and older HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that aging enhances the CD4⁺ T-cell impairment in HIV-infected persons mainly by a loss of CD31⁻ naive cells, accumulation of effector memory cells, and increased pro-inflammatory effector functions. Age-related changes in CD4⁺ T-cell composition can be prevented by an early initiation of cART.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/análise , Adulto Jovem
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