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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In the phase 3 CONCUR trial (NCT01584830), regorafenib improved overall survival (OS) versus placebo in Asian patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of Chinese patients in CONCUR. METHODS: Adults with mCRC progressing despite at least two prior treatment regimens and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1 were randomized 2:1 to regorafenib 160 mg once daily or placebo for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle. Dose modifications were permitted. The primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, objective overall response, disease control rate, and safety. RESULTS: A total of 172 Chinese patients were randomized and treated (regorafenib n = 112, placebo n = 60). OS was significantly improved with regorafenib versus placebo (8.4 vs 6.2 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.39-0.80; one-sided P = 0.000632), as was progression-free survival (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.22-0.47; one-sided P < 0.000001). The most common drug-related grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs; regorafenib, placebo) were hand-foot skin reaction (19%, 0%), hypertension (13%, 3%), hypophosphatemia (7%, 0%), increased alanine aminotransferase (6%, 0%), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (5%, 0%). In patients receiving regorafenib and placebo, respectively, TEAEs led to treatment discontinuation in 14% and 7%, dose reduction in 39% and 0%, and dose interruption in 64% and 20%. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective analysis showed that regorafenib provided an OS benefit over placebo for Chinese patients with previously treated mCRC. TEAEs were consistent with the regorafenib safety profile and manageable with treatment modifications.

2.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901148

RESUMO

Malignant tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC), usually rely on ATP generation through aerobic glycolysis for both rapid growth and chemotherapy resistance. The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) has a key role in catalyzing glycolysis, and PKM2 expression varies even within a single tumor. In this study, we confirmed that expression of PKM2 is heterogeneous in CRC cells, namely high in oxaliplatin-resistant cells but relatively low in sensitive cells, and found that chemoresistant cells had enhanced glycolysis and ATP production. In addition, we report a PKM2-dependent mechanism through which chemosensitive cells may gradually transform into chemoresistant cells. The circular RNA hsa_circ_0005963 (termed ciRS-122 in this study), which was determined to be a sponge for the PKM2-targeting miR-122, was positively correlated with chemoresistance. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that exosomes from oxaliplatin-resistant cells delivered ciRS-122 to sensitive cells, thereby promoting glycolysis and drug resistance through miR-122 sponging and PKM2 upregulation. Moreover, si-ciRS-122 transported by exosomes could suppress glycolysis and reverse resistance to oxaliplatin by regulating the ciRS-122-miR-122-PKM2 pathway in vivo. Exosomes derived from chemoresistant CRC cells could transfer ciRS-122 across cells and promote glycolysis to reduce drug susceptibility in chemosensitive cells. This intercellular signal delivery suggests a potential novel therapeutic target and establishes a foundation for future clinical applications in drug-resistant CRC.

3.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 373-380, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The assessment of nutritional status and the quality of life in patients with gastric cancer has become one of the important goals of current clinical treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status in hospitalized gastric cancer patients by using patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and to analyze the influence of nutritional status on the patients' quality of life (QOL). METHODS: We reviewed the pathological diagnosis of gastric cancer for 2322 hospitalized patients using PG-SGA to assess their nutritional status and collected data on clinical symptoms, the anthropometric parameters (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), and hand-grip strength (HGS). We also collected laboratory data (prealbumin, albumin, hemoglobin) within 48 h after the patient was admitted to the hospital. The 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was used for QOL assessment in all patients. RESULTS: By using PG-SGA, we found 80.4% of the patients were malnourished (score ≥ 4) and 45.1% of the patients required urgent nutritional support (score ≥ 9). In univariate analysis, old age (> 65 years, p < 0.001), female (p = 0.007), residence in a village (p = 0.004), a lower level of education (p < 0.001), and self-paying (p < 0.001) were indicated as risk factors of patients with gastric cancer to be suffering from severe malnutrition. There was a negative correlation between PG-SGA and various nutritional parameters (p < 0.05). The quality of life was significantly different in gastric cancer patients with different nutritional status (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Malnutrition of hospitalized patients with gastric cancer in China is common and seriously affects the patients' quality of life. The nutritional status should be evaluated in a timely manner and reasonable nutritional intervention should be provided as soon as possible. The PG-SGA was fit for using as a clinical nutrition assessment method, being worthy of clinical application.

4.
Mol Ther Oncolytics ; 15: 223-233, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828217

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) has a poor prognosis due to its relentless proliferation and metastasis. One of the reasons for this plight is the formidable angiogenesis ability of GC. Considering the important role of cancer exosomes as carriers and communicators in the tumor microenvironment, we explored the role of exosome-microRNA (miRNA) in regulating angiogenesis. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR were used to measure the protein and mRNA levels of the miRNA target gene. To detect changes in cellular biological functions, we pretreated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were severally cocultured with GC-derived exosomes and transfected them with different miRNAs directly. Also, we used the mouse xenograft model to verify the effect of miR-155 on angiogenesis of GC tissues in vivo. Our study confirmed that miR-155, as a driver of angiogenesis, encapsulated by exosomes from GC can enhance the generation of new vessels for GC in vitro through inhibiting the expression of Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a) protein, which led to the progression of GC. Therefore, miR-155 is probable to become a potential biomarker for the detection of migration and angiogenesis of GC, and serves as a novel target for anti-angiogenesis therapy.

5.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 3717683, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636734

RESUMO

Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancy of the endocrine system; however, there is no reliable blood biomarkers for thyroid cancer diagnosis and even for aggressive and nonaggressive thyroid cancers as well as benign nodule discrimination. The present study is aimed at evaluating whether circulating microRNA (miRNA) can differentiate aggressive and nonaggressive thyroid cancer from benign thyroid nodules. In this study, we performed a multiphase, case-control study to screen serum miRNA expression profile in 100 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), 15 patients with aggressive medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), 91 patients with benign nodules, and 89 healthy controls using TaqMan low-density array followed by extensive reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR validation. The results showed that the serum levels of miR-222-3p, miR-17-5p, and miR-451a were markedly increased, while miR-146a-5p, miR-132-3p, and miR-183-3p were significantly decreased in the PTC and benign nodule groups compared with the control group. There was no difference in the miRNA expression profile between the PTC group and the benign nodule group. Nevertheless, the serum levels of miR-222-3p and miR-17-5p were significantly increased in the MTC group than the benign nodule and control group. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated that the 2 miRNAs and their panel can accurately discriminate MTC from the benign nodule group and healthy controls. These findings indicated that the altered circulating miRNAs may discriminate PTC and benign thyroid nodules from controls, and serum miR-222-3p and miR-17-5p have the potential to serve as auxiliary tools for diagnosing more aggressive thyroid carcinomas, such as MTC.

6.
Invest New Drugs ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414268

RESUMO

Background Gastric malignancy is the third most frequently encountered cancer globally and have been documented to confer extremely poor prognosis, given their limited treatment options. The up-regulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been found in various tumor tissues, including GC tissue, and has been linked with tumor development. Nevertheless, the pathways leading to HGF upregulation have yet to be fully explored. Methods Immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay was used to detect HGF expression in human gastric tumor tissues, while western blotting allowed quantification of protein levels. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict potential miRNA that may target HGF mRNA. Relative levels of miR-15a/16/195 as well as the target mRNA levels were analyzed with qRT-PCR. Direct targeting between miRNA and mRNA was then validated by luciferase assay. Finally, a mouse xenograft tumor model was selected to demonstrate the in vivo effects of miR-15a/16/195. Results HGF protein expressions were markedly raised, while miR-15a/16/195 levels were dramatically down-regulated in tumor tissues of GC. miR-15a/16/195 were shown to directly bind with the 3'-UTR of HGF mRNA. This study demonstrated that HGF can be repressed by overexpressed miR-15a/16/195, which resulted in the suppression of GC cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, in the xenograft mouse model, miR-15a/16/195 were also found to have a tumor growth suppression effect. Conclusions miR-15a/16/195 suppresses tumorigenesis by targeting HGF and may have a potential therapeutic application in the clinical treatment of GC.

7.
Mol Ther ; 27(10): 1772-1783, 2019 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416776

RESUMO

Exosomes, which act as mediators of intercellular communication, are nanoscale membrane vesicles that contain proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). Additionally, exosomes play a significant role in the development of tumors. The robust angiogenesis of gastric cancer (GC) is one of the reasons for its rampant growth. Drugs and other treatments are not good solutions for the problem of angiogenesis in GC. Here we found that exosome-delivered miRNA contributes greatly to angiogenesis in GC. The downregulation of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) was observed in GC. After measurement of lentivirus overexpressing microRNA-135b (miR-135b) levels, we found that miR-135b and FOXO1 are negatively correlated. In addition, miR-135b was delivered to tumor cells by exosomes to take its effect on angiogenesis in GC. Exosome-containing cell cocultures and a tumor-implanted mouse model were used for in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. We showed that miR-135b derived from GC cells suppressed the expression of FOXO1 protein and enhanced the growth of blood vessels. Our findings illustrate a novel signaling pathway comprising exosomes, miRNAs, and target genes, and they provide potential targets for anti-angiogenic therapy.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 526, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence has indicated that tumor biomarkers, including cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (Cyfra21-1), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) were reported to be commonly used in diagnosis and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, which is the best marker for predicting prognosis remains unknown. Few papers focused on the relationship between tumor biomarkers and postoperative treatment in ESCC. METHODS: A total of 416 ESCC patients were enrolled in this study. The association between tumor markers and overall survival (OS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test, followed by multivariate Cox regression models. RESULTS: The results of Cox multivariate analysis indicated that among these tumor biomarkers, CA19-9 (≥ 37 vs. < 37) [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.130, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.138-3.986, p = 0.018] and CEA (≥ 5 vs. < 5) (HR = 1.827, 95% CI = 1.089-3.064, p = 0.022) were the independent prognostic factors of poor OS. For the ESCC patients with CA19-9 < 37, CEA < 5 or SCC-Ag < 1.5, the surgery plus postoperative chemotherapy group had a significantly longer OS than the surgery group alone (p < 0.05), but this significant difference of OS between these two groups cannot be found in patients with CA19-9 ≥ 37, CEA ≥ 5 or SCC-Ag ≥ 1.5 (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CEA and CA19-9 maybe are superior to other tumor biomarkers as prognostic indicators in ESCC. CA19-9, CEA, SCC-Ag may be useful in predicting the therapeutic effect of postoperative chemotherapy in ESCC.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/sangue , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/sangue , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Serpinas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/cirurgia , Esofagectomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 26, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin, irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, and L-leucovorin (FOLFIRINOX) has become one of the first-line treatment options for advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). However, the relatively high rate of grade 3 or 4 adverse events associated with the standard dosage of FOLFIRINOX limits its widespread use in clinical practice. In this study, we were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a modified FOLFIRINOX regimen as a first-line chemotherapy for Chinese patients with metastatic PC. METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed primary metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score of 0-2 were recruited to receive the modified FOLFIRINOX regimen (intravenous infusion of oxaliplatin, 65 mg/m2; irinotecan, 150 mg/m2; L-leucovorin, 200 mg/m2; and 5-fluorouracil, 2400 mg/m2, repeated every 2 weeks). The treatment was continued for 12 cycles unless the patient had progressive disease (PD), stable disease (SD) with symptom deterioration, unacceptable adverse events, or requested to terminate the treatment prematurely. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: Sixty-five patients were enrolled from July 2012 to April 2017 in three institutions, and they all received at least one cycle of chemotherapy, with a median of 8 cycles (range 1-12 cycles). No complete response was observed. Twenty-one (32.3%) patients had partial responses, and 27 (41.5%) had SD. The ORR and disease control rate of the study cohort was 32.3% and 73.8%. The estimated median overall survival and progression-free survival were 11.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.76-14.44) and 5.77 (95% CI 5.00-6.54) months. Major grade 3 or 4 adverse events included neutropenia (12.3%) and diarrhea (6.2%). No treatment-related death was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Modified FOLFIRINOX was well-tolerated and might be a promising option as first-line therapy for Chinese patients with metastatic PC. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02028806. Registered 7 January 2014, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02028806.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086947

RESUMO

Background The high cost and insufficient supply of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have slowed the pace of controlling cervical cancer. A phase 3 clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of a novel Escherichia coli-produced bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine. Methods A multi-centre, randomized, double-blind trial started on November 22, 2012, in China. In total, 7372 eligible women aged 18-45 years were age-stratified and randomly assigned to receiving 3 doses of the test or control (hepatitis E) vaccine at months 0, 1 and 6. Co-primary endpoints included high-grade genital lesions and persistent infection (over 6 months) associated with HPV-16/18. The primary analysis was performed on a per-protocol susceptible population of individuals who were negative for relevant HPV type-specific neutralizing antibodies (at day 0) and DNA (at day 0 through month 7) and who received 3 doses of the vaccine. This report presents data from a pre-specified interim analysis used for regulatory submission. Results In the per-protocol cohort, the efficacies against high-grade genital lesions and persistent infection were 100.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55.6% to 100.0%, 0/3306 in the vaccine group vs. 10/3296 in the control group) and 97.8% (95% CI = 87.1% to 99.9%, 1/3240 vs. 45/3246), respectively. The side effects were mild. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were noted. Robust antibody responses for both types were induced and persisted for at least 42 months. Conclusions The Escherichia coli-produced HPV-16/18 vaccine is well tolerated and highly efficacious against HPV-16/18 associated high-grade genital lesions and persistent infection in women.

11.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 16, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of systemic treatments in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) which has progressed after chemotherapy is still uncertain and optimal regimens based on randomized trials have not yet been established. We aimed to compare the efficacy of irinotecan plus S-1 with S-1 monotherapy in recurrent or metastatic ESCC patients who had resistance to platinum- or taxane-based chemotherapy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase 3 trial in 15 centers across China. Eligible patients were adults with histologically confirmed recurrent or metastatic ESCC, and were randomly assigned (ratio, 1:1) to receive either irinotecan plus S-1 (intravenous infusion of irinotecan [160 mg/m2] on day 1 and oral S-1 [80-120 mg] on days 1-10, repeated every 14 days) or oral S-1 monotherapy (80-120 mg/day on days 1-14, repeated every 21 days) using a central computerized minimization procedure. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Between December 23, 2014 and July 25, 2016, we screened 148 patients and randomly assigned 123 patients to receive either irinotecan plus S-1 regimen (n = 61) or S-1 monotherapy (n = 62). After a median follow-up of 29.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5-40.9 months), the median PFS was significantly longer in the irinotecan plus S-1 group than in the S-1 monotherapy group (3.8 months [95% CI 2.9-4.3 months] vs. 1.7 months [95% CI 1.4-2.7 months], hazard ratio = 0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.86, P = 0.006). The objective response rates were 24.6% in the irinotecan plus S-1 group and 9.7% in the S-1 monotherapy group (P = 0.002). The patients in the irinotecan plus S-1 group presented with increased rates of grade 3-4 leukopenia (16.4% vs. 0%), neutropenia (14.8% vs. 1.6%), and nausea (4.9% vs. 0%). No significant difference in grade 3-4 diarrhea and no treatment-related deaths were observed in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of irinotecan with S-1 was similarly tolerable but significantly prolonged PFS compared to S-1 monotherapy as a second- or third-line treatment in patients with recurrent or metastatic ESCC. Clinical Trial Registration NCT02319187. Registered on December 9, 2014.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oxônico/uso terapêutico , Tegafur/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia
12.
Nutr Cancer ; 71(1): 50-60, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741002

RESUMO

Malnutrition is a problem affecting tumor patients greatly. This study aims to investigate whether demographic characteristics are related to the malnutrition of cancer patients. Twenty-three thousand nine hundred and four (23,904) patients with 16 common malignant tumors were enrolled in the study. Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) was used as a screening tool to assess the nutritional risk of patients and analysis of variance was used to compare PG-SGA scores of patients. Correlations between PG-SGA scores and demographic characteristics were evaluated by correlation analysis. We observed that 57.88% tumor patients had some degree of malnutrition (score ≥4) and only 20.61% were well-nourished (score 0-1). Screening scores were higher among older patients for most of the tumors. PG-SGA scores showed the significant difference between females and males in some tumors. In addition, the PG-SGA scores of some tumors were significantly different in various types of medical insurances, education levels, occupations, regions, and nationalities. Correlation analysis indicated the existence of associations between PG-SGA scores and demographic characteristics. Understanding the distribution of nutritional risk of tumor patients and the correlations between the PG-SGA scores and demographic characteristics could help identify subgroups who may benefit from targeted interventions to improve the effect of clinical treatment and the quality of life for oncology patients.

13.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 16, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764882

RESUMO

The lungs are the second most common site of metastasis for colorectal cancer (CRC) after the liver. Rectal cancer is associated with a higher incidence of lung metastases compared to colon cancer. In China, the proportion of rectal cancer cases is around 50%, much higher than that in Western countries (nearly 30%). However, there is no available consensus or guideline focusing on CRC with lung metastases. We conducted an extensive discussion and reached a consensus of management for lung metastases in CRC based on current research reports and the experts' clinical experiences and knowledge. This consensus provided detailed approaches of diagnosis and differential diagnosis and provided general guidelines for multidisciplinary therapy (MDT) of lung metastases. We also focused on recommendations of MDT management of synchronous lung metastases and initial metachronous lung metastases. This consensus might improve clinical practice of CRC with lung metastases in China and will encourage oncologists to conduct more clinical trials to obtain high-level evidences about managing lung metastases.

15.
Invest New Drugs ; 37(5): 923-934, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607520

RESUMO

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in various types of cancer. TGF-ß receptor 2 (TGFßR2) contains a kinase domain that phosphorylates and activates the downstream of the TGF-ß signaling pathway. Our previous microarray analysis revealed marked changes in miR-181a expression in gastric cancers, and the bioinformatics analysis suggested that miR-181a negatively regulated TGFßR2. In order to verify the effect of miR-181a on TGFßR2 and clarify the influence of miR-181a on the migration and proliferation of gastric cancer, studies in gastric cancer cell lines and xenograft mouse models were carried out. We found that a reduced expression of TGFßR2 and an increased expression miR-181a in gastric cancer tissues compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that TGFßR2 was a target of miR-181a. In addition, we found that miR-181a mimics, which increased the level of miR-181a, downregulated the expression of TGFßR2 in the gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. Moreover, both the overexpression of miR-181a and the downregulation of TGFßR2 promoted the migration and proliferation of SGC-7901 cells. Conversely, SGC-7901 cell migration and proliferation were inhibited by the downregulation of miR-181a and the overexpression of TGFßR2. Furthermore, the increased expression of miR-181a and the decreased expression of TGFßR2 also enhanced the tumor growth in mice bearing gastric cancer. Our results herein indicated that miR-181a promoted the migration and proliferation of gastric cancer cells by downregulating TGFßR2 at the posttranscriptional level. The present study suggests that miR-181a is a novel negative regulator of TGFßR2 in the TGF-ß signaling pathway and thus represents a potential new therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

16.
Oncogene ; 38(15): 2844-2859, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546088

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the major form of liver cancer, has shown increasing incidence and poor prognosis. Adipose tissue is known to function in energy storage and metabolism regulation by the secretion of adipokines. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of noncoding RNA, have recently been recognized as key factors in tumor development, but the role of exosome circRNAs derived from adipose tissues has not been defined yet. Here, adipose-secreted circRNAs were found to regulate deubiquitination in HCC, thus facilitating cell growth. It was observed that exosome circ-deubiquitination (circ-DB) is upregulated in HCC patients with higher body fat ratios. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that exo-circ-DB promotes HCC growth and reduces DNA damage via the suppression of miR-34a and the activation of deubiquitination-related USP7. Finally, the results showed that the effects of adipose exosomes on HCC cells can be reversed by knockdown of circ-DB. These results indicate that exosome circRNAs secreted from adipocytes promote tumor growth and reduce DNA damage by suppressing miR-34a and activating the USP7/Cyclin A2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Exossomos/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , RNA/genética , Peptidase 7 Específica de Ubiquitina/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
17.
Int J Cancer ; 144(10): 2501-2515, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412280

RESUMO

Cancer-related cachexia is a metabolic syndrome characterized by a wasting disorder of adipose and skeletal muscle and is accompanied by body weight loss and systemic inflammation. The treatment options for cancer cachexia are limited, and the molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel family of endogenous noncoding RNAs that have been proposed to regulate gene expression in mammals. Exosomes are small vesicles derived from cells, and recent studies have shown that circRNAs are stable in exosomes. However, little is known about the biological role of circRNAs in exosomes. In our study, we showed that circRNAs in plasma exosomes have specific expression features in gastric cancer (GC), and ciRS-133 is linked with the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in GC patients. Exosomes derived from GC cells deliver ciRS-133 into preadipocytes, promoting the differentiation of preadipocytes into brown-like cells by activating PRDM16 and suppressing miR-133. Moreover, knockdown of ciRS-133 reduced cancer cachexia in tumor-implanted mice, decreasing oxygen consumption and heat production. Thus, exosome-delivered circRNAs are involved in WAT browning and play a key role in cancer-associated cachexia.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Exossomos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
18.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 49(3): 869-883, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The malignant biological behavior of gastric cancer(GC) is not only determined by cancer cells alone, but also closely regulated by the microenvironment. Fibroblasts represent a large proportion of the components in the tumor microenvironment, and they promote the development of disease. Currently, accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes can function as intercellular transport systems to relay their contents, especially microRNAs(miRNAs). METHODS: First, we detected the highly-expressed level of miR-27a in exosomes isolated from gastric cancer cells by qRT-PCR. MiR-27a -over-expressed models in vitro and in vivo were established to investigate the transformation of cancer-associated fibroblasts observed by Western blotting, and the malignant behavior of gastric cancer cells using the methods CCK8 and Transwell. Moreover, the downregulation of CSRP2 in fibroblasts was used to evaluate the promotion of malignancy of gastric cancer using the methods CCK8 and Transwell. RESULTS: In this study, we found a marked high level of miR-27a in exosomes derived from GC cells. miR-27a was found to function an oncogene that not only induced the reprogramming of fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblasts(CAFs), but also promoted the proliferation, motility and metastasis of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, CAFs with over-expression of miR-27a could pleiotropically increase the malignant behavior of the GC cells. For the first time, we revealed that CSRP2 is a downstream target of miR-27a. CSRP2 downregulation could increase the proliferation and motility of GC cells. CONCLUSION: Thus, this report indicates that miR-27a in exosomes derived from GC cells has a crucial impact on the microenvironment and may be used as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of GC.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/citologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Regulação para Baixo , Exossomos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Musculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
19.
Mol Ther ; 26(10): 2466-2475, 2018 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120059

RESUMO

Metastasis is a crucial reason for the poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Angiogenesis is closely associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Cancer-derived exosomes play an important role in the establishment of the tumor microenvironment. In this study, exosomes were isolated by sequential differential centrifugation, and they were verified by transmission electron microscopy. Changes in the biological behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were evaluated with downstream cellular functional experiments. The RNA and protein levels of the miRNA target gene were determined by real-time qPCR and western blotting. A mouse xenograft model was adopted to evaluate the correlation between exosome-derived miR-130a and tumor growth in vivo. We demonstrated that exosomes delivered miR-130a from gastric cancer cells into vascular cells to promote angiogenesis and tumor growth by targeting c-MYB both in vivo and in vitro. miR-130a packaged in exosomes secreted from cancer cells acts as a driver of angiogenesis. Therefore, miR-130a might be a potential biomarker for monitoring the activity of gastric cancer. In addition, suppressing the expression or blocking the transmission of these exosomes might be a novel antiangiogenic therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myb/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Exossomos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Camundongos , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myb/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Future Oncol ; 14(20): 2031-2044, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117334

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate whether the benefit of combining aflibercept with 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) chemotherapy could be confirmed in patients from the Asia-Pacific region (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01661270). Patients & methods: Asian patients with oxaliplatin-pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer were randomized to receive aflibercept or placebo, followed by FOLFIRI. The primary end point was progression-free survival. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population comprised 332 patients. A clinical supply misallocation resulted in 198/332 (60%) patients receiving at least one cycle of misallocated treatment. Nevertheless, the addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI was shown to improve progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.629; 95% CI: 0.488-0.812). Adverse events were in line with expectations. CONCLUSION: The beneficial treatment effect associated with the addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI was confirmed in Asian patients with pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Retratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
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