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1.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543185

RESUMO

Phase transformations upon delithiation in layered oxides with the NaCrS2 structure type are widely studied for numerous combinations of 3d transition metals because of the application of LiCoO2 and its derivatives as cathode materials in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. However, complete replacement of 3d by 4d transition metals still yields phenomena never seen in compounds containing 3d metals only. In the present work, the structural evolution of Li-rich O3-Li(Li0.2Rh0.8)O2, having a mixed occupancy of 20% Li and 80% Rh in the metal-O slabs, was studied during electrochemical Li removal and insertion and compared with the isostructural stoichiometric LiRhO2. The latter compound undergoes a transformation from the layered NaCrS2 to the tunnel-like rutile-ramsdellite intergrowth structure of the γ-MnO2 type. Partial replacement of Rh by Li, in contrast, completely prevents this transition, resulting in a reversible cell expansion and shrinkage within the layered structure upon (de)lithiation. Moreover, no anomalously short Rh-O and O-O distances were observed in Lix≈0(Li0.2Rh0.8)O2 with the Rh4.75+ intermediate valence state at 4.8 V, in contrast to Lix≈0RhO2 with Rh4+ at 4.2 V, as confirmed by operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies. We believe that the difference in the Li-O and Rh-O covalency is responsible for the observed structural stabilization. The longer and more ionic Li-O bonds in the (Li,Rh)O2 layers impede the shortening of O-O distances needed for transformation to the γ-MnO2 type because of a higher negative charge on O anions connected to Li cations and the stronger electrostatic repulsion between them.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(19): 197201, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469595

RESUMO

The magnetic properties of the van der Waals magnetic topological insulators MnBi_{2}Te_{4} and MnBi_{4}Te_{7} are investigated by magnetotransport measurements. We evidence that the relative strength of the interlayer exchange coupling J to the uniaxial anisotropy K controls a transition from an A-type antiferromagnetic order to a ferromagneticlike metamagnetic state. A bilayer Stoner-Wohlfarth model allows us to describe this evolution, as well as the typical angular dependence of specific signatures, such as the spin-flop transition of the uniaxial antiferromagnet and the switching field of the metamagnet.

3.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143351

RESUMO

Carbon nanotube yarns (CNY) are a novel carbonaceous material and have received a great deal of interest since the beginning of the 21st century. CNY are of particular interest due to their useful heat conducting, electrical conducting, and mechanical properties. The electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube yarns can also be influenced by functionalization and annealing. A systematical study of this post synthetic treatment will assist in understanding what factors influences the conductivity of these materials. In this investigation, it is shown that the electrical conductivity can be increased by a factor of 2 and 5.5 through functionalization with acids and high temperature annealing respectively. The scale of the enhancement is dependent on the reducing of intertube space in case of functionalization. For annealing, not only is the highly graphitic structure of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) important, but it is also shown to influence the residual amorphous carbon in the structure. The promising results of this study can help to utilize CNY as a replacement for common materials in the field of electrical wiring.

4.
Chemistry ; 26(11): 2436-2449, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774196

RESUMO

The substitution of scandium in fullerene single-molecule magnets (SMMs) DySc2 N@C80 and Dy2 ScN@C80 by lutetium has been studied to explore the influence of the diamagnetic metal on the SMM performance of dysprosium nitride clusterfullerenes. The use of lutetium led to an improved SMM performance of DyLu2 N@C80 , which shows a higher blocking temperature of magnetization (TB =9.5 K), longer relaxation times, and broader hysteresis than DySc2 N@C80 (TB =6.9 K). At the same time, Dy2 LuN@C80 was found to have a similar blocking temperature of magnetization to Dy2 ScN@C80 (TB =8 K), but substantially different interactions between the magnetic moments of the dysprosium ions in the Dy2 MN clusters. Surprisingly, although the intramolecular dipolar interactions in Dy2 LuN@C80 and Dy2 ScN@C80 are of similar strength, the exchange interactions in Dy2 LuN@C80 are close to zero. Analysis of the low-frequency molecular and lattice vibrations showed strong mixing of the lattice modes and endohedral cluster librations in k-space. This mixing simplifies the spin-lattice relaxation by conserving the momentum during the spin flip and helping to distribute the moment and energy further into the lattice.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(14): 5756-5764, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860759

RESUMO

Magnetic hysteresis is demonstrated for monolayers of the single-molecule magnet (SMM) Dy2 ScN@C80 deposited on Au(111), Ag(100), and MgO|Ag(100) surfaces by vacuum sublimation. The topography and electronic structure of Dy2 ScN@C80 adsorbed on Au(111) were studied by STM. X-ray magnetic CD studies show that the Dy2 ScN@C80 monolayers exhibit similarly broad magnetic hysteresis independent on the substrate used, but the orientation of the Dy2 ScN cluster depends strongly on the surface. DFT calculations show that the extent of the electronic interaction of the fullerene molecules with the surface is increasing dramatically from MgO to Au(111) and Ag(100). However, the charge redistribution at the fullerene-surface interface is fully absorbed by the carbon cage, leaving the state of the endohedral cluster intact. This Faraday cage effect of the fullerene preserves the magnetic bistability of fullerene-SMMs on conducting substrates and facilitates their application in molecular spintronics.

6.
Small ; 15(49): e1904315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709700

RESUMO

The magnetization dynamics of individual Fe-filled multiwall carbon-nanotubes (FeCNT), grown by chemical vapor deposition, are investigated by microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) microscopy and corroborated by micromagnetic simulations. Currently, only static magnetometry measurements are available. They suggest that the FeCNTs consist of a single-crystalline Fe nanowire throughout the length. The number and structure of the FMR lines and the abrupt decay of the spin-wave transport seen in BLS indicate, however, that the Fe filling is not a single straight piece along the length. Therefore, a stepwise cutting procedure is applied in order to investigate the evolution of the ferromagnetic resonance lines as a function of the nanowire length. The results show that the FeCNT is indeed not homogeneous along the full length but is built from 300 to 400 nm long single-crystalline segments. These segments consist of magnetically high quality Fe nanowires with almost the bulk values of Fe and with a similar small damping in relation to thin films, promoting FeCNTs as appealing candidates for spin-wave transport in magnonic applications.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(21): 6565-6571, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593633

RESUMO

The electron spin resonance (ESR) and electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopies are frequently used to determine hyperfine (A) and quadrupole (Q) tensors for the paramagnetic transition-metal complexes, which knowledge enables estimation of the spin density distribution in the complex and the assessment of magnetic exchange pathways in polynuclear molecular networks. The most accurate results can be obtained if paramagnetic complexes are isolated in a single-crystalline diamagnetic host. In this work we were able to detect angle-resolved ESR/ENDOR spectra of the paramagnetic [nBu4N]2[Cu(opba)] (opba = o-phenylenebis(oxamato) complex hosted by the single crystal of diamagnetic [nBu4N]2[Ni(opba)], which allow recovery of A, Q, and g-tensors, all at once. Remarkably, with the aid of theoretical modeling, our data have unveiled the effect of multipositional hosting of the paramagnetic complex in the diamagnetic matrix. This effect can have a profound influence on the data handling and must be carefully considered while interpreting similar experiments.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 48(46): 17252-17257, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660555

RESUMO

The interaction of manganese(ii) phthalocyanine with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane and its perfluoro derivative proceeds with the oxidation of Mn and the reduction of the acceptor molecules to give the first mixed single crystals of manganese(iii) phthalocyanine with TCNQ/F4-TCNQ radical anions. The crystals have unusual structures with C-Hπ interactions between the ions and their orthogonal arrangement, as well as remarkable redox properties. The charge transfer was proved by spectroscopic and magnetic studies.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(20): 1901352, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637168

RESUMO

A new class of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) based on Dy-oxide clusterfullerenes is synthesized. Three isomers of Dy2O@C82 with C s(6), C 3v(8), and C 2v(9) cage symmetries are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which shows that the endohedral Dy-(µ2-O)-Dy cluster has bent shape with very short Dy-O bonds. Dy2O@C82 isomers show SMM behavior with broad magnetic hysteresis, but the temperature and magnetization relaxation depend strongly on the fullerene cage. The short Dy-O distances and the large negative charge of the oxide ion in Dy2O@C82 result in the very strong magnetic anisotropy of Dy ions. Their magnetic moments are aligned along the Dy-O bonds and are antiferromagnetically (AFM) coupled. At low temperatures, relaxation of magnetization in Dy2O@C82 proceeds via the ferromagnetically (FM)-coupled excited state, giving Arrhenius behavior with the effective barriers equal to the AFM-FM energy difference. The AFM-FM energy differences of 5.4-12.9 cm-1 in Dy2O@C82 are considerably larger than in SMMs with {Dy2O2} bridges, and the Dy∙∙∙Dy exchange coupling in Dy2O@C82 is the strongest among all dinuclear Dy SMMs with diamagnetic bridges. Dy-oxide clusterfullerenes provide a playground for the further tuning of molecular magnetism via variation of the size and shape of the fullerene cage.

10.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 10: 1458-1463, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431858

RESUMO

We report the superconducting properties of the Co2Cr1 -x Fe x Al y /Cu/Ni/Cu/Pb spin-valve structure the magnetic part of which comprises the Heusler alloy layer HA = Co2Cr1 -x Fe x Al y with a high degree of spin polarization (DSP) of the conduction band and a Ni layer of variable thickness. The separation between the superconducting transition curves measured for the parallel (α = 0°) and perpendicular (α = 90°) orientation of the magnetization of the HA and the Ni layers reaches up to 0.5 K (α is the angle between the magnetization of two ferromagnetic layers). For all studied samples the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature T c on α demonstrates a deep minimum in the vicinity of the perpendicular configuration of the magnetizations. This suggests that the observed minimum and the corresponding full switching effect of the spin valve is caused by the long-range triplet component of the superconducting condensate in the multilayer. Such a large effect can be attributed to a half-metallic nature of the HA layer, which in the orthogonal configuration efficiently draws off the spin-polarized Cooper pairs from the space between the HA and Ni layers. Our results indicate a significant potential of the concept of a superconducting spin-valve multilayer comprising a half-metallic ferromagnet, recently proposed by A. Singh et al., Phys. Rev. X 2015, 5, 021019, in achieving large values of the switching effect.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(31): 10677-10682, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169942

RESUMO

Layered two-dimensional (2D) conjugated metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a family of rising electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), due to the controllable architectures, excellent electrical conductivity, and highly exposed well-defined molecular active sites. Herein, we report a copper phthalocyanine based 2D conjugated MOF with square-planar cobalt bis(dihydroxy) complexes (Co-O4 ) as linkages (PcCu-O8 -Co) and layer-stacked structures prepared via solvothermal synthesis. PcCu-O8 -Co 2D MOF mixed with carbon nanotubes exhibits excellent electrocatalytic ORR activity (E1/2 =0.83 V vs. RHE, n=3.93, and jL =5.3 mA cm-2 ) in alkaline media, which is the record value among the reported intrinsic MOF electrocatalysts. Supported by in situ Raman spectro-electrochemistry and theoretical modeling as well as contrast catalytic tests, we identified the cobalt nodes as ORR active sites. Furthermore, when employed as a cathode electrocatalyst for zinc-air batteries, PcCu-O8 -Co delivers a maximum power density of 94 mW cm-2 , outperforming the state-of-the-art Pt/C electrocatalysts (78.3 mW cm-2 ).

12.
Inorg Chem ; 58(10): 6659-6668, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045349

RESUMO

Fine-tuning chemistry by doping with transition metals enables new perspectives for exploring Kitaev physics on a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb lattice of α-RuCl3, which is promising in the field of quantum information protection and quantum computation. The key parameters to vary by doping are both Heisenberg and Kitaev components of the nearest-neighbor exchange interaction between the Jeff = 1/2 Ru3+ spins, depending strongly on the peculiarities of the crystal structure. Here, we present crystal growth by chemical vapor transport and structure elucidation of a solid solution series Ru1- xCr xCl3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), with Cr3+ ions coupled to the Ru3+ Kitaev host. The Cr3+ substitution preserves the honeycomb type lattice of α-RuCl3 and creates mixed occupancy of Ru/Cr sites without cationic order within the layers as confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigations. In contrast to high-quality single crystals of α-RuCl3 with ABAB-stacked layers, the ternary compounds demonstrate a significant stacking disorder along the c-axis direction as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM). Raman spectra of substituted samples are in line with the symmetry conservation of the parent lattice upon chromium doping. At the same time, our magnetic susceptibility data indicate that the Kitaev physics of α-RuCl3 is increasingly suppressed by the dominant spin-only driven magnetism of Cr3+ ( S = 3/2) in Ru1- xCr xCl3.

13.
Ultramicroscopy ; 203: 12-20, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902417

RESUMO

Fundamental solid state physics phenomena often occur at very low temperatures, requiring liquid helium cooling in experimental studies. Transmission electron microscopy is a well-established characterization method, which allows probing crucial materials properties down to nanometre and even atomic resolution. Due to the limited space in the object plane, however, suitable liquid-helium cooling is very challenging. To overcome this limitation, resolving power was sacrificed in our Dresden in-situ (S)TEM special, resulting in more than 60 mm usable experimental space in all directions with the specimen in the centre. With the installation of a continuous-flow liquid-helium cryostat, any temperature between 6.5 K and 400 K can be set precisely and kept for days. The information limit of the Dresden in-situ (S)TEM special is about 5 nm. It is shown that the resolution of the Dresden in-situ (S)TEM special is currently not limited by aberrations, but by external instabilities.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(16): 8197-8200, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816387

RESUMO

The ordering of endohedral clusterfullerenes Sc3N@C80 and YSc2N@C80 co-crystallized with Ni(OEP) and isolated complexes with Ni(OEP) have been investigated theoretically. Having used multiple orientations of M3N clusters inside the cages with Fibonacci sampling, we describe the effect of intermolecular interactions on the orientation of the endohedral cluster.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(18): 5891-5896, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786125

RESUMO

The azafullerene Tb2 @C79 N is found to be a single-molecule magnet with a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 24 K and large coercivity. Tb magnetic moments with an easy-axis single-ion magnetic anisotropy are strongly coupled by the unpaired spin of the single-electron Tb-Tb bond. Relaxation of magnetization in Tb2 @C79 N below 15 K proceeds via quantum tunneling of magnetization with the characteristic time τQTM =16 462±1230 s. At higher temperature, relaxation follows the Orbach mechanism with a barrier of 757±4 K, corresponding to the excited states, in which one of the Tb spins is flipped.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 571, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718550

RESUMO

Engineering intramolecular exchange interactions between magnetic metal atoms is a ubiquitous strategy for designing molecular magnets. For lanthanides, the localized nature of 4f electrons usually results in weak exchange coupling. Mediating magnetic interactions between lanthanide ions via radical bridges is a fruitful strategy towards stronger coupling. In this work we explore the limiting case when the role of a radical bridge is played by a single unpaired electron. We synthesize an array of air-stable Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) dimetallofullerenes (Ln2 = Y2, Gd2, Tb2, Dy2, Ho2, Er2, TbY, TbGd) featuring a covalent lanthanide-lanthanide bond. The lanthanide spins are glued together by very strong exchange interactions between 4f moments and a single electron residing on the metal-metal bonding orbital. Tb2@C80(CH2Ph) shows a gigantic coercivity of 8.2 Tesla at 5 K and a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 25.2 K. The Ln-Ln bonding orbital in Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) is redox active, enabling electrochemical tuning of the magnetism.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 48(11): 3601-3609, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698578

RESUMO

New redox active 1D helical coordination polymers M(fcdHp) (M(ii) = Zn(1), Co(2)) have been obtained by utilizing the 1,1'-ferrocenylenbis(H-phosphinic) acid (H2fcdHp) ligand and Zn or Co nitrate salts. Complexes 1 and 2 are isomorphic, crystallizing in the chiral space groups P4122 and P4322, respectively. Their redox, electrocatalytic and other properties are described. These compounds incorporated into carbon paste electrodes and exhibited reversible redox reactions, arising from the ferrocenyl moiety. These coordination polymers are efficient as electrocatalysts for the reduction of protons to hydrogen. Using N,N-dimethylformamidium ([DMF(H)+]) as the acid in the acetonitrile solution, Co CP (2) displays a turnover frequency of 300 s-1, which is among the fastest rates reported for any CP electrocatalyst in CH3CN. This high rate of catalytic reaction comes at the cost of the 820-840 mV overpotential at the potential of catalysis. As the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts, the CPs exhibited in 0.5 M H2SO4 the overpotential η10 of 340 or 450 mV, onset overpotential of 220 or 300 mV (vs. RHE), Tafel slope of 110 or 120 mV dec-1, correspondingly for 1 and 2, and considerable long-term stability for the HER.

18.
Nanoscale ; 10(40): 19014-19022, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265265

RESUMO

The 2D layered honeycomb magnet α-ruthenium(iii) chloride (α-RuCl3) is a promising candidate to realize a Kitaev spin model. As alteration of physical properties on the nanoscale is additionally intended, new synthesis approaches to obtain phase pure α-RuCl3 nanocrystals have been audited. Thermodynamic simulations of occurring gas phase equilibria were performed and optimization of synthesis conditions was achieved based on calculation results. Crystal growth succeeded via chemical vapor transport (CVT) in a temperature gradient of 973 K to 773 K on YSZ substrates. Single crystal sheets of high crystallinity with heights ≤30 nm were obtained via pure CVT. The crystal properties were characterized by means of optical and electron microscopy, AFM, SAED, micro-Raman and XPS proving their composition, morphology, crystallinity and phase-purity. A highlight of our study is the successful individualization of nanocrystals and the delamination of nanosheets on YSZ substrates down to the monolayer limit (≤1 nm) which was realized by means of substrate exfoliation and ultrasonication in a very reproducible way.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(76): 10683-10686, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087957

RESUMO

Carbide clusterfullerene DyYTiC@C80-Ih with three different metal atoms in the endohedral cluster is obtained by arc-discharge synthesis with methane as reactive gas and is successfully isolated by HPLC. The compound shows single-molecule magnetism (SMM) with magnetic hysteresis below 8 K. The SMM properties of DyYTiC@C80 are compared to those of DySc2N@C80 and the influence of the central atom in the endohedral cluster is analyzed.

20.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(8)2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060566

RESUMO

In the present work, different synthesis procedures have been demonstrated to fill carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with Fe1-xNix alloy nanoparticles (x = 0.33, 0.5). CNTs act as templates for the encapsulation of magnetic nanoparticles, and provide a protective shield against oxidation as well as prevent nanoparticles agglomeration. By variation of the reaction parameters, the purity of the samples, degree of filling, the composition and size of filling nanoparticles have been tailored and therefore the magnetic properties. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Bright-field (BF) TEM tomography, X-ray powder diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The Fe1-xNix-filled CNTs show a huge enhancement in the coercive fields compared to the corresponding bulk materials, which make them excellent candidates for several applications such as magnetic storage devices.

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