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1.
J Oral Rehabil ; 49(5): 586-591, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the nocebo effect, a phenomenon characterised by suboptimal treatment efficacy, worsening of symptoms, or the occurrence of adverse events caused by an individual's negative treatment expectations, is growing across a multitude of medical fields. However, little attention has been paid to patients' negative expectations and the nocebo effect within dentistry. AIM: This review summarises essential evidence of the nocebo phenomenon especially in relation to pain and drug administration. Subsequently, an overview of the current evidence of the nocebo phenomenon in the dental field is presented. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed using keywords related to "nocebo," "placebo," "expectations," and "dentistry." In addition to the articles selected from the search, placebo/nocebo researchers and dental researchers added important references from their respective fields. RESULTS: Although research on the nocebo effect in dentistry is limited, available current evidence suggests that the factors, which is related to the nocebo effect are likely to play a role in dental practice. CONCLUSION: Preliminary evidence from the review warrants further investigation into the nocebo effect in dentistry. Finally, based on the general knowledge of the nocebo effect, the review indicates fruitful arrays of research into the nocebo effect in dentistry.


Assuntos
Efeito Nocebo , Efeito Placebo , Odontologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Oral Rehabil ; 48(11): 1283-1294, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462948

RESUMO

The individual inclination to lead an autonomous life until death is associated with requirements that may be of physiological, psychosocial and environmental nature. We aim to describe a conceptual oro-facial health model with an emphasis on oro-facial function, taking the domains of quality of life and patient-centred values into account. In the context of oro-facial function, the requirements of life are met when the oro-facial system is in a fit state. 'Fitness of the oro-facial system, that is oro-facial health, is a state that is characterised by an absence of, or positive coping with physical disease, mental disease, pain and negative environmental and social factors. It will allow natural oro-facial functions such as sensing, tasting, touching, biting, chewing, swallowing, speaking, yawning, kissing and facial expression'. In the presented conceptual model of oro-facial health, it is postulated that each individual has present and future potentials related to biological prerequisites and resources that are developed by an individual through the course of life. These potentials form the oro-facial functional capacity. When the individual potentials together do not meet the requirements of life anymore, dysfunction and disease result. The oro-facial system is subject to physiological ageing processes, which will inevitably lead to a decrease in the oro-facial functional capacity. Furthermore, comorbid medical conditions might hamper oro-facial function and, alongside with the ageing process, may lead to a state of oral hypofunction. Currently, there is a lack of widespread, validated, easy-to-use instruments that help to distinguish between states of oro-facial fitness as opposed to oral hypofunction. Clearly, research is needed to establish adequate, validated instruments alongside with functional rehabilitation procedures.


Assuntos
Face , Qualidade de Vida , Envelhecimento , Deglutição , Humanos , Mastigação
3.
J Oral Rehabil ; 48(9): 1004-1012, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bruxism may involve bracing and thrusting of the mandible, in addition to clenching or grinding of the teeth. It is unclear how bracing and thrusting may contribute to potential musculoskeletal symptoms associated with bruxism. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of experimental bracing and thrusting of the mandible on the development of musculoskeletal symptoms in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers performed six trials of 5 min of repeated bracing and thrusting of the mandible. Bracing involved forcefully maintaining maximum protruded position (5 s with 1 s rest in between), whereas thrusting involved forcefully moving the mandible in a forward direction and back (1 Hz). The participants rated pain, unpleasantness, soreness, fatigue, tension, stiffness, stress and headache on 10-cm visual analogue scales (VAS) before, immediately and 24 h after the tasks. Pain drawings were obtained and maximum voluntary protrusive force (MVPF) was determined before and after the tasks. The outcome parameters for each task were compared between the time points. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the VAS scores (2-4/10) of pain, unpleasantness, soreness, fatigue, tension, stiffness and stress immediately following the tasks compared to baseline and 24 h after the tasks (p < .008). Pain was frequently reported in masseter muscles. MVPF values were significantly higher immediately (p < .001) and 24 h after thrusting (p < .001) and bracing (p = .012) tasks compared to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Experimental bracing and thrusting of the mandible evoked transient, mild-to-moderate levels of muscle pain, fatigue, tension and stiffness and increased unpleasantness and stress scores in healthy volunteers.


Assuntos
Bruxismo , Mandíbula , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Músculo Masseter , Dor , Medição da Dor
4.
Arch Oral Biol ; 124: 105063, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the correlation between the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI) scores and the results of psychophysical tests and psychosocial questionnaires according to the presence of painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD). DESIGN: It was a cross-sectional study involving 146 participants, aged 20-65 years. Painful TMD was classified using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. CSI was applied to assess "central sensitization-related symptoms", as has been suggested. Wind-up ratio, pressure pain threshold and conditioned pain modulation were used as psychophysical tests to evaluate signs and symptoms of central sensitization. Psychosocial factors were assessed by the presence of non-specific physical symptoms, depressive and anxiety symptoms. The sample was divided into two groups: Control (n = 31); Painful TMD (n = 115). Descriptive statistics characterized the sample. Correlation analysis were performed using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients (α = 5%). RESULTS: Of the total sample, 78.8 % presented painful TMD, and the mean (standard deviation) age was 37.4 (±11.5) years. Anxiety symptoms (p = 0.028) and non-specific physical symptoms (p < 0.001) were more frequent in the painful TMD group than in controls. Painful TMD patients presented higher scores of the CSI (p < 0.001) and lower pressure pain thresholds (p ≤ 0.020) compared to controls. CSI scores were significantly correlated with psychosocial measures (p < 0.001) but not with psychophysical tests (p ≥ 0.089). CONCLUSION: The CSI scores did not correlate with psychophysical measures of central sensitization but were positively correlated with the results of psychosocial questionnaires.


Assuntos
Sensibilização do Sistema Nervoso Central , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Limiar da Dor , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychol Res ; 85(1): 20-35, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630220

RESUMO

Pleasantness is generally overlooked when investigating tactile functions. Addition of a pleasant stimulus could allow for a more complete characterisation of somatosensory function. The aims of this review were to systematically assess the methodologies used to elicit a pleasant sensation, measured via psychophysical techniques, and to perform a meta-analysis to measure the effect of brush stroking velocity on touch pleasantness. Eighteen studies were included in the systematic review, with five studies included in the meta-analysis. The review found that factors such as texture, velocity, force, and the duration of continuous stroking influence tactile evoked pleasantness. Specifically, using a soft material and stroking at a velocity of 3 cm/s with light force is generally considered as particularly pleasant. The meta-analysis showed that a brush stroking velocity of 30 cm/s was rated as less pleasant than 3 cm/s, on the forearm. The present study collates the factors that are most likely to provide a stimulus to elicit a pleasant sensation. The results should be important for studies requiring a well-defined pleasant stimulus including neurosensory assessment protocols, allowing for a more complete multimodality assessment of somatosensory function.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Estimulação Física , Prazer/fisiologia , Psicofísica , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Endod ; 47(3): 345-357, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340605

RESUMO

Pain is a common symptom in endodontic conditions, but differential diagnostic procedures are often needed to exclude other pain origins. Thus, general dentists and endodontists need to be aware of alternative painful orofacial conditions and be able to identify them. The new International Classification of Orofacial Pain (ICOP) is the first comprehensive classification that uniquely deals with orofacial pain. The ICOP is a hierarchical classification modeled on the International Classification of Headache Disorders and covers pain in dentoalveolar and anatomically related tissues, muscle pain, temporomandibular joint pain, neuropathic pain affecting cranial nerves, pain resembling primary headaches, and idiopathic pain in the orofacial region. A description of each condition is given, and structured diagnostic criteria for each condition are proposed based on research data when available. This narrative review aims (1) to give an overview and brief explanation of the ICOP system, (2) to describe and give examples of how it can be of use to general dentists and endodontists with special attention to differential diagnosis of tooth pain, and (3) to highlight how endodontic research can contribute to validation and improvement of the classification. A comparison to other classification and diagnostic systems is also included.


Assuntos
Endodontistas , Neuralgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dor Facial/diagnóstico , Humanos , Odontalgia/diagnóstico
7.
Front Pain Res (Lausanne) ; 2: 693987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35295499

RESUMO

Background: Slow stroking touch is generally perceived as pleasant and reduces thermal pain. However, the tactile stimuli applied tend to be short-lasting and typically applied to the forearm. This study aimed to compare the effects of a long-lasting brushing stimulus applied to the facial region and the forearm on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) taken on the hand. Outcome measurements were touch satiety and concurrent mechanical pain thresholds of the hand. Methods: A total of 24 participants were recruited and randomized to receive continuous stroking, utilizing a robotic stimulator, at C-tactile (CT) favorable (3 cm/s) and non-favorable (30 cm/s) velocities applied to the right face or forearm. Ratings of touch pleasantness and unpleasantness and PPTs from the hypothenar muscle of the right hand were collected at the start of stroking and once per minute for 5 min. Results: A reduction in PPTs (increased pain sensitivity) was observed over time (P < 0.001). However, the increase in pain sensitivity was less prominent when the face was stroked compared to the forearm (P = 0.001). Continuous stroking resulted in a significant interaction between region and time (P = 0.008) on pleasantness ratings, with a decline in ratings observed over time for the forearm, but not on the face. Unpleasantness ratings were generally low. Conclusion: We observed touch satiety for 5 min of continuous robotic brushing on the forearm confirming previous studies. However, we did not observe any touch satiety for brushing the face. Mechanical pain sensitivity, measured in the hand, increased over the 5-min period but less so when paired with brushing on the face than with brushing on the forearm. The differential effects of brushing on the face and forearm on touch satiety and pain modulation may be by the differences in the emotional relevance and neuronal pathways involved.

8.
Cephalalgia ; 40(11): 1191-1201, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative sensory testing protocols for perceptions of pleasantness and unpleasantness based on the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain protocol were recently introduced. However, there are no reliability studies yet published. AIM: To evaluate the intra-examiner (test-retest) and inter-examiner reliability for orofacial pleasantness and unpleasantness quantitative sensory testing protocols. METHODS: Sixteen healthy participants from Aarhus University (11 women and five men, mean age 24, range 21-26 years) contributed. Two examiners were trained in performing the entire quantitative sensory testing protocols for pleasantness and unpleasantness, which included the additional dynamic tactile stimulation test using a goat-hair brush. Each participant underwent examination of both protocols by each examiner (inter-examiner reliability) on day 1. They returned at least 8 days following the testing to be re-examined by one examiner (intra-examiner reliability). All testing was performed on the skin of the right mandibular mental region. The intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to determine reliability. RESULTS: For the protocol investigating pleasantness, the majority of parameters had good to excellent intra-examiner (11/14: Intraclass correlation 0.67-0.87) and inter-examiner (13/14: Intraclass correlation 0.62-0.96) reliabilities. Similarly, the protocol investigating unpleasantness had good to excellent intra-examiner (intraclass correlation 0.63-0.99) and inter-examiner (intraclass correlation 0.65-0.98) reliabilities for most (13/15) of the parameters. CONCLUSION: Intra and inter-examiner reliabilities in the majority of quantitative sensory testing parameters (apart from the summation ratio) investigating pleasantness and unpleasantness are acceptable when assessing somatosensory function of the orofacial region.Trial registration: NA.


Assuntos
Dor Facial/diagnóstico , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estimulação Física/métodos , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Pain ; 24(8): 1425-1439, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Orofacial quantitative sensory testing (QST) is an increasingly valuable psychophysical tool for evaluating neurosensory disorders of the orofacial region. Here, we aimed to evaluate the current evidence regarding this testing method and to discuss its future clinical potential. DATA TREATMENT: We conducted a literature search in Medline, Embase and Scopus for English-language articles published between 1990 and 2019. The utilized search terms included QST, quantitative, sensory testing and neurosensory, which were combined using the AND operator with the terms facial, orofacial, trigeminal, intraoral and oral. RESULTS: Our findings highlighted many methods for conducting QST-including method of levels, method of limits and mapping. Potential stimuli also vary, and can include mechanical or thermal stimulation, vibration or pinprick stimuli. Orofacial QST may be helpful in revealing disease pathways and can be used for patient stratification to validate the use of neurosensory profile-specific treatment options. QST is reportedly reliable in longitudinal studies and is thus a candidate for measuring changes over time. One disadvantage of QST is the substantial time required; however, further methodological refinements and the combination of partial aspects of the full QST battery with other tests and imaging methods should result in improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, orofacial QST is a reliable testing method for diagnosing pathological neurosensory conditions and assessing normal neurosensory function. Despite the remaining challenges that hinder the use of QST for everyday clinical decisions and clinical trials, we expect that future improvements will allow its implementation in routine practice.


Assuntos
Limiar da Dor , Vibração , Humanos , Limiar Sensorial
10.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(6): 720-730, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of pain modulation from oro-facial somatosensory stimuli with different valence (pleasant-unpleasant) is limited. OBJECTIVES: To investigate (a) the modulatory effects of painful, pleasant and unpleasant somatosensory stimuli on two models of experimental facial pain, (b) whether modulation could be changed by blocking peripheral nerves via application of a local anaesthetic, EMLA, or blocking endogenous opioid receptors via naltrexone and (c) whether pain ratings were significantly correlated with participant psychological profiles. METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy women received experimental facial skin burning pain or jaw myalgia for four randomised sessions on different days. The painful region was stimulated with mechanical or thermal painful, pleasant, unpleasant and control stimuli, with ratings recorded before and during stimulation. Sessions differed in pre-treatment: EMLA/naltrexone/placebo tablet/cream. RESULTS: Significant effects of thermal or mechanical stimuli (P < .017), but not session (P > .102), were found on pain ratings for both models. In myalgia, painful cold resulted in a greater reduction in pain ratings than unpleasant cold, pleasant cold, control and pleasant warmth (P < .004). Decreases in pain ratings from painful, unpleasant and pleasant mechanical stimuli were greater than control (P < .002). In burning pain, painful cold resulted in a greater reduction in pain ratings than all but one of the other thermal stimuli (P < .033). The pleasant mechanical stimulus reduced pain ratings more than all other mechanical stimuli (P ≤ .003). There were no significant correlations between pain and psychometrics. CONCLUSION: Valence-targeted thermal and mechanical stimuli modulated experimental myalgia and skin burning pain (P < .017). Partially blocking peripheral afferents or opioid receptors did not affect modulation.


Assuntos
Dor Facial , Estimulação Física , Sensação , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Medição da Dor
11.
Clin J Pain ; 36(5): 321-335, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed somatosensory changes related to trigeminal nerve damage using extensive evaluation tools and assessed the effect of such damage on the patients' psychosocial status and quality of life compared with healthy participants. METHODS: In 37 patients with intraorally or extraorally presenting trigeminal nerve damage diagnosed as painful or nonpainful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy, psychophysical tests like quantitative sensory testing (QST) and qualitative sensory testing and the electrophysiological "nociceptive-specific" blink reflex were performed. The patients and 20 healthy participants completed a set of questionnaires assessing their psychosocial status and quality of life. RESULTS: A loss or gain of somatosensory function was seen in at least 1 QST parameter in >88.9% of the patients. Patients in whom extraoral QST was performed showed an overall loss of somatosensory function, whereas intraoral QST showed a general gain of somatosensory function. Qualitative sensory testing identified a side-to-side difference in the tactile and pinprick stimulation in >77% of the patients. An abnormal "nociceptive-specific" blink reflex response was seen in 42.1% to 71.4% of patients dependent on the trigeminal branch stimulated, though comparisons with healthy reference values showed ambiguous results. Compared with the healthy participants, patients showed higher scores for pain catastrophizing, symptoms of depression and anxiety, limited jaw function, more somatic symptoms, and significantly impaired oral health-related quality of life (all P<0.038). DISCUSSION: The results from the present study showed presence of varied somatosensory abnormalities when assessed using psychophysical and electrophysiological investigations and a significantly impaired psychosocial status.


Assuntos
Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Traumatismos do Nervo Trigêmeo , Ansiedade , Catastrofização , Depressão , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Dor
12.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(2): 883-896, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The "nociceptive-specific" blink reflex (nBR) evoked by extraoral stimulation has been used to assess trigeminal nociceptive processing in patients with trigeminal nerve damage regardless of the site of damage. This study aimed to test the feasibility of nBR elicited by intraoral stimulation, compare intraoral and extraoral nBR and assess the intrarater and interrater reliability of the intraoral nBR for the maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) branches of the trigeminal nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 17 healthy participants, nBR was elicited by stimulation of two extraoral and two intraoral sites by two operators and repeated intraorally by one operator. Main outcome variables were intraoral stimulus-evoked pain scores and nBR R2 responses at different stimulus intensities. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess reliability. RESULTS: Dependent on the stimulus intensity, intraoral stimulation evoked R2 responses in up to 12/17 (70.6%) participants for V2 and up to 8/17 (47.1%) participants for V3. Pain scores (p < 0.003) and R2 responses (p < 0.004) increased with increasing intensities for V2, but not V3. The R2 responses were significantly smaller with intraoral stimulation compared to extraoral stimulation (p < 0.014). Overall, ICCs were fair to excellent for V2 but poor for V3. CONCLUSION: Intraorally evoked nBR was feasible in a subset of healthy participants and was less responsive than nBR with extraoral stimulation. The V2 nBR showed better reliability than V3. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The nBR can be used to assess nerve damage to the maxillary intraoral regions, though other measures may need to be considered for the mandibular intraoral regions.


Assuntos
Piscadela , Reflexo , Estimulação Elétrica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(2): 113-122, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Changes in quantitative sensory testing (QST) parameters following topical anaesthesia could contribute to better elucidate underlying mechanisms of somatosensory alterations in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain patients. This placebo-controlled crossover investigation compared the somatosensory profile following topical anaesthesia between TMD patients (n = 20) and healthy participants (n = 20). METHODS: Cold detection threshold, warm detection threshold, cold pain threshold, heat pain threshold, mechanical detection threshold, mechanical pain threshold, wind-up ratio and pressure pain threshold were assessed on the skin overlying the masseter at three consecutive days (baseline and immediately after lidocaine 4%/placebo cream). Mixed ANOVA and a coding system that accounts for the diversity of types of peripheral axons associated with the somatosensory parameters were applied for data analysis. RESULTS: The lidocaine application caused no changes in the somatosensory sensitivity in the masseter region in TMD patients (P > .050), but sensitivity to cold, cold pain, touch and pinprick stimuli were reduced after topical anaesthesia in healthy participants (P < .050). Also, the degree of topical anaesthesia was greater in healthy participants (P = .008). The coding system suggested that TMD patients presented only Aδ-fibre block, whereas a combination of either Aß- and/or C-fibre block was observed in 35% of healthy participants in addition to Aδ-fibre block following lidocaine application. CONCLUSION: Quantitative sensory testing can be successfully applied to identify meaningful differences in the degree of hypoalgesia and hypoesthesia following short-time topical anaesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local , Lidocaína , Limiar da Dor , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Humanos , Dor , Medição da Dor
14.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(2): 164-169, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430389

RESUMO

As yet, there are still no evidence-based clinical diagnostic and management guidelines for ambulatory single-channel EMG devices, like the BUTLER® GrindCare® (GrindCare), that are used in patients with sleep bruxism. Therefore, a consensus meeting was organised with GrindCare developers, researchers, and academic and non-academic clinicians experienced with the use of ambulatory EMG devices. The aim of the meeting was to discuss and develop recommendations for clinical guidelines for GrindCare usage, based on the existing clinical and research experience of the consensus meeting's participants. As an important outcome of the consensus meeting, clinical guidelines were proposed in which an initial 2-week baseline phase with the device in its inactive (non-stimulus) mode for habituation and assessment of the number of jaw-muscle activities is followed by a 4-week active phase with contingent electrical stimuli suppressing the jaw-muscle activities. As to avoid the commonly reported reduction in sensitivity to the stimuli, a 2-week inactive phase is subsequently installed, followed by a repetition of active and inactive phases until a lasting reduction in the number of jaw-muscle activities and/or associated complaints has been achieved. This proposal has the characteristics of a single-patient clinical trial. From a research point of view, adoption of this approach by large numbers of GrindCare users creates a great opportunity to recruit relatively large numbers of study participants that follow the same protocol.


Assuntos
Bruxismo , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Bruxismo do Sono , Consenso , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletromiografia , Humanos
15.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 34(2): 92­107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560736

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the pain and/or unpleasantness and the somatosensory changes caused by two experimental models of trigeminal nerve damage (topical application of capsaicin and local anesthetics) in healthy participants using extensive evaluation tools. METHODS: This double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study included 20 healthy adult participants who underwent three separate sessions of testing. In each session, the psychophysical quantitative sensory testing (QST) and the electrophysiologic electrically evoked trigeminal "nociceptive-specific" blink reflex (nBR) investigations were performed at baseline. Following a 15-minute topical application of 0.1% capsaicin, 5% EMLA, or Vaseline (placebo) agents, the maximum numeric rating scale pain and unpleasantness scores were recorded. Additionally, qualitative sensory testing and somatosensory mapping were performed. The QST and nBR investigations were repeated immediately after each application. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: Capsaicin application was associated with significantly higher pain and unpleasantness scores when compared to EMLA and Vaseline (P < .001), with varied bidirectional somatosensory changes among the participants and significant loss of thermosensory function (P < .030). EMLA application induced loss of thermal and mechanical somatosensory function (P < .030) and a significant reduction in electrically evoked pain scores on nBR investigation (P < .001). No significant changes were seen in the electrophysiologic component of the nBR after any of the applications (P = .922). CONCLUSION: Topical capsaicin and EMLA application mimicked certain aspects of somatosensory changes seen in trigeminal nerve damage patients and may be used as surrogate models of such changes.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local , Dor , Traumatismos do Nervo Trigêmeo , Adulto , Capsaicina , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Nervo Trigêmeo
16.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 33(4): 389­398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247061

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate whether an international consensus exists among TMD experts regarding indications, performance, follow-up, and effectiveness of jaw exercises. METHODS: A questionnaire with 31 statements regarding jaw exercises was constructed. Fourteen international experts with some geographic dispersion were asked to participate in this Delphi study, and all accepted. The experts were asked to respond to the statements according to a 5-item verbal Likert scale that ranged from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree." The experts could also leave free-text comments, which was encouraged. After the first round, the experts received a compilation of the other experts' earlier responses. Some statements were then rephrased and divided to clarify the essence of the statement. Subsequently, the experts were then asked to answer the questionnaire (32 statements) again for the second round. Consensus was set to 80% agreement or disagreement. RESULTS: There is consensus among TMD experts that jaw exercises are effective and can be recommended to patients with myalgia in the jaw muscles, restricted mouth opening capacity due to hyperactivity in the jaw closing muscles, and disc displacement without reduction. The patients should always be instructed in an individualized jaw exercise program and also receive both verbal advice and written information about the treatment modality. CONCLUSION: This Delphi study showed that there is an international consensus among TMD experts that jaw exercises are an effective treatment and can be recommended to patients with TMD pain and disturbed jaw function.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Mialgia
17.
J Oral Rehabil ; 46(9): 845-861, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090938

RESUMO

The aim of the present systematic review was to answer the overall research question: "To what extent is bruxism associated with musculoskeletal signs and symptoms?". The review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A PubMed search of articles published until 23 November 2017 was conducted. The search string included both MeSH terms and text words. Results were presented in categories according to study design, study population (eg, adults, children), bruxism sub-type (awake, sleep), assessment methods for bruxism and musculoskeletal symptoms (self-report, validated test) and type of outcome (pain, non-painful musculoskeletal symptoms). It could be concluded that bruxism is to some extent associated with musculoskeletal symptoms, even though the evidence is conflicting and seems to be dependent on many factors, such as age, whether the bruxism occurs during sleep or wakefulness, and also the quality of the diagnostic methodology regarding bruxism and musculoskeletal signs and symptoms. The literature does not support a direct linear causal relationship between bruxism and such symptoms, but points more in the direction of a multifaceted relationship dependent on the presence of other risk factors. Pain is by far the most commonly assessed symptom, whereas non-painful musculoskeletal symptoms have generally not been systematically evaluated. In the light of recent findings indicating that non-painful symptoms may precede TMD pain, it is suggested to increase the scientific focus on non-painful musculoskeletal symptoms in future studies. Also, future studies should use validated methods for case definition and outcome assessments.


Assuntos
Bruxismo , Bruxismo do Sono , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Adulto , Criança , Dor Facial , Humanos , Autorrelato , Vigília
18.
Eur J Pain ; 23(7): 1297-1308, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Somatosensory assessment within the orofacial region may be performed using highly standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST). However, the function of the C-tactile (CT) afferent, a nerve fibre linked to the perception of pleasant touch, is usually not evaluated. Furthermore, the perception of unpleasantness is also rarely assessed, a dimension not only limited to a painful experience. Therefore, the primary aim was to apply standardized QST stimuli as well as standardized pleasant stimuli and evaluate their potential capacity for evocation of perceived pain, pleasant and unpleasant sensations in the facial region. METHODS: Twenty-one female participants underwent QST as per the protocol derived from the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. For the first time, two modified protocols were used to investigate stimuli for perceived pleasantness and unpleasantness. RESULTS: Thermal stimuli provided separate thresholds for each sensation. From certain mechanical stimuli (e.g., vibration), overlap between the perceived sensations of pleasantness and unpleasantness was identified. It was not possible to evoke only an unpleasant sensation without a painful contribution, and both these sensations increased significantly when utilizing an increasing pinprick force (p < 0.011). Between dynamic stimuli, the brush was rated as significantly more pleasant than the cotton wool tip (p = 0.015). A quadratic model provided the best fit for velocity against mean pleasantness ratings (R2  = 0.62 ± 0.08), supporting previous CT afferent literature to some extent. CONCLUSION: Stimuli were generally not isolated to one sensation, highlighting the multidimensional construct of stimulus perception and the need for scales to capture this. SIGNIFICANCE: The battery of QST tests from the DFNS protocol has been modified to investigate pleasant and unpleasant sensations. This allows the evaluation of psychophysical properties across standardized dimensions to provide a thorough view of somatosensory function and to better understand the affective spectrum of somatosensory function.


Assuntos
Dor Facial/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Vibração , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 33(3): 278­286, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893407

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare somatosensory function profiles and psychologic factors in patients with primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and healthy controls and to evaluate correlations of subjective pain ratings with somatosensory and psychologic parameters. METHODS: A quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol-including cold detection threshold (CDT), warmth detection threshold (WDT), thermal sensory limen (TSL), paradoxical heat sensation (PHS), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), mechanical pain threshold (MPT), wind-up ratio (WUR), and pressure pain threshold (PPT)-was performed at the oral mucosa of the tongue, buccal, and palatal sites in 30 Chinese patients (25 women and 5 men, mean age 50.9 ± 9.2 years) with primary BMS and in 18 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (15 women and 3 men, mean age 53.2 ± 7.0 years). For each BMS patient, z scores and loss/gain scores were computed. Psychologic status was evaluated in both groups using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale. Correlations of BMS patients' subjective pain ratings with somatosensory and psychologic profiles were assessed with the use of Pearson or Spearman correlations and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: In BMS patients, 53.3% had somatosensory abnormalities according to z scores vs 22.2% of healthy controls (P = .033). The abnormalities in BMS patients were somatosensory loss to thermal nonnoxious stimuli (TSL = 20.0%, CDT = 13.3%, WDT = 13.3%), mechanical pressure stimuli (PPT = 16.7%), pinprick stimuli (MPT = 6.7%), and thermal pain stimuli (CPT = 3.3%), and somatosensory gain to repetitive pinprick stimuli (WUR = 6.7%), pressure stimuli (PPT = 6.7%), and thermal pain stimuli (HPT = 3.3%). The most frequent loss/gain score was 13.3% for loss of thermal somatosensory function with no somatosensory gain; 13.3% for loss of thermal and mechanical somatosensory function with no somatosensory gain; and 13.3% for gain of mechanical somatosensory function with no somatosensory loss. Mild elevations in anxiety scores were seen in 30% of the BMS patients, and 50% and 36.7% had mild and moderate elevations, respectively, in depression scores. No anxiety or depression was detected in the control group. QST results, but not psychologic scores, were significantly correlated with patients' subjective pain ratings (PHS, Spearman coefficient -0.384, P = .029; CPT, Pearson coefficient -0.370, P = .034; MPT, Pearson coefficient -0.376, P = .032; PPT, Pearson coefficient 0.363, P = .037). CONCLUSION: The present findings documented distinct differences in somatosensory function in patients with primary BMS compared to controls, indicating a complex pathophysiology and interaction between impairments in nociceptive processing and psychologic functioning.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Ardência Bucal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor , Sensação Térmica
20.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(6): 2637-2649, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims were to use different techniques to assess the degree of sensory changes and magnitude of perceived size changes in the facial region induced by nerve blocks of two different trigeminal nerve branches in healthy participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This placebo-controlled study included 30 healthy volunteers. The participants underwent quantitative and qualitative sensory testing (QST and QualST) thrice: before, 10 min, and 2 h after mental (n = 15) and infraorbital (n = 15) nerve blocks and during control (saline) sessions. Perceived numbness, temperature changes, and perceptual distortion were also measured at all time points during the nerve block and control sessions. Differences in outcome parameters between the sessions and time points were analyzed using analyses of variance and McNemar's tests. RESULTS: There was a significant degree of sensory loss to most QST and all QualST parameters, with significant numbness and increased perceived size at the injection site 10 min and 2 h after the nerve blocks compared with saline (P < 0.030) and the baseline (P < 0.042). Two hours after the nerve blocks, the sensitivity was significantly closer to baseline than after 10 min to most of the QST parameters (P < 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: QST and QualST revealed that the nerve blocks in the orofacial region resulted in complete or partial blockade of afferent nerve fibers mediating thermal and mechanical function for more than 2 h with significant numbness and perceptual distortion. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both QST and QualST can provide information on the degree of blockade of afferent nerve fibers after nerve blocks in the orofacial region.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais , Bloqueio Nervoso , Sensação , Nervo Trigêmeo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Sensação Térmica , Adulto Jovem
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