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3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 62(12): 1595-1603, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand regional burdens and inform delivery of health services, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on incidence of key opportunistic infections (OIs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Eligible studies describing the cumulative incidence of OIs and proportion on ART from 1990 to November 2013 were identified using multiple databases. Summary incident risks for the ART-naive period, and during and after the first year of ART, were calculated using random-effects meta-analyses. Summary estimates from ART subgroups were compared using meta-regression. The number of OI cases and associated costs averted if ART was initiated at a CD4 count ≥200 cells/µL were estimated using Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) country estimates and global average OI treatment cost per case. RESULTS: We identified 7965 citations, and included 126 studies describing 491 608 HIV-infected persons. In ART-naive patients, summary risk was highest (>5%) for oral candidiasis, tuberculosis, herpes zoster, and bacterial pneumonia. The reduction in incidence was greatest for all OIs during the first 12 months of ART (range, 57%-91%) except for tuberculosis, and was largest for oral candidiasis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, and toxoplasmosis. Earlier ART was estimated to have averted 857 828 cases in 2013 (95% confidence interval [CI], 828 032-874 853), with cost savings of $46.7 million (95% CI, $43.8-$49.4 million). CONCLUSIONS: There was a major reduction in risk for most OIs with ART use in LMICs, with the greatest effect seen in the first year of treatment. ART has resulted in substantial cost savings from OIs averted.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Incidência , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 62(12): 1586-1594, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27001796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of 14 opportunistic infections (OIs) and other infections as well as the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children (aged <18 years) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), to understand regional burden of disease, and inform delivery of HIV services. METHODS: Eligible studies described the incidence of OIs and other infections in ART-naive and -exposed children from January 1990 to November 2013, using Medline, Global Health, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Knowledge, and Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde databases. Summary incident risk (IR) and prevalent risk for each OI in ART-naive and ART-exposed children were calculated, and unadjusted odds ratios calculated for impact of ART. The number of OI cases and associated costs averted were estimated using the AIDS impact model. RESULTS: We identified 4542 citations, and 88 studies were included, comprising 55 679 HIV-infected children. Bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis were the most common incident and prevalent infections in both ART-naive and ART-exposed children. There was a significant reduction in IR with ART for the majority of OIs. There was a smaller impact on bacterial sepsis and pneumonia, and an increase observed for varicella zoster. ART initiation based on 2010 World Health Organization guidelines criteria for ART initiation in children was estimated to potentially avert >161 000 OIs (2013 UNAIDS data) with estimated cost savings of at least US$17 million per year. CONCLUSIONS: There is a decrease in the risk of most OIs with ART use in HIV-infected children in LMICs, and estimated large potential cost savings in OIs averted with ART use, although there are greater uncertainties in pediatric data compared with that of adults.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência
5.
Hum Resour Health ; 12: 66, 2014 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25475643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) have been central to broadening the access and coverage of preventative and curative health services worldwide. Much has been debated about how to best remunerate and incentivize this workforce, varying from volunteers to full time workers. Policy bodies, including the WHO and USAID, now advocate for regular stipends. METHODS: This qualitative study examines the perspective of health programme managers from 16 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) who directly oversee programmes in resource-limited settings. It aimed to explore institutional guidelines and approaches to designing CHW incentives, and inquire about how NGO managers are adapting their approaches to working with CHWs in this shifting political and funding climate. Second, it meant to understand the position of stakeholders who design and manage non-governmental organization-run CHW programmes on what they consider priorities to boost CHW motivation. Individuals were recruited using typical case sampling through chain referral at the semi-annual CORE Group meeting in the spring of 2012. Semi-structured interviews were guided by a peer reviewed tool. Two reviewers analyzed the transcripts for thematic saturation. RESULTS: Six key factors influenced programme manager decision-making: National-level government policy, donor practice, implicit organizational approaches, programmatic, cultural, and community contexts, experiences and values of managers, and the nature of the work asked of CHWs. Programme managers strongly relied on national government to provide clear guidance on CHW incentives schemes. Perspectives on remuneration varied greatly, from fears that it is unsustainable, to the view that it is a basic human right, and a mechanism to achieve greater gender equity. Programme managers were interested in exploring career paths and innovative financing schemes for CHWs, such as endowment funds or material sales, to heighten local ownership and sustainability of programmes. Participants also supported the creation of both national-level and global interfaces for sharing practical experience and best practices with other CHW programmes. CONCLUSION: Prescriptive recommendations for monetary remuneration, aside from those coming from national governments, will likely continue to meet resistance by NGOs, as contexts are nuanced. There is growing consensus that incentives should reflect the nature of the work asked of CHWs, and the potential for motivation through sustainable financial schemes other than regular salaries. Programme managers advocate for greater transparency and information sharing among organizations.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Motivação , Voluntários/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Planos para Motivação de Pessoal , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Remuneração
9.
Can Fam Physician ; 58(12): e745-50, e739-44, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23242905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document the perceptions that family medicine residents have of patient management. DESIGN: Bilingual, quantitative questionnaire consisting of 10 questions. SETTING: Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: All (n = 747) family medicine residents in Quebec. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The questionnaire was designed to capture residents' perceptions of patient management, their plans to incorporate patient management into their practice, and how they thought this aspect of family medicine practice should be promoted. RESULTS: In all, 289 residents (38.7%) completed the questionnaire. Of these, 201 reported that they planned to accept patients during their first 5 years of practice. The most common inhibiting factors were the difficulty of taking time off, complex cases, and the responsibilities that come with continuity of care. Neither Quebec's regional medical staffing plans nor its specific medical activities emerged as important inhibiting factors. Respondents indicated that raising the profile of family medicine could be achieved by promoting it to medical students, changing the institutional culture, and increasing the visibility of family medicine residents and supervisors on the teams working in training settings. CONCLUSION: Quebec residents plan to include patient management in their practices. However, solutions must be found for the heavy burden of responsibility that comes with an office practice and for continuing to make patient management appealing to young family physicians.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Escolha da Profissão , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/organização & administração , Internato e Residência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Quebeque , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Paediatr Child Health ; 13(9): 773-4, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19436539

RESUMO

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is a condition frequently encountered in childhood. Extensive literature currently exists on its etiology and management. Petechiae, ecchymoses and epistaxis are the usual manifestations of this condition, originating from the autoimmune destruction of platelets. Bleeding may occur spontaneously from any mucosal membrane. While bilateral hemotympanum has yet to be documented as a possible complication of this condition, immediate impact on the child's hearing will require appropriate follow-up.

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