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1.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1617-1623, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551603

RESUMO

Common risk factors for psychiatric and other brain disorders are likely to converge on biological pathways influencing the development and maintenance of brain structure and function across life. Using structural MRI data from 45,615 individuals aged 3-96 years, we demonstrate distinct patterns of apparent brain aging in several brain disorders and reveal genetic pleiotropy between apparent brain aging in healthy individuals and common brain disorders.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 793-803, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043756

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Loci Gênicos , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Biologia de Sistemas
3.
Bipolar Disord ; 21(6): 525-538, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies found evidence for thinner frontotemporal cortices in bipolar disorder (BD), yet whether this represents a stable disease trait or an effect of mood episodes remains unknown. Here, we assessed the reproducibility of thinner frontotemporal cortices in BD type II, compared longitudinal changes in cortical thickness between individuals with BD type II and healthy controls (HCs), and examined the effect of mood episodes on cortical thickness change. METHODS: Thirty-three HCs and 29 individuals with BD type II underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging at baseline, as published previously, and 2.4 years later, at follow-up. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of cortical thickness were performed using Freesurfer, and relationships with mood episodes from baseline to follow-up were assessed. RESULTS: Individuals with BD type II had thinner left and right prefrontal and left temporal cortex clusters at follow-up (all corrected P < 0.001), consistent with baseline results. Both groups showed widespread longitudinal cortical thinning, and patients had increased thinning in a left temporal cortex cluster compared to HCs (corrected P < 0.001). Patients with more (>2) depressive episodes between baseline and follow-up had greater left temporal cortical thinning than patients with fewer depressive episodes (corrected P < 0.05). In addition, patients with more depressive episodes had greater thinning in bilateral ventromedial prefrontal clusters relative to HCs (uncorrected P < 0.05), yet these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings support reduced frontotemporal cortical thickness in BD type II and provide the first preliminary evidence for an association between depressive episodes and increased cortical thinning.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171211

RESUMO

Bipolar disorders (BDs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and disability. Objective biological markers, such as those based on brain imaging, could aid in clinical management of BD. Machine learning (ML) brings neuroimaging analyses to individual subject level and may potentially allow for their diagnostic use. However, fair and optimal application of ML requires large, multi-site datasets. We applied ML (support vector machines) to MRI data (regional cortical thickness, surface area, subcortical volumes) from 853 BD and 2167 control participants from 13 cohorts in the ENIGMA consortium. We attempted to differentiate BD from control participants, investigated different data handling strategies and studied the neuroimaging/clinical features most important for classification. Individual site accuracies ranged from 45.23% to 81.07%. Aggregate subject-level analyses yielded the highest accuracy (65.23%, 95% CI = 63.47-67.00, ROC-AUC = 71.49%, 95% CI = 69.39-73.59), followed by leave-one-site-out cross-validation (accuracy = 58.67%, 95% CI = 56.70-60.63). Meta-analysis of individual site accuracies did not provide above chance results. There was substantial agreement between the regions that contributed to identification of BD participants in the best performing site and in the aggregate dataset (Cohen's Kappa = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.829-0.831). Treatment with anticonvulsants and age were associated with greater odds of correct classification. Although short of the 80% clinically relevant accuracy threshold, the results are promising and provide a fair and realistic estimate of classification performance, which can be achieved in a large, ecologically valid, multi-site sample of BD participants based on regional neurostructural measures. Furthermore, the significant classification in different samples was based on plausible and similar neuroanatomical features. Future multi-site studies should move towards sharing of raw/voxelwise neuroimaging data.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 103, 2018 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795193

RESUMO

Visual evoked potential (VEP) plasticity is a promising assay for noninvasive examination of long-term potentiation (LTP)-like synaptic processes in the cerebral cortex. We conducted longitudinal and cross-sectional investigations of VEP plasticity in controls and individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) type II. VEP plasticity was assessed at baseline, as described previously (Elvsåshagen et al. Biol Psychiatry 2012), and 2.2 years later, at follow-up. The longitudinal sample with VEP data from both time points comprised 29 controls and 16 patients. VEP data were available from 13 additional patients at follow-up (total n = 58). VEPs were evoked by checkerboard reversals in two premodulation blocks before and six blocks after a plasticity-inducing block of prolonged (10 min) visual stimulation. VEP plasticity was computed by subtracting premodulation VEP amplitudes from postmodulation amplitudes. Saliva samples for cortisol analysis were collected immediately after awakening in the morning, 30 min later, and at 12:30 PM, at follow-up. We found reduced VEP plasticity in BD type II, that impaired plasticity was present in the euthymic phases of the illness, and that VEP plasticity correlated negatively with depression severity. There was a positive association between VEP plasticity and saliva cortisol in controls, possibly reflecting an inverted U-shaped relationship between cortisol and synaptic plasticity. VEP plasticity exhibited moderate temporal stability over a period of 2.2 years. The present study provides additional evidence for impaired LTP-like cortical plasticity in BD type II. VEP plasticity is an accessible method, which may help elucidate the pathophysiological and clinical significance of synaptic dysfunction in psychiatric disorders.

6.
Bipolar Disord ; 18(8): 657-668, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27995733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reduced dentate gyrus volume and increased oxidative stress have emerged as potential pathophysiological mechanisms in bipolar disorder. However, the relationship between dentate gyrus volume and peripheral oxidative stress markers remains unknown. Here, we examined dentate gyrus-cornu ammonis (CA) 4 volume longitudinally in patients with bipolar II disorder (BD-II) and healthy controls and investigated whether BD-II is associated with elevated peripheral levels of oxidative stress. METHODS: We acquired high-resolution structural 3T-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and quantified hippocampal subfield volumes using an automated segmentation algorithm in individuals with BD-II (n=29) and controls (n=33). The participants were scanned twice, at study inclusion and on average 2.4 years later. In addition, we measured peripheral levels of two lipid peroxidation markers (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE] and lipid hydroperoxides [LPH]). RESULTS: First, we demonstrated that the automated hippocampal subfield segmentation technique employed in this work reliably measured dentate gyrus-CA4 volume. Second, we found a decreased left dentate gyrus-CA4 volume in patients and that a larger number of depressive episodes between T1 and T2 predicted greater volume decline. Finally, we showed that 4-HNE was elevated in BD-II and that 4-HNE was negatively associated with left and right dentate gyrus-CA4 volumes in patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with a role for the dentate gyrus in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and suggest that depressive episodes and elevated oxidative stress might contribute to hippocampal volume decreases. In addition, these findings provide further support for the hypothesis that peripheral lipid peroxidation markers may reflect brain alterations in bipolar disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Giro Denteado , Depressão , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Adulto , Aldeídos/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Giro Denteado/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro Denteado/patologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Estatística como Assunto
7.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 136(2): 158, 2016 Jan 26.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26813829
8.
Brain Struct Funct ; 220(2): 1229-36, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24415060

RESUMO

The extensive and increasing use of structural neuroimaging in the neurosciences rests on the assumption of an intimate relationship between structure and function in the human brain. However, few studies have examined the relationship between advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices of cerebral structure and conventional measures of cerebral functioning in humans. Here we examined whether MRI-based morphometric measures of early visual cortex-estimated using a probabilistic anatomical mask of primary visual cortex (V1)-can predict the amplitude of the visual evoked potential (VEP), i.e., an electroencephalogram signal that primarily reflects postsynaptic potentials in early visual cortical areas. We found that left, right, and total V1 surface area positively predicted the VEP amplitude. In addition, we showed, using whole brain analysis of local surface areal expansion/contraction, that the association between VEP amplitude and surface area was highly specific for regions within bilateral V1. Together, these findings indicate a strong, selective relationship between MRI-based structural measures and functional properties of the human cerebral cortex.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Estimulação Luminosa , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Córtex Visual/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Affect Disord ; 170: 104-11, 2015 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25237733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar II disorder (BP II) share clinical characteristics including impulsivity. Their relationship is disputed. In this study, we investigated self-reported impulsivity in these patient groups and in a healthy control group. Effects of current mood state and of traumatic childhood experiences were explored. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with BPD without comorbid bipolar disorder; 20 patients with BP II without comorbid BPD; and 44 healthy control subjects completed the UPPS questionnaire which yields assessments of four components of impulsivity: Urgency, Lack of Premeditation, Lack of Perseverance, and Sensation Seeking. Current mood state was rated using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Traumatic childhood experiences were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Group differences in UPPS levels; and effects of mood state and CTQ score on UPPS scores in patients were investigated. RESULTS: BPD patients showed significantly higher levels of Urgency and Lack of Perseverance than BP II patients and controls, and a significantly higher level of Lack of Premeditation than controls. BP II patients showed higher levels of Urgency and Lack of Perseverance than controls. In BP II, higher MADRS scores were associated with higher impulsivity scores. Also, higher CTQ scores were associated with higher Urgency scores in BP II. LIMITATIONS: Relatively small sample size; cross-sectional assessment of influence of mood state. CONCLUSIONS: BPD patients exhibited markedly elevated UPPS impulsivity scores compared with healthy controls and BP II patients, and the elevations were not related to current mood state. BP II patients showed moderately elevated impulsivity scores which were associated with a depressed mood state and to some extent with a history of childhood trauma. The findings suggest that BPD and BP II have different impulsivity profiles.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 8(2): 153-82, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24399358

RESUMO

The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
11.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 39(2): 127-34, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24309162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal and human studies have suggested that hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable to stress, but subfield volume has not been investigated in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Based on the putative role of stressful life events as vulnerability factors for BPD, we hypothesized that patients with BPD would exhibit reduced volumes for the stress-sensitive dentate gyrus (DG) and the cornu ammonis (CA) 3 subfields volumes, and that these volumes would be associated with traumatic childhood experiences. METHODS: All participants underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. Hippocampal subfield volumes were estimated using an automated and validated segmentation algorithm implemented in FreeSurfer. Age and total subcortical grey matter volume were covariates. We assessed traumatic childhood experiences using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). RESULTS: A total of 18 women with BPD and 21 healthy control women were included in the study. Only 1 patient had comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The volumes of the left (p = 0.005) and right (p = 0.011) DG-CA4 and left (p = 0.007) and right (p = 0.005) CA2-3 subfields were significantly reduced in patients compared with controls. We also found significant group differences for the left (p = 0.032) and right (p = 0.028) CA1, but not for other hippocampal subfields. No associations were found between CTQ scores and subfield volumes. LIMITATIONS: The self-reported CTQ might be inferior to more comprehensive assessments of traumatic experiences. The sample size was moderate. CONCLUSION: The volumes of stress-sensitive hippocampal subfields are reduced in women with BPD without PTSD. However, the degree to which childhood trauma is responsible for these changes is unclear.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tamanho do Órgão , Psicometria , Autorrelato , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Bipolar Disord ; 15(8): 855-64, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23980618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The neurobiological substrate of bipolar II disorder (BD-II) remains largely unknown. A few previous studies have found evidence for cerebral cortical thinning in mixed samples of BD-II and bipolar I disorder patients; however, no study of cortical thickness or surface area has been limited to BD-II. In the present study, we compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based indices of cortical thickness and surface area between individuals with BD-II and healthy controls. METHODS: Thirty-six individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BD-II and 42 controls underwent 3T MRI. Comparisons of thickness and relative surface areal expansion across the cerebral cortical mantle were performed using Freesurfer. RESULTS: Individuals with BD-II showed significant thinning in two prefrontal clusters primarily comprising the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, left perigenual ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), bilateral dorsomedial PFC, and bilateral dorsolateral PFC (p < 0.0002 for both clusters, cluster size corrected) and in a left temporal cluster involving the superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyrus (p = 0.006, cluster size corrected). No group differences in cortical surface area were found. No significant effect of medication, mood state, illness duration, or family history of bipolar disorders on cortical thinning was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that BD-II is associated with thinning of prefrontal and temporal cortices implicated in the expression and regulation of negative and positive affect. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify whether cortical thinning is a stable trait of BD-II, an illness effect that might progress during the course of the disease, or a combination of the two.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Bipolar Disord ; 15(2): 167-76, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23317454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dentate gyrus (DG)-dependent inhibition of the stress response might play an important role in mood disorders. During stress, hippocampal projections traversing the fimbria, a white matter bundle on the hippocampal surface, inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study was to measure the volumes of the DG-cornu ammonis 4 (DG-CA4) and fimbria in patients with bipolar II disorder (BD-II) and healthy controls using a recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based technique. METHODS: Thirty-seven individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BD-II and 42 healthy controls underwent 3-Tesla MRI. Hippocampal subfield volumes were estimated using a novel segmentation algorithm implemented in FreeSurfer. RESULTS: In patients with BD-II there was a significant reduction in the volume of the left [analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), F = 7.84, p = 0.006] and total (left + right) (F = 4.01, p = 0.047) DG-CA4 and left (F = 4.38, p = 0.040) and total (F = 4.15, p = 0.045) fimbria compared to healthy controls. Explorative analyses indicated a smaller left CA2-3 volume in subjects with BD-II compared to healthy controls, and a reduced left fimbria volume in unmedicated patients compared to medicated patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for the involvement of the DG and fimbria in BD-II. Longitudinal studies of the DG and fimbria with assessments of the HPA axis in BD-II are warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Giro Denteado/patologia , Fórnice/patologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biol Psychiatry ; 71(1): 68-74, 2012 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22036034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synaptic plasticity might play an important role in the pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar disorders. There is, however, a paucity of human evidence supporting this hypothesis, mainly due to a lack of methods for noninvasive assessment of synaptic plasticity. It has recently been demonstrated that plasticity of the visual evoked potential (VEP) induced by repeated visual stimulation might reflect synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examined VEP plasticity in healthy control subjects and patients with bipolar II disorder (BD-II). METHODS: Forty healthy control subjects and 26 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BD-II matched for age and gender participated. The VEPs were evoked by checkerboard reversal stimulation before and after a modulation block of prolonged (10 min) visual stimulation. RESULTS: The modulation block resulted in significant VEP plasticity in healthy control subjects. The VEP plasticity was significantly impaired in patients with BD-II. Explorative analyses indicated a trend toward a less severe impairment in medicated than in unmedicated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Visual evoked potential plasticity might represent a reliable and robust assay for studies of synaptic plasticity in vivo in humans. In addition, our findings support the hypothesis of impaired synaptic plasticity in BD-II. Longitudinal studies are needed to fully clarify the effects of medication and mood state on VEP plasticity.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Neocórtex/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicofísica , Tempo de Reação , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Affect Disord ; 135(1-3): 43-50, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21880373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has recently been hypothesized that bipolar disorders are associated with accelerated aging. Telomere dysfunction, a biomarker of aging, is determined by the load of short telomeres, rather than by the mean telomere length. To our knowledge, the load of short telomeres has not been reported in any psychiatric disorder. The aims of the study were to examine the load of short telomeres and the mean telomere length and their relationships with illness duration and lifetime number of depressive episodes in bipolar II disorder (BD-II). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (mean age=34.8 ± 7.7) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BD-II and 28 healthy control subjects (mean age=34.8 ± 9.2) matched for age, sex, and education participated. The load of short telomeres (percentage of telomeres <3 kilobases) and mean telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured using high-throughput quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: The load of short telomeres was significantly increased in patients with BD-II relative to healthy controls and may represent 13 years of accelerated aging. The load of short telomeres and the mean telomere length were associated with lifetime number of depressive episodes, but not with illness duration. LIMITATIONS: Modest sample size and cross-sectional design. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that BD-II is associated with an increased load of short telomeres. Depressive episode-related stress may accelerate telomere shortening and aging. However, longitudinal studies are needed to fully clarify telomere shortening and its relationship with clinical variables in BD-II.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Depressão/genética , Encurtamento do Telômero , Adulto , Envelhecimento/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Telômero , Fatores de Tempo
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