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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3485, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375684

RESUMO

MYC paralogs are frequently activated in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) but represent poor drug targets. Thus, a detailed mapping of MYC-paralog-specific vulnerabilities may help to develop effective therapies for SCLC patients. Using a unique cellular CRISPR activation model, we uncover that, in contrast to MYCN and MYCL, MYC represses BCL2 transcription via interaction with MIZ1 and DNMT3a. The resulting lack of BCL2 expression promotes sensitivity to cell cycle control inhibition and dependency on MCL1. Furthermore, MYC activation leads to heightened apoptotic priming, intrinsic genotoxic stress and susceptibility to DNA damage checkpoint inhibitors. Finally, combined AURK and CHK1 inhibition substantially prolongs the survival of mice bearing MYC-driven SCLC beyond that of combination chemotherapy. These analyses uncover MYC-paralog-specific regulation of the apoptotic machinery with implications for genotype-based selection of targeted therapeutics in SCLC patients.

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants affecting MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 cause Lynch syndrome and result in different but imprecisely known cancer risks. This study aimed to provide age and organ-specific cancer risks according to gene and gender and to determine survival after cancer. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter prospective observational study using independent test and validation cohorts of carriers of class 4 or class 5 variants. After validation the cohorts were merged providing 6350 participants and 51,646 follow-up years. RESULTS: There were 1808 prospectively observed cancers. Pathogenic MLH1 and MSH2 variants caused high penetrance dominant cancer syndromes sharing similar colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risks, but older MSH2 carriers had higher risk of cancers of the upper urinary tract, upper gastrointestinal tract, brain, and particularly prostate. Pathogenic MSH6 variants caused a sex-limited trait with high endometrial cancer risk but only modestly increased colorectal cancer risk in both genders. We did not demonstrate a significantly increased cancer risk in carriers of pathogenic PMS2 variants. Ten-year crude survival was over 80% following colon, endometrial, or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSION: Management guidelines for Lynch syndrome may require revision in light of these different gene and gender-specific risks and the good prognosis for the most commonly associated cancers.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 116: 56-66, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing globally. Prognostic biomarkers are urgently needed to guide treatment and reduce mortality. Tumour-derived circulating cell-free DNA (ctDNA) is a novel, minimally invasive means of determining genetic alterations in cancer. We evaluate the accuracy of ctDNA as a biomarker in HCC. METHODS: Plasma cell-free DNA, matched germline DNA and HCC tissue DNA were isolated from patients with HCC (n = 51) and liver cirrhosis (n = 10). Targeted, multiplex polymerase chain reaction ultra-deep sequencing was performed using a liver cancer-specific primer panel for genes ARID1A, ARID2, AXIN1, ATM, CTNNB1, HNF1A and TP53. Concordance of mutations in plasma ctDNA and HCC tissue DNA was determined, and associations with clinical outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: Plasma cell-free DNA was detected in all samples. Lower plasma cell-free DNA levels were seen in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC A compared with BCLC stage B/C/D (median concentration 122.89 ng/mL versus 168.21 ng/mL, p = 0.041). 29 mutations in the eight genes (21 unique mutations) were detected in 18/51 patients (35%), median 1.5 mutations per patient (interquartile range 1-2). Mutations were most frequently detected in ARID1A (11.7%), followed by CTNNB1 (7.8%) and TP53 (7.8%). In patients with matched tissue DNA, all mutations detected in plasma ctDNA detected were confirmed in HCC DNA; however, 71% of patients had mutations identified in HCC tissue DNA that were not detected in matched ctDNA. CONCLUSION: ctDNA is quantifiable across all HCC stages and allows detection of mutations in key driver genes of hepatic carcinogenesis. This study demonstrates high specificity but low sensitivity of plasma ctDNA for detecting mutations in matched HCC tissue.

4.
Lung Cancer ; 133: 20-22, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy occurs inevitably in lung cancer patients with targetable genetic alterations. MET amplification has found to be an oncogenic driver in lung cancer with several reports showing response to MET TKI especially in cases with high-level amplification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report the case of a patient with lung adenocarcinoma harbouring low-level MET amplification and strong MET expression who was treated with crizotinib. RESULTS: The patient developed a durable response to crizotinib. A KRAS mutation and loss of MET amplification was found in a new lesion at time of progression as a potential mechanism of acquired resistance. CONCLUSION: MET amplification is a continuous biomarker with responses to MET TKI observed even in patients with low-level amplification. KRAS mutations may act as a resistance mechanism to MET inhibition in MET dependent lung cancer.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(14): 4351-4362, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA1-deficient breast cancers carry a specific DNA copy-number signature ("BRCA1-like") and are hypersensitive to DNA double-strand break (DSB) inducing compounds. Here, we explored whether (i) EZH2 is overexpressed in human BRCA1-deficient breast tumors and might predict sensitivity to DSB-inducing drugs; (ii) EZH2 inhibition potentiates cisplatin efficacy in Brca1-deficient murine mammary tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: EZH2 expression was analyzed in 497 breast cancers using IHC or RNA sequencing. We classified 370 tumors by copy-number profiles as BRCA1-like or non-BRCA1-like and examined its association with EZH2 expression. Additionally, we assessed BRCA1 loss through mutation or promoter methylation status and investigated the predictive value of EZH2 expression in a study population of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant high-dose platinum-based chemotherapy compared with standard anthracycline-based chemotherapy. To explore whether EZH2 inhibition by GSK126 enhances sensitivity to platinum drugs in EZH2-overexpressing breast cancers we used a Brca1-deficient mouse model. RESULTS: The highest EZH2 expression was found in BRCA1-associated tumors harboring a BRCA1 mutation, BRCA1-promoter methylation or were classified as BRCA1 like. We observed a greater benefit from high-dose platinum-based chemotherapy in BRCA1-like and non-BRCA1-like patients with high EZH2 expression. Combined treatment with the EZH2 inhibitor GSK126 and cisplatin decreased cell proliferation and improved survival in Brca1-deficient mice in comparison with single agents. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that EZH2 is expressed at significantly higher levels in BRCA1-deficient breast cancers. EZH2 overexpression can identify patients with breast cancer who benefit significantly from intensified DSB-inducing platinum-based chemotherapy independent of BRCA1-like status. EZH2 inhibition improves the antitumor effect of platinum drugs in Brca1-deficient breast tumors in vivo.

6.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 127(5): 285-296, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial genomic reference standards in a cytocentrifuge/cytospin format with well-annotated genomic data are useful for validating next-generation sequencing (NGS) on routine cytopreparations. Here, reference standards were optimized to be stained by different laboratories before DNA extraction and to contain a lower number of cells (2 × 105 ). This was done to better reflect the clinical challenge of working with insufficient cytological material. METHODS: A total of 17 worldwide laboratories analyzed customized reference standard slides (slides A-D). Each laboratory applied its standard workflow. The sample slides were engineered to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) c.2235_2249del15 p.E746_A750delELREA, EGFR c.2369C>T p.T790M, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) c.38G>A p.G13D, and B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) c.1798_1799GT>AA p.V600K mutations at various allele frequencies (AFs). RESULTS: EGFR and KRAS mutation detection showed excellent interlaboratory reproducibility, especially on slides A and B (10% and 5% AFs). On slide C (1% AF), either the EGFR mutation or the KRAS mutation was undetected by 10 of the 17 laboratories (58.82%). A reassessment of the raw data in a second-look analysis highlighted the mutations (n = 10) that had been missed in the first-look analysis. BRAF c.1798_1799GT>AA p.V600K showed a lower concordance rate for mutation detection and AF quantification. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that the detection of low-abundance mutations is still clinically challenging and may require a visual inspection of sequencing reads to detect. Genomic reference standards in a cytocentrifuge/cytospin format are a valid tool for regular quality assessment of laboratories performing molecular studies on cytology with low-AF mutations.

7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(7): 1266-1276, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ROS1 rearrangements are found in 1% of lung cancer patients. Therapeutic efficacy of crizotinib in this subset has been shown in early phase trials in the United States and East Asia. Here we present data on efficacy and safety of a prospective phase II trial evaluating crizotinib in European ROS1-positive patients (EUCROSS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The trial was a multicenter, single-arm phase II trial (Clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT02183870). Key eligibility criteria included patients who were 18 years of age or older with advanced/metastatic lung cancer and centrally confirmed ROS1-rearranged lung cancer (fluorescence-in situ hybridization). Treatment included 250 mg crizotinib twice daily. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR) (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1). Key secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, efficacy by independent radiologic review, safety, health-related quality of life, and molecular characterization of tumor tissue. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients received treatment. Four patients were excluded from efficacy analysis. Investigator ORR was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 51-85; 21 of 30 patients) and median PFS was 20.0 months (95% CI: 10.1-not reached). Two patients with ROS1 wild-type sequences assessed by DNA sequencing had progression as best response. CD74-ROS1-positive patients had a trend towards a higher ORR and longer median PFS. TP53-co-mutant patients had a significantly shorter median PFS than wild-type patients (7.0 months, 95% CI: 1.7-20.0 versus 24.1 months, 95% CI: 10.1-not reached; p = 0.022). Treatment-related adverse events were documented in 33 of 34 patients (97%). CONCLUSIONS: Crizotinib is highly effective and safe in patients with ROS1-rearranged lung cancer. ROS1-/TP53-co-aberrant patients had a significantly worse outcome compared to TP53 wild-type patients.

8.
Lung ; 197(3): 333-337, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824994

RESUMO

The role of bronchoscopic brushing for tumor detection and molecular testing in central lung cancer is unclear. In this study, 50 consecutive subjects with suspected central lung cancer underwent bronchoscopic brushing (31 males, median age 70, 5 never smokers). Histological results were: NSCLC/SCLC/low-grade-NET/granulation tissue in 36/8/2/4 cases. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was feasible in 62% of tumor-positive brush smear samples. In 78% of these cases, NGS displayed identical results compared to histology samples, in 22% NGS from brush smears detected specific mutations, whereas DNA quality from forceps biopsy was insufficient for NGS analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of brush smear analysis were 66% (95% confidence interval 50-79), 100% (40-100), 100% (85-100), and 21% (7-46). For the combined analysis of brush smear, brush tip washing and sheath tube content sensitivity was slightly elevated at 69% (53-81). In central lung cancer, bronchoscopic brushing detects tumor cells in about two-third of cases and allows a decision for or against targeted therapy in the majority of tumor-positive cases on the basis of NGS analysis.

9.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(4): 606-616, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605727

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although KRAS mutations in NSCLC have been considered mutually exclusive driver mutations for a long time, there is now growing evidence that KRAS-mutated NSCLC represents a genetically heterogeneous subgroup. We sought to determine genetic heterogeneity with respect to cancer-related co-mutations and their correlation with different KRAS mutation subtypes. METHODS: Diagnostic samples from 4507 patients with NSCLC were analyzed by next-generation sequencing by using a panel of 14 genes and, in a subset of patients, fluorescence in situ hybridization. Next-generation sequencing with an extended panel of 14 additional genes was performed in 101 patients. Molecular data were correlated with clinical data. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in two patients. RESULTS: We identified 1078 patients with KRAS mutations, of whom 53.5% had at least one additional mutation. Different KRAS mutation subtypes showed different patterns of co-occurring mutations. Besides mutations in tumor protein p53 gene (TP53) (39.4%), serine/threonine kinase 11 gene (STK11) (19.8%), kelch like ECH associated protein 1 gene (KEAP1) (12.9%), and ATM serine/threonine kinase gene (ATM) (11.9%), as well as MNNG HOS Transforming gene (MET) amplifications (15.4%) and erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 gene (ERBB2) amplifications (13.8%, exclusively in G12C), we found rare co-occurrence of targetable mutations in EGFR (1.2%) and BRAF (1.2%). Whole-exome sequencing of two patients with co-occurring phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha gene (PIK3CA) mutation revealed clonality of mutated KRAS in one patient and subclonality in the second, suggesting different evolutionary backgrounds. CONCLUSION: KRAS-mutated NSCLC represents a genetically heterogeneous subgroup with a high frequency of co-occurring mutations in cancer-associated pathways, partly associated with distinct KRAS mutation subtypes. This diversity might have implications for understanding the variability of treatment outcome in KRAS-mutated NSCLC and for future trial design.

10.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 2019 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613919

RESUMO

Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) is caused by germline mutations of mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. MLH1-/PMS2-deficient colorectal carcinomas might be HNPCC-associated but also caused by MLH1-promoter methylation in sporadic colon carcinoma. This study analyzed semiquantitatively whether the MLH1 staining pattern might be indicative of sporadic or HNPCC-associated colorectal cancer. Using a semiquantitative score ranging from 0 (negative) to 12 (maximum immunopositivity) we analyzed MLH1 expression patterns in 130 MLH1-/PMS2-deficient colorectal cancers. The collective consisted of 70 HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and 60 sporadic colon cancers. In tumor cells of 70 HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers, 64 cases (91.43%) showed no MLH1 staining, 5 cases weak (7.14%) and 1 case (1.43%) stronger staining intensity. In contrast, in tumor cells of 60 sporadic colorectal cancers 45 cases (75.0%) showed no MLH1 staining, 10 cases weak (16.67%) and 5 cases (8.33%) stronger staining intensity to a varying extent. In immunopositive cases, MLH1 showed a characteristic dot-like nuclear staining pattern in the tumor cells. We compared cases with absent to weak MLH1-staining (immunoscores 0 to 2) to cases with elevated immunoscores (3 to 12) detecting a statistically significant difference between HNPCC-associated and sporadic colon cancers (p value = 0.0031, Fisher's exact test). Taken together, enhanced tumoral MLH1 expression in MLH1-/PMS2-deficient colorectal carcinomas seems to be indicative of sporadic origin. In contrast, HNPCC-associated colorectal cancer showed absent or very weak MLH1 immunopositivity. Therefore, this semiquantitative and easy to exert MLH1 immunoscore might help to identify sporadic MLH1-/PMS2-deficient colorectal cancer cases prior to time-consuming methylation analysis.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 38, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HER2 (ERBB2 or HER2/neu) is a tyrosine-kinase increasing cell proliferation. Overexpression/amplification of HER2 is correlated with worse prognosis in solid malignancies. Consequently, HER2 targeting is established in breast and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer. There are conflicting data concerning the impact of HER2 overexpression on esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), as most studies do not differ between cancers of the esophagus/gastroesophageal junction and the stomach. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression/amplification of HER2 in EAC in correlation to clinicopathological data to verify its prognostic impact. METHODS: We analyzed 428 EAC patients that underwent transthoracic thoraco-abdominal esophagectomy between 1997 and 2014. We performed HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) according to the guidelines and fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH) for IHC score2+, using tissue micro arrays (TMA) with up to eight biopsies from the surface and infiltration area of a single tumor for evaluating HER2-heterogeneity and single-spot TMA. The HER2-status was correlated with clinicopathological data. RESULTS: HER2-positivity was found in up to 14.9% in our cohort (IHC score 3+ or IHC score 2+ with gene amplification) and demonstrated a significantly better overall survival (OS) in correlation to HER2-negative tumors (median OS 70.1 vs. 24.6 months, p = 0.006). HER2-overexpression was more frequently seen in lower tumor stages (pT1/pT2, p = 0.038), in the absence of lymphatic metastases (pN0/pN+, p = 0.020), and was significantly associated with better histological grading (G1/G2) (p = 0.041). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated a positive prognostic impact of HER2 overexpression in a large cohort of EAC, contrary to other solid malignancies including gastric cancer and breast cancer, but consistent to the results of a large study on EAC from 2012.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Proliferação de Células/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Esofagectomia , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Análise Serial de Tecidos
13.
Science ; 362(6419): 1165-1170, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523111

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor of the sympathetic nervous system. Its clinical course ranges from spontaneous tumor regression to fatal progression. To investigate the molecular features of the divergent tumor subtypes, we performed genome sequencing on 416 pretreatment neuroblastomas and assessed telomere maintenance mechanisms in 208 of these tumors. We found that patients whose tumors lacked telomere maintenance mechanisms had an excellent prognosis, whereas the prognosis of patients whose tumors harbored telomere maintenance mechanisms was substantially worse. Survival rates were lowest for neuroblastoma patients whose tumors harbored telomere maintenance mechanisms in combination with RAS and/or p53 pathway mutations. Spontaneous tumor regression occurred both in the presence and absence of these mutations in patients with telomere maintenance-negative tumors. On the basis of these data, we propose a mechanistic classification of neuroblastoma that may benefit the clinical management of patients.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4655, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405134

RESUMO

The emergence of acquired resistance against targeted drugs remains a major clinical challenge in lung adenocarcinoma patients. In a subgroup of these patients we identified an association between selection of EGFRT790M-negative but EGFRG724S-positive subclones and osimertinib resistance. We demonstrate that EGFRG724S limits the activity of third-generation EGFR inhibitors both in vitro and in vivo. Structural analyses and computational modeling indicate that EGFRG724S mutations may induce a conformation of the glycine-rich loop, which is incompatible with the binding of third-generation TKIs. Systematic inhibitor screening and in-depth kinetic profiling validate these findings and show that second-generation EGFR inhibitors retain kinase affinity and overcome EGFRG724S-mediated resistance. In the case of afatinib this profile translates into a robust reduction of colony formation and tumor growth of EGFRG724S-driven cells. Our data provide a mechanistic basis for the osimertinib-induced selection of EGFRG724S-mutant clones and a rationale to treat these patients with clinically approved second-generation EGFR inhibitors.

15.
Cell Rep ; 25(4): 1027-1039.e6, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355482

RESUMO

Cdkn1a, which encodes p21, functions as a major route for p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest. However, the consequence of Cdkn1a gene dosage on tumor suppression has not been systematically investigated. Here, we employed BAC transgenesis to generate a Cdkn1aSUPER mouse, which harbors an additional Cdkn1a allele within its natural genomic context. We show that these mice display enhanced cell-cycle arrest and reduced apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. Furthermore, using a chemically induced skin cancer model and an autochthonous Kras-driven lung adenocarcinoma model, we show that Cdkn1aSUPER mice display a cancer protection phenotype that is indistinguishable from that observed in Tp53SUPER animals. Moreover, we demonstrate that Tp53 and Cdkn1a cooperate in mediating cancer resistance, using a chemically induced fibrosarcoma model. Overall, our Cdkn1aSUPER allele enabled us to assess the contribution of Cdkn1a to Tp53-mediated tumor suppression.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14941, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297788

RESUMO

Oesophageal cancer (OC) has high mortality. This study aims at determining the feasibility of liquid biopsies for genomic profiling in early stage OC, comparing two different technologies for mutational analysis in circulating cell -free DNA (ccfDNA) and evaluating the clinical impact of these somatic alterations during primary staging. In 25 patients with locally advanced OC, endoscopic tumour biopsies and simultaneous blood samples were taken during primary staging. Genomic DNA from biopsies and ccfDNA were analysed for mutations using a 12 gene panel next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay as well as digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). Genetic data was correlated with patients' outcome. In 21 of the tested biopsies (84%) at least one somatic mutation was detected by NGS. Mutations detected by NGS were detectable by ddPCR with similar allele frequencies. In three out of the 21 patients with proven mutations, the same mutations were also detectable in ccfDNA using NGS (14%). In contrast, ddPCR detected mutations in ccfDNA of five additional patients (8/21, 38%). Post-surgical outcome analysis was performed for those patients who had received complete tumour resection (n = 16). Five of them suffered from an early relapse within the first year after surgery, including four with detectable somatic mutations in ccfDNA during primary staging. Taken together, we showed a higher sensitivity for ddPCR compared to NGS in detecting mutated ccfDNA in OC. Detection of somatically altered ccfDNA during primary staging seems to be indicative for post-surgical tumour recurrence.

17.
Mol Oncol ; 12(11): 1965-1979, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220105

RESUMO

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most prevalent subtype of non-small cell lung cancer. Despite the development of novel targeted and immune therapies, the 5-year survival rate is still only 21%, indicating the need for more efficient treatment regimens. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is an epigenetic eraser that modifies histone 3 methylation status, and is highly overexpressed in LUAD. Using representative human cell culture systems and two autochthonous transgenic mouse models, we investigated inhibition of LSD1 as a novel therapeutic option for treating LUAD. The reversible LSD1 inhibitor HCI-2509 significantly reduced cell growth with an IC50 of 0.3-5 µmin vitro, which was linked to an enhancement of histone 3 lysine methylation. Most importantly, growth arrest, as well as inhibition of the invasion capacities, was independent of the underlying driver mutations. Subsequent expression profiling revealed that the cell cycle and replication machinery were prominently affected after LSD1 inhibition. In addition, our data provide evidence that LSD1 blockade significantly interferes with EGFR downstream signaling. Finally, our in vitro results were confirmed by preclinical therapeutic approaches, including the use of two autochthonous transgenic LUAD mouse models driven by either EGFR or KRAS mutations. Importantly, LSD1 inhibition resulted in significantly lower tumor formation and a strong reduction in tumor progression, which were independent of the underlying mutational background of the mouse models. Hence, our findings provide substantial evidence indicating that tumor growth of LUAD can be markedly decreased by HCI-2509 treatment, suggesting its use as a single agent maintenance therapy or combined therapeutical application in novel concerted drug approaches.

18.
EMBO Mol Med ; 10(9)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097507

RESUMO

Patients with head-and-neck cancer can develop both lung metastasis and primary lung cancer during the course of their disease. Despite the clinical importance of discrimination, reliable diagnostic biomarkers are still lacking. Here, we have characterised a cohort of squamous cell lung (SQCLC) and head-and-neck (HNSCC) carcinomas by quantitative proteomics. In a training cohort, we quantified 4,957 proteins in 44 SQCLC and 30 HNSCC tumours. A total of 518 proteins were found to be differentially expressed between SQCLC and HNSCC, and some of these were identified as genetic dependencies in either of the two tumour types. Using supervised machine learning, we inferred a proteomic signature for the classification of squamous cell carcinomas as either SQCLC or HNSCC, with diagnostic accuracies of 90.5% and 86.8% in cross- and independent validations, respectively. Furthermore, application of this signature to a cohort of pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas of unknown origin leads to a significant prognostic separation. This study not only provides a diagnostic proteomic signature for classification of secondary lung tumours in HNSCC patients, but also represents a proteomic resource for HNSCC and SQCLC.

19.
Gastroenterology ; 155(5): 1400-1409.e2, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with Lynch syndrome are at high risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Regular colonoscopic surveillance is recommended, but there is no international consensus on the appropriate interval. We investigated whether shorter intervals are associated with lower CRC incidence and detection at earlier stages by comparing the surveillance policies in Germany, which evaluates patients by colonoscopy annually, in the Netherlands (patients evaluated at 1-2-year intervals), and Finland (patients evaluated at 2-3-year intervals). METHODS: We collected data from 16,327 colonoscopic examinations (conducted from 1984 through 2015) of 2747 patients with Lynch syndrome (pathogenic variants in the MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 genes) from the German HNPCC Consortium, the Dutch Lynch Syndrome Registry, and the Finnish Lynch Syndrome Registry. Our analysis included 23,309 person-years of cumulative observation time. Time from the index colonoscopy to incident CRC or adenoma was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method; groups were compared using the log-rank test. We performed multivariable Cox regression analyses to identify factors associated with CRC risk (diagnosis of CRC before the index colonoscopy, sex, mutation, age, and presence of adenoma at the index colonoscopy). RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative CRC incidence ranged from 4.1% to 18.4% in patients with low- and high-risk profiles, respectively, and varied with age, sex, mutation, and prior detection of CRC or adenoma. Observed colonoscopy intervals were largely in accordance with the country-specific recommendations. We found no significant differences in cumulative CRC incidence or CRC stage at detection among countries. There was no significant association between CRC stage and time since last colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a significant reduction in CRC incidence or stage of detection in Germany (annual colonoscopic surveillance) than in countries with longer surveillance intervals (the Netherlands, with 1-2-year intervals, and Finland, with 2-3-year intervals). Overall, we did not find a significant association of the interval with CRC risk, although age, sex, mutation, and prior neoplasia were used to individually modify colonoscopy intervals. Studies are needed to develop and validate risk-adapted surveillance strategies and to identify patients who benefit from shorter surveillance intervals.

20.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 55, 2018 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and is primarily treated with radiation, surgery, and platinum-based drugs like cisplatin and carboplatin. The major challenge in the treatment of NSCLC patients is intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapy. Molecular markers predicting the outcome of the patients are urgently needed. METHODS: Here, we employed patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) to detect predictive methylation biomarkers for platin-based therapies. We used MeDIP-Seq to generate genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of 22 PDXs, their parental primary NSCLC, and their corresponding normal tissues and complemented the data with gene expression analyses of the same tissues. Candidate biomarkers were validated with quantitative methylation-specific PCRs (qMSP) in an independent cohort. RESULTS: Comprehensive analyses revealed that differential methylation patterns are highly similar, enriched in PDXs and lung tumor-specific when comparing differences in methylation between PDXs versus primary NSCLC. We identified a set of 40 candidate regions with methylation correlated to carboplatin response and corresponding inverse gene expression pattern even before therapy. This analysis led to the identification of a promoter CpG island methylation of LDL receptor-related protein 12 (LRP12) associated with increased resistance to carboplatin. Validation in an independent patient cohort (n = 35) confirmed that LRP12 methylation status is predictive for therapeutic response of NSCLC patients to platin therapy with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 84% (p < 0.01). Similarly, we find a shorter survival time for patients with LRP12 hypermethylation in the TCGA data set for NSCLC (lung adenocarcinoma). CONCLUSIONS: Using an epigenome-wide sequencing approach, we find differential methylation patterns from primary lung cancer and PDX-derived cancers to be very similar, albeit with a lower degree of differential methylation in primary tumors. We identify LRP12 DNA methylation as a powerful predictive marker for carboplatin resistance. These findings outline a platform for the identification of epigenetic therapy resistance biomarkers based on PDX NSCLC models.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigenômica , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carboplatina/farmacologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos Nus , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Resultado do Tratamento
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