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1.
EMBO Rep ; 20(10): e47865, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531937

RESUMO

The eukaryotic cell is morphologically and functionally organized as an interconnected network of organelles that responds to stress and aging. Organelles communicate via dedicated signal transduction pathways and the transfer of information in form of metabolites and energy levels. Recent data suggest that the communication between organellar proteostasis systems is a cornerstone of cellular stress responses in eukaryotic cells. Here, we discuss the integration of proteostasis and energy fluxes in the regulation of cellular stress and aging. We emphasize the molecular architecture of the regulatory transcriptional pathways that both sense and control metabolism and proteostasis. A special focus is placed on mechanistic insights gained from the model organism budding yeast in signaling from mitochondria to the nucleus and how this shapes cellular fitness.

2.
J Biol Chem ; 294(32): 12020-12039, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209110

RESUMO

Autophagy, a membrane-dependent catabolic process, ensures survival of aging cells and depends on the cellular energetic status. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (Acc1) connects central energy metabolism to lipid biosynthesis and is rate-limiting for the de novo synthesis of lipids. However, it is unclear how de novo lipogenesis and its metabolic consequences affect autophagic activity. Here, we show that in aging yeast, autophagy levels highly depend on the activity of Acc1. Constitutively active Acc1 (acc1S/A ) or a deletion of the Acc1 negative regulator, Snf1 (yeast AMPK), shows elevated autophagy levels, which can be reversed by the Acc1 inhibitor soraphen A. Vice versa, pharmacological inhibition of Acc1 drastically reduces cell survival and results in the accumulation of Atg8-positive structures at the vacuolar membrane, suggesting late defects in the autophagic cascade. As expected, acc1S/A cells exhibit a reduction in acetate/acetyl-CoA availability along with elevated cellular lipid content. However, concomitant administration of acetate fails to fully revert the increase in autophagy exerted by acc1S/A Instead, administration of oleate, while mimicking constitutively active Acc1 in WT cells, alleviates the vacuolar fusion defects induced by Acc1 inhibition. Our results argue for a largely lipid-dependent process of autophagy regulation downstream of Acc1. We present a versatile genetic model to investigate the complex relationship between acetate metabolism, lipid homeostasis, and autophagy and propose Acc1-dependent lipogenesis as a fundamental metabolic path downstream of Snf1 to maintain autophagy and survival during cellular aging.

3.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1866(5): 957-970, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796938

RESUMO

Cellular ageing results in accumulating damage to various macromolecules and the progressive decline of organelle function. Yeast vacuoles as well as their counterpart in higher eukaryotes, the lysosomes, emerge as central organelles in lifespan determination. These acidic organelles integrate enzymatic breakdown and recycling of cellular waste with nutrient sensing, storage, signalling and mobilization. Establishing physical contact with virtually all other organelles, vacuoles serve as hubs of cellular homeostasis. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae contributed substantially to our understanding of the ageing process per se and the multifaceted roles of vacuoles/lysosomes in the maintenance of cellular fitness with progressing age. Here, we discuss the multiple roles of the vacuole during ageing, ranging from vacuolar dynamics and acidification as determinants of lifespan to the function of this organelle as waste bin, recycling facility, nutrient reservoir and integrator of nutrient signalling.


Assuntos
Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Vacúolos/genética
5.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 205, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977190

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent trait of cellular decline during aging and intimately linked to neuronal degeneration during Parkinson's disease (PD). Various proteins associated with PD have been shown to differentially impact mitochondrial dynamics, quality control and function, including the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). Here, we demonstrate that high levels of the enzymatic core of human LRRK2, harboring GTPase as well as kinase activity, decreases mitochondrial mass via an impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis in aging yeast. We link mitochondrial depletion to a global downregulation of mitochondria-related gene transcripts and show that this catalytic core of LRRK2 localizes to mitochondria and selectively compromises respiratory chain complex IV formation. With progressing cellular age, this culminates in dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, decreased respiratory capacity, ATP depletion and generation of reactive oxygen species. Ultimately, the collapse of the mitochondrial network results in cell death. A point mutation in LRRK2 that increases the intrinsic GTPase activity diminishes mitochondrial impairment and consequently provides cytoprotection. In sum, we report that a downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis rather than excessive degradation of mitochondria underlies the reduction of mitochondrial abundance induced by the enzymatic core of LRRK2 in aging yeast cells. Thus, our data provide a novel perspective for deciphering the causative mechanisms of LRRK2-associated PD pathology.

6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(17): 9201-9219, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060171

RESUMO

The dissemination of multi-resistant bacteria represents an enormous burden on modern healthcare. Plasmid-borne conjugative transfer is the most prevalent mechanism, requiring a type IV secretion system that enables bacteria to spread beneficial traits, such as resistance to last-line antibiotics, among different genera. Inc18 plasmids, like the Gram-positive broad host-range plasmid pIP501, are substantially involved in propagation of vancomycin resistance from Enterococci to methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we identified the small cytosolic protein TraN as a repressor of the pIP501-encoded conjugative transfer system, since deletion of traN resulted in upregulation of transfer factors, leading to highly enhanced conjugative transfer. Furthermore, we report the complex structure of TraN with DNA and define the exact sequence of its binding motif. Targeting this protein-DNA interaction might represent a novel therapeutic approach against the spreading of antibiotic resistances.

7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 5473817, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854086

RESUMO

The rise of microbial pathogens refractory to conventional antibiotics represents one of the most urgent and global public health concerns for the 21st century. Emergence of Candida auris isolates and the persistence of invasive mold infections that resist existing treatment and cause severe illness has underscored the threat of drug-resistant fungal infections. To meet these growing challenges, mechanistically novel agents and strategies are needed that surpass the conventional fungistatic or fungicidal drug actions. Host defense peptides have long been misunderstood as indiscriminant membrane detergents. However, evidence gathered over the past decade clearly points to their sophisticated and selective mechanisms of action, including exploiting regulated cell death pathways of their target pathogens. Such peptides perturb transmembrane potential and mitochondrial energetics, inducing phosphatidylserine accessibility and metacaspase activation in fungi. These mechanisms are often multimodal, affording target pathogens fewer resistance options as compared to traditional small molecule drugs. Here, recent advances in the field are examined regarding regulated cell death subroutines as potential therapeutic targets for innovative anti-infective peptides against pathogenic fungi. Furthering knowledge of protective host defense peptide interactions with target pathogens is key to advancing and applying novel prophylactic and therapeutic countermeasures to fungal resistance and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Humanos
8.
Cell Metab ; 27(6): 1309-1322.e6, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754951

RESUMO

Cellular proteostasis is maintained via the coordinated synthesis, maintenance, and breakdown of proteins in the cytosol and organelles. While biogenesis of the mitochondrial membrane complexes that execute oxidative phosphorylation depends on cytoplasmic translation, it is unknown how translation within mitochondria impacts cytoplasmic proteostasis and nuclear gene expression. Here we have analyzed the effects of mutations in the highly conserved accuracy center of the yeast mitoribosome. Decreased accuracy of mitochondrial translation shortened chronological lifespan, impaired management of cytosolic protein aggregates, and elicited a general transcriptional stress response. In striking contrast, increased accuracy extended lifespan, improved cytosolic aggregate clearance, and suppressed a normally stress-induced, Msn2/4-dependent interorganellar proteostasis transcription program (IPTP) that regulates genes important for mitochondrial proteostasis. Collectively, the data demonstrate that cytosolic protein homeostasis and nuclear stress signaling are controlled by mitochondrial translation efficiency in an inter-connected organelle quality control network that determines cellular lifespan.

9.
Microb Cell ; 5(4): 212-214, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611555

RESUMO

The accumulation of protein aggregates in neurons is a typical pathological hallmark of the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In many cases, these aggregates are composed of the 43 kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP 43). Using a yeast model for TDP 43 proteinopathies, we observed that the vacuole (the yeast equivalent of lysosomes) markedly contributed to the degradation of TDP 43. This clearance occurred via TDP 43-containing vesicles fusing with the vacuole through the concerted action of the endosomal-vacuolar (or endolysosomal) pathway and autophagy. In line with its dominant role in the clearance of TDP 43, endosomal-vacuolar pathway activity protected cells from the detrimental effects of TDP 43. In contrast, enhanced autophagy contributed to TDP 43 cytotoxicity, despite being involved in TDP 43 degradation. TDP 43's interference with endosomal-vacuolar pathway activity may have two deleterious consequences. First, it interferes with its own degradation via this pathway, resulting in TDP 43 accumulation. Second, it affects vacuolar proteolytic activity, which requires endosomal-vacuolar trafficking. We speculate that the latter contributes to aberrant autophagy. In sum, we propose that ameliorating endolysosomal pathway activity enhances cell survival in TDP 43-associated diseases.

10.
Microb Cell ; 5(3): 158-164, 2018 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487862

RESUMO

The mitochondrial genome is responsible for the production of a handful of polypeptides that are core subunits of the membrane-bound oxidative phosphorylation system. Until now the mechanistic studies of mitochondrial protein synthesis inside cells have been conducted with inhibition of cytoplasmic protein synthesis to reduce the background of nuclear gene expression with the undesired consequence of major disturbances of cellular signaling cascades. Here we have generated a system that allows direct monitoring of mitochondrial translation in unperturbed cells. A recoded gene for superfolder GFP was inserted into the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mitochondrial genome and enabled the detection of translation through fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry in functional mitochondria. This novel tool allows the investigation of the function and regulation of mitochondrial translation during stress signaling, aging and mitochondrial biogenesis.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(9): 1593-1607, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474575

RESUMO

TDP-43 is a nuclear RNA-binding protein whose cytoplasmic accumulation is the pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). For a better understanding of this devastating disorder at the molecular level, it is important to identify cellular pathways involved in the clearance of detrimental TDP-43. Using a yeast model system, we systematically analyzed to which extent TDP-43-triggered cytotoxicity is modulated by conserved lysosomal clearance pathways. We observed that the lysosomal fusion machinery and the endolysosomal pathway, which are crucial for proper lysosomal function, were pivotal for survival of cells exposed to TDP-43. Interestingly, TDP-43 itself interfered with these critical TDP-43 clearance pathways. In contrast, autophagy played a complex role in this process. It contributed to the degradation of TDP-43 in the absence of endolysosomal pathway activity, but its induction also enhanced cell death. Thus, TDP-43 interfered with lysosomal function and its own degradation via lysosomal pathways, and triggered lethal autophagy. We propose that these effects critically contribute to cellular dysfunction in TDP-43 proteinopathies.

12.
Microb Cell ; 5(1): 4-31, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354647

RESUMO

Elucidating the biology of yeast in its full complexity has major implications for science, medicine and industry. One of the most critical processes determining yeast life and physiology is cel-lular demise. However, the investigation of yeast cell death is a relatively young field, and a widely accepted set of concepts and terms is still missing. Here, we propose unified criteria for the defi-nition of accidental, regulated, and programmed forms of cell death in yeast based on a series of morphological and biochemical criteria. Specifically, we provide consensus guidelines on the differ-ential definition of terms including apoptosis, regulated necrosis, and autophagic cell death, as we refer to additional cell death rou-tines that are relevant for the biology of (at least some species of) yeast. As this area of investigation advances rapidly, changes and extensions to this set of recommendations will be implemented in the years to come. Nonetheless, we strongly encourage the au-thors, reviewers and editors of scientific articles to adopt these collective standards in order to establish an accurate framework for yeast cell death research and, ultimately, to accelerate the pro-gress of this vibrant field of research.

13.
Cell Death Differ ; 25(4): 765-781, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230001

RESUMO

The loss of lipid homeostasis can lead to lipid overload and is associated with a variety of disease states. However, little is known as to how the disruption of lipid regulation or lipid overload affects cell survival. In this study we investigated how excess diacylglycerol (DG), a cardinal metabolite suspected to mediate lipotoxicity, compromises the survival of yeast cells. We reveal that increased DG achieved by either genetic manipulation or pharmacological administration of 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG) triggers necrotic cell death. The toxic effects of DG are linked to glucose metabolism and require a functional Rim101 signaling cascade involving the Rim21-dependent sensing complex and the activation of a calpain-like protease. The Rim101 cascade is an established pathway that triggers a transcriptional response to alkaline or lipid stress. We propose that the Rim101 pathway senses DG-induced lipid perturbation and conducts a signaling response that either facilitates cellular adaptation or triggers lipotoxic cell death. Using established models of lipotoxicity, i.e., high-fat diet in Drosophila and palmitic acid administration in cultured human endothelial cells, we present evidence that the core mechanism underlying this calpain-dependent lipotoxic cell death pathway is phylogenetically conserved.

14.
Microb Cell ; 4(12): 411-422, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234670

RESUMO

Hereditary spastic paraplegias, a group of neurodegenerative disorders, can be caused by loss-of-function mutations in the protein spartin. However, the physiological role of spartin remains largely elusive. Here we show that heterologous expression of human or Drosophila spartin extends chronological lifespan of yeast, reducing age-associated ROS production, apoptosis, and necrosis. We demonstrate that spartin localizes to the proximity of mitochondria and physically interacts with proteins related to mitochondrial and respiratory metabolism. Interestingly, Nde1, the mitochondrial external NADH dehydrogenase, and Pda1, the core enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, are required for spartin-mediated cytoprotection. Furthermore, spartin interacts with the glycolysis enhancer phospo-fructo-kinase-2,6 (Pfk26) and is sufficient to complement for PFK26-deficiency at least in early aging. We conclude that mitochondria-related energy metabolism is crucial for spartin's vital function during aging and uncover a network of specific interactors required for this function.

15.
Neural Regen Res ; 12(11): 1776-1779, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29239314

RESUMO

Cellular homeostasis requires a tightly controlled balance between protein synthesis, folding and degradation. Especially long-lived, post-mitotic cells such as neurons depend on an efficient proteostasis system to maintain cellular health over decades. Thus, a functional decline of processes contributing to protein degradation such as autophagy and general lysosomal proteolytic capacity is connected to several age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. These so called proteinopathies are characterized by the accumulation and misfolding of distinct proteins, subsequently driving cellular demise. We recently linked efficient lysosomal protein breakdown via the protease cathepsin D to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. In a yeast model for Parkinson's disease, functional calcineurin was required for proper trafficking of cathepsin D to the lysosome and for recycling of its endosomal sorting receptor to allow further rounds of shuttling. Here, we discuss these findings in relation to present knowledge about the involvement of cathepsin D in proteinopathies in general and a possible connection between this protease, calcineurin signalling and endosomal sorting in particular. As dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis as well as lysosomal impairment is connected to a plethora of neurodegenerative disorders, this novel interplay might very well impact pathologies beyond Parkinson's disease.

16.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 10: 207, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28713240

RESUMO

The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons during Parkinson's disease (PD) is intimately linked to malfunction of α-synuclein (αSyn), the main component of the proteinaceous intracellular inclusions characteristic for this pathology. The cytotoxicity of αSyn has been attributed to disturbances in several biological processes conserved from yeast to humans, including Ca2+ homeostasis, general lysosomal function and autophagy. However, the precise sequence of events that eventually results in cell death remains unclear. Here, we establish a connection between the major lysosomal protease cathepsin D (CatD) and the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. In a yeast model for PD, high levels of human αSyn triggered cytosolic acidification and reduced vacuolar hydrolytic capacity, finally leading to cell death. This could be counteracted by overexpression of yeast CatD (Pep4), which re-installed pH homeostasis and vacuolar proteolytic function, decreased αSyn oligomers and aggregates, and provided cytoprotection. Interestingly, these beneficial effects of Pep4 were independent of autophagy. Instead, they required functional calcineurin signaling, since deletion of calcineurin strongly reduced both the proteolytic activity of endogenous Pep4 and the cytoprotective capacity of overexpressed Pep4. Calcineurin contributed to proper endosomal targeting of Pep4 to the vacuole and the recycling of the Pep4 sorting receptor Pep1 from prevacuolar compartments back to the trans-Golgi network. Altogether, we demonstrate that stimulation of this novel calcineurin-Pep4 axis reduces αSyn cytotoxicity.

17.
Plasmid ; 91: 9-18, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28219792

RESUMO

Conjugative transfer plays a major role in the transmission of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. pIP501 is a Gram-positive conjugative model plasmid with the broadest transfer host-range known so far and is frequently found in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates. The pIP501 type IV secretion system is encoded by 15 transfer genes. In this work, we focus on the VirB1-like protein TraG, a modular peptidoglycan metabolizing enzyme, and the VirB8-homolog TraM, a potential member of the translocation channel. By providing full-length traG in trans, but not with a truncated variant, we achieved full recovery of wild type transfer efficiency in the traG-knockout mutant E. faecalis pIP501ΔtraG. With peptidoglycan digestion experiments and tandem mass spectrometry we could assign lytic transglycosylase and endopeptidase activity to TraG, with the CHAP domain alone displaying endopeptidase activity. We identified a novel interaction between TraG and TraM in a bacterial-2-hybrid assay. In addition we found that both proteins localize in focal spots at the E. faecalis cell membrane using immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy. Extracellular protease digestion to evaluate protein cell surface exposure revealed that correct membrane localization of TraM requires the transmembrane helix of TraG. Thus, we suggest an essential role for TraG in the assembly of the pIP501 type IV secretion system.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Plasmídeos/química , Deleção de Sequência , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Transporte Biológico , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Conjugação Genética , Endopeptidases/genética , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Enterococcus faecalis/metabolismo , Enterococcus faecalis/ultraestrutura , Peptidoglicano Glicosiltransferase/genética , Peptidoglicano Glicosiltransferase/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/metabolismo
18.
Cell Tissue Res ; 367(1): 125-140, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27449929

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, including proteinopathies such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, which are characterized by the deposition of aggregated proteins in the form of insoluble fibrils or plaques. The distinct molecular processes that eventually result in mitochondrial dysfunction during neurodegeneration are well studied but still not fully understood. However, defects in mitochondrial fission and fusion, mitophagy, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial bioenergetics have been linked to cellular demise. These processes are influenced by the lipid environment within mitochondrial membranes as, besides membrane structure and curvature, recruitment and activity of different proteins also largely depend on the respective lipid composition. Hence, the interaction of neurotoxic proteins with certain lipids and the modification of lipid composition in different cell compartments, in particular mitochondria, decisively impact cell death associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we discuss the relevance of mitochondrial lipids in the pathological alterations that result in neuronal demise, focussing on proteinopathies.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Degradação Mitocondrial , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Degeneração Neural/patologia
19.
Nat Med ; 22(12): 1428-1438, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27841876

RESUMO

Aging is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Here we show that oral supplementation of the natural polyamine spermidine extends the lifespan of mice and exerts cardioprotective effects, reducing cardiac hypertrophy and preserving diastolic function in old mice. Spermidine feeding enhanced cardiac autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial respiration, and it also improved the mechano-elastical properties of cardiomyocytes in vivo, coinciding with increased titin phosphorylation and suppressed subclinical inflammation. Spermidine feeding failed to provide cardioprotection in mice that lack the autophagy-related protein Atg5 in cardiomyocytes. In Dahl salt-sensitive rats that were fed a high-salt diet, a model for hypertension-induced congestive heart failure, spermidine feeding reduced systemic blood pressure, increased titin phosphorylation and prevented cardiac hypertrophy and a decline in diastolic function, thus delaying the progression to heart failure. In humans, high levels of dietary spermidine, as assessed from food questionnaires, correlated with reduced blood pressure and a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. Our results suggest a new and feasible strategy for protection against cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Degradação Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermidina/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Cardiomegalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Conectina/efeitos dos fármacos , Conectina/metabolismo , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/imunologia , Diástole , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Inflamação , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Dahl , Inquéritos e Questionários
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