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1.
Thyroid ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228152

RESUMO

Background: Thyroid cancer incidence has increased in many parts of the world since the 1980s, as has the prevalence of obesity. Evidence suggests that people with greater body size have higher thyroid cancer risk. However, it is unclear whether this association is causal or is driven by over-diagnosis of indolent cancers, because overweight/obese people use health services more frequently than those of normal weight, thus conferring greater opportunity for incidental diagnosis. Assessing whether obesity is associated with higher-risk thyroid cancers might help clarify this issue. Methods: We recruited 1013 people diagnosed with thyroid cancer between 2013 and 2016 and 1057 population controls, frequency matched by sex and age group. We used logistic regression to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and overall thyroid cancer risk as well as by tumor BRAF mutational status as a marker of potentially higher-risk cancer. Results: Overall, obesity was associated with greater risk of thyroid cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI 1.37-2.16] for obese vs. normal BMI). The association with obesity was significantly stronger for BRAF-mutation positive than BRAF-negative papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs; OR = 1.71 [CI 1.17-2.50] for BRAF-positive vs. BRAF-negative cancers). The increased risks associated with overweight/obesity did not vary by histological subtypes or presence/absence of adverse tumor histologic features. Conclusions: Greater risk of BRAF-mutated PTCs among those with high BMI suggests that the association may not merely reflect greater health care service use and indicates an independent relationship between obesity and clinically important thyroid cancer.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood liver cancers are relatively rare, hence inferences on incidence trends over time are limited by lack of precision in most studies. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published contemporary trends on childhood liver cancer incidence rates worldwide. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language peer-reviewed articles published from 1 January 2008 to 1 December 2019 that presented quantitative estimates of incidence trends for childhood liver cancer and diagnostic subgroups. Review was conducted per PRISMA guidelines. Two authors independently extracted data and critically assessed studies. SYNTHESIS: Random effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate pooled incidence trends by diagnostic subgroups. Heterogeneity was measured using the Q and I2 statistics and publication bias evaluated using Egger's test. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included, all based on population-based cancer registries. Trends were reported on average for 18 years. Overall pooled estimates of the annual percentage change (APC) were 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 2.3) for childhood liver cancers, 2.8 (95% CI 1.8, 3.8) for hepatoblastoma and -3.0 (95% CI -11.0, 4.9) for hepatocellular carcinoma. Sub-group analysis by region indicated increasing trends for childhood liver cancers in North America/Europe/Australia (APC 1.7, 95% CI 0.7, 2.8) whereas corresponding trends were stable in Asia (APC 1.4, 95%CI -0.3, 2.7). Publication bias was not detected for any of these analyses. The I2 statistic indicated that the heterogeneity among included studies was low for combined liver cancers, moderate for hepatoblastoma and high for hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence is increasing for childhood liver cancers and the most commonly diagnosed subgroup hepatoblastoma. Lack of knowledge of the etiology of childhood liver cancers limited the ability to understand the reasons for observed incidence trends. This review highlighted the need for ongoing monitoring of incidence trends and etiological studies.

3.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(2): 111-115, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190955

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A Melanoma Screening Summit was held in Brisbane, Australia, to review evidence regarding current approaches for early detection of melanomas and explore new opportunities. RESULTS: Formal population-based melanoma screening is not carried out in Australia, but there is evidence of considerable opportunistic screening as well as early detection. Biopsy rates are rising and most melanomas are now diagnosed when in situ. Based on evidence review and expert opinion, the Summit attendees concluded that there is currently insufficient information in terms of comparative benefits, harms and costs to support change from opportunistic to systematic screening. Assessment of gains in precision and cost-effectiveness of integrating total body imaging, artificial intelligence algorithms and genetic risk information is required, as well as better understanding of clinical and molecular features of thin fatal melanomas. CONCLUSIONS: Research is needed to understand how to further optimise early detection of melanoma in Australia. Integrating risk-based population stratification and more precise diagnostic tests is likely to improve the balance of benefits and harms of opportunistic screening, pending assessment of cost-effectiveness. Implications for public health: The Summit Group identified that the personal and financial costs to the community of detecting and treating melanoma are rising, and this may be mitigated by developing and implementing a more systematic process for diagnosing melanoma.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Austrália , Consenso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067220

RESUMO

There is little long-term follow-up information about how the number of melanoma deaths and case fatality vary over time according to the measured thickness of melanoma at diagnosis. This population-based longitudinal cohort study examines patterns and trends in case fatality among 44,531 people in Queensland (Australia) diagnosed with a single invasive melanoma (International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third revision [ICD-O-3], C44, Morphology 872-879) between 1987 and 2011, including 11,883 diagnosed between 1987 and 1996, with up to 20 years follow-up (to December 2016). The 20-year case fatality increased by thickness, with the percentage of melanoma deaths within 20 years of diagnosis being up to 4.8% for melanomas with measured thickness <0.80 mm, 10.6% for tumors 0.8 to <1.0 mm and generally more than 30% for melanomas measuring 3 mm and more. For melanomas <1.0 mm, most deaths occurred between 5 and 20 years after diagnosis, whereas for thicker melanomas the reverse was true with most deaths occurring within the first 5 years. Five-year case fatality decreased over successive calendar time periods for melanomas <1.0 mm, but not for melanomas ≥1.0 mm. These findings demonstrate that the time course for fatal melanomas varies markedly according to tumor thickness at diagnosis. Improved understanding of the patient factors and characteristics of melanomas, in addition to tumor thickness, which increase the likelihood of progression, is needed to guide clinical diagnosis, communication with patients and ongoing surveillance pathways of patients with potentially fatal lesions.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 65: 101686, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of life expectancy (LOLE) provides valuable insights into the impact of cancer. We evaluated the temporal trends in LOLE for Australian cancer patients and the gain in life years for recently diagnosed patients due to survival improvements. METHODS: Analysis was conducted using an Australian population-based cohort (n = 1,865,154) aged 50-89 years, who were primarily diagnosed with one of 19 leading cancers between 1982-2015. Flexible parametric survival models were used to estimate LOLE and the proportion of life lost (POLL) by year, age group, sex, and, for New South Wales only, spread of disease. The total years of LOLE and gain in life years due to survival improvements were estimated for those diagnosed in 2014. RESULTS: For 19 cancers combined, LOLE and POLL were significantly lower for more recent diagnoses. Cancer-specific temporal trends were consistent by age, sex, and spread of disease (where relevant) although the magnitude varied. Prostate, kidney, or non-Hodgkin lymphoma experienced the largest decreases in POLL over time. For the 2014 diagnoses, an estimation of 403,094 life years lost will be caused by the 19 cancers. With the increase in cancer survival over time, the 2014 cohort will gain an extra 432,588 life years (52 %) compared to that experienced by the 1982 cohort. CONCLUSION: While reduced impact of a cancer diagnosis on LOLE over time is encouraging, the growing number of cancer survivors in Australia is likely to pose complex challenges for cancer patients, their care givers, and health-care systems.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 625-635, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the improvements in cancer diagnosis and treatment, more patients with cancer are surviving for longer periods than before. This study aims to quantify the proportion cured and median survival time for those who are not cured for major cancers in Australia. METHODS: Australian population-based cohort of 2,164,172 cases, ages 15 to 89 years, whose first cancer diagnosis between 1982 and 2014 was one of 22 leading cancers, were followed up to December 2014. Flexible parametric cure models were used to estimate the proportion cured and median survival time for those uncured by age, sex, and spread of disease, and temporal trends in these measures. RESULTS: Cure estimates could be generated for 19 of the 22 cancer types. The unadjusted proportion cured ranged from 5.0% for pancreatic cancer to 90.0% for melanoma. Median survival time for those uncured ranged from 0.35 years for pancreatic cancer to 6.05 years for prostate cancer. Cancers were divided into four groups according to their proportion cured in the 1980s and the degree of improvement over 28 years. Esophageal, stomach, pancreatic, liver, gallbladder, lung, and brain cancer had lower proportion cured and smaller improvements over time. CONCLUSIONS: For cancers with poor survival in which little has changed over time either in prolonging life or achieving statistical cure, efforts should be focused on reducing the prevalence of known risk factors and earlier detection, thereby enabling more effective treatment. IMPACT: Cure models provide unique insights into whether survival improvements are due to prolonging life or through curing the disease.

7.
ANZ J Surg ; 90(1-2): 86-91, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved post-operative mortality following gastrectomy for cancer in hospitals with higher resection volumes has not been reported in Australia. Using a population-based study in Queensland, we aimed to compare post-operative mortality following gastrectomy between high- and low-volume hospitals stratified by their service capability. METHODS: All patients undergoing gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma in Queensland between 2001 and 2015 were obtained from the Queensland Oncology Repository. Hospital service capability was defined using the 2015 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare hospital peer groupings. Hospitals were grouped into 'high-volume (≥5 gastrectomies annually), high service capability' (HVHS); 'low-volume (<5), high service capability'; and 'low-volume, low service capability' (LVLS). Negative binomial regression models were used to compare 30- and 90-day mortality rates between hospital groups adjusting for age, sex, socio-economic status, Charlson and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, treatment regimen, stage and time-period. Potential mediation of mortality differences between hospital groups due to differences in the type of gastrectomy performed was also examined. RESULTS: LVLS hospitals have higher adjusted 30-day (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65-5.35) and 90-day (IRR 1.95, 95% CI 1.23-3.09) mortality rates compared with HVHS hospitals. There is no significant difference in adjusted 30-day (IRR 1.16, 95% CI 0.48-2.79) and 90-day (IRR 1.12, 95% CI 0.59-2.13) mortality rates comparing low-volume, high service capability hospitals with HVHS hospitals. The type of gastrectomy performed did not significantly influence differences in mortality compared between hospital groups. CONCLUSION: In the Australian environment, post-operative mortality following gastric cancer surgery may be optimized by centralizing gastrectomy away from hospitals characterized by LVLS.

8.
Med J Aust ; 212(3): 121-125, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of second primary cancers in people diagnosed with cancer during childhood. DESIGN, SETTING: Retrospective, population-based study; analysis of Australian Childhood Cancer Registry data. PARTICIPANTS: People alive at least two months after being diagnosed before the age of 15 years with a primary cancer, 1983-2013, followed until 31 December 2015 (2-33 years' follow-up). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risks of second primary cancer compared with the general population, expressed as standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). RESULTS: Among 18 230 people diagnosed with cancer during childhood, 388 (2%) were later diagnosed with second primary cancers; the estimated 30-year cumulative incidence of second cancers was 4.4% (95% CI, 3.8-5.0%). The risk of a new primary cancer was five times as high as for the general population (SIR, 5.13; 95% CI, 4.65-5.67). Relative risk of a second primary cancer was greatest for people who had childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (SIR, 19.9; 95% CI, 14.4-27.6). Relative risk was particularly high for children who had undergone both chemotherapy and radiotherapy (SIR, 9.80; 95% CI, 8.35-11.5). Relative risk peaked during the 5 years following the first diagnosis (2 to less than 5 years: SIR, 10.3; 95% CI, 8.20-13.0), but was still significant at 20-33 years (SIR, 2.58; 95% CI, 2.02-3.30). The most frequent second primary cancers were thyroid carcinomas (65 of 388, 17%) and acute myeloid leukaemias (57, 15%). CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of childhood cancer remain at increased risk of a second primary cancer well into adulthood. As the late effects of cancer treatment probably contribute to this risk, treatments need to be refined and their toxicity reduced, without reducing their benefit for survival.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Med J Aust ; 212(3): 113-120, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in childhood cancer incidence in Australia, 1983-2015, and to estimate projected incidence to 2035. DESIGN, SETTING: Population-based study; analysis of Australian Childhood Cancer Registry data for the 20 547 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with cancer in Australia between 1983 and 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence rate changes during 1983-2015 were assessed by joinpoint regression, with rates age-standardised to the 2001 Australian standard population. Incidence projections to 2035 were estimated by age-period-cohort modelling. RESULTS: The overall age-standardised incidence rate of childhood cancer increased by 34% between 1983 and 2015, increasing by 1.2% (95% CI, +0.5% to +1.9%) per annum between 2005 and 2015. During 2011-2015, the mean annual number of children diagnosed with cancer in Australia was 770, an incidence rate of 174 cases (95% CI, 169-180 cases) per million children per year. The incidence of hepatoblastoma (annual percentage change [APC], +2.3%; 95% CI, +0.8% to +3.8%), Burkitt lymphoma (APC, +1.6%; 95% CI, +0.4% to +2.8%), osteosarcoma (APC, +1.1%; 95%, +0.0% to +2.3%), intracranial and intraspinal embryonal tumours (APC, +0.9%; 95% CI, +0.4% to +1.5%), and lymphoid leukaemia (APC, +0.5%; 95% CI, +0.2% to +0.8%) increased significantly across the period 1983-2015. The incidence rate of childhood melanoma fell sharply between 1996 and 2015 (APC, -7.7%; 95% CI, -10% to -4.8%). The overall annual cancer incidence rate is conservatively projected to rise to about 186 cases (95% CI, 175-197 cases) per million children by 2035 (1060 cases per year). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rates of several childhood cancer types steadily increased during 1983-2015. Although the reasons for these rises are largely unknown, our findings provide a foundation for health service planning for meeting the needs of children who will be diagnosed with cancer until 2035.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Previsões , Hepatoblastoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros
10.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between higher hospital-volume and better "quality of surgery" and long-term survival has not been reported following pancreatic cancer surgery in low resection-volume regions such as in Australia. Using a population-level study, we compare "quality of surgery" and two-year survival following pancreaticoduodenectomy between Australian hospitals grouped by resection-volume. METHODS: Data on all patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma in the Australian state of Queensland, between 2001 and 2015, were obtained from the Queensland Oncology Repository. Hospitals were grouped into high (≥6 resections annually) and low (<6) volume centres. Following adjustment for case-mix, "quality-of-treatment" indicators were compared between hospital groups using multivariate logistic regression and Poisson regression analysis; and two-year cancer-specific and overall survival were compared using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Compared with high-volume centres, low-volume centres had worse two-year cancer-specific survival (Adjusted HR = 1.31; 95% CI:1.03-1.68), higher 30-day mortality (Adjusted IRR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.36-10.62) and fewer patients received "high-quality surgery" (Adjusted OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.33-0.90). Differences in 30-day mortality, or "quality-of-treatment" indicators did not entirely explain the observed survival difference between hospital-volume groups. CONCLUSION: In an Australian environment, a "high" hospital-volume was significantly associated with better quality surgery and two-year survival following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765264

RESUMO

Purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females worldwide, but epidemiological patterns unique to this group are often obscured when results are combined with older patients. This study investigates breast cancer incidence and survival among AYA females, including differences by broad stage at diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, population-based cohort study was conducted using de-identified data for females in Queensland, Australia, aged 15-39 diagnosed with a first primary breast cancer between 1997 and 2014 with follow-up to December 31, 2016. Incidence rate trends were examined with Joinpoint analysis. Cause-specific survival was calculated for key characteristics, and 5-year adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated from a multivariable flexible parametric model. Results: The study cohort comprised 2337 patients, of whom two-thirds (n = 1565, 67%) were diagnosed with advanced disease (tumor diameter >20 mm, lymph node involvement or presence of distant metastases at diagnosis). Incidence rates of localized tumors decreased by 1.9% per year (95% confidence interval [CI] -3.5% to -0.4%) over the study period, whereas the trend for advanced breast cancers remained stable. Five-year cause-specific survival increased from 85% to 92% for 2011-2014 compared to 1997-2001 (adjusted HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.29-0.65). Patients who were Indigenous from disadvantaged areas or diagnosed with advanced stage experienced significantly worse survival. Conclusion: The high proportion of younger females diagnosed with advanced breast cancer should be the focus of future campaigns to improve awareness and earlier detection. While survival has increased over time, further work is required to ensure that this progress is experienced equitably by all patients.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569670

RESUMO

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have significantly higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality than other Australian women. In this study, we assessed the documented delivery of cervical screening for women attending Indigenous Primary Health Care (PHC) centres across Australia and identified service-level factors associated with between-centre variation in screening coverage. We analysed 3801 clinical audit records for PHC clients aged 20-64 years from 135 Indigenous PHC centres participating in the Audit for Best Practice in Chronic Disease (ABCD) continuous quality improvement (CQI) program across five Australian states/territories during 2005 to 2014. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to identify service-level factors associated with screening, while accounting for differences in client-level factors. There was substantial variation in the proportion of clients who had a documented cervical screen in the previous two years across the participating PHC centres (median 50%, interquartile range (IQR): 29-67%), persisting over years and audit cycle. Centre-level factors explained 40% of the variation; client-level factors did not reduce the between-centre variation. Screening coverage was associated with longer time enrolled in the CQI program and very remote location. Indigenous PHC centres play an important role in providing cervical screening to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Thus, their leadership is essential to ensure that Australia's public health commitment to the elimination of cervical cancer includes Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. A sustained commitment to CQI may improve PHC centres delivery of cervical screening; however, factors that may impact on service delivery, such as organisational, geographical and environmental factors, warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/normas , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Auditoria Clínica , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Health Geogr ; 18(1): 21, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well known that the burden caused by cancer can vary geographically, which may relate to differences in health, economics or lifestyle. However, to date, there was no comprehensive picture of how the cancer burden, measured by cancer incidence and survival, varied by small geographical area across Australia. METHODS: The Atlas consists of 2148 Statistical Areas level 2 across Australia defined by the Australian Statistical Geography Standard which provide the best compromise between small population and small area. Cancer burden was estimated for males, females, and persons separately, with 50 unique sex-specific (males, females, all persons) cancer types analysed. Incidence and relative survival were modelled with Bayesian spatial models using the Leroux prior which was carefully selected to provide adequate spatial smoothing while reflecting genuine geographic variation. Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation was used because it facilitates quantifying the uncertainty of the posterior estimates numerically and visually. RESULTS: The results of the statistical model and visualisation development were published through the release of the Australian Cancer Atlas ( https://atlas.cancer.org.au ) in September, 2018. The Australian Cancer Atlas provides the first freely available, digital, interactive picture of cancer incidence and survival at the small geographical level across Australia with a focus on incorporating uncertainty, while also providing the tools necessary for accurate estimation and appropriate interpretation and decision making. CONCLUSIONS: The success of the Atlas will be measured by how widely it is used by key stakeholders to guide research and inform decision making. It is hoped that the Atlas and the methodology behind it motivates new research opportunities that lead to improvements in our understanding of the geographical patterns of cancer burden, possible causes or risk factors, and the reasons for differences in variation between cancer types, both within Australia and globally. Future versions of the Atlas are planned to include new data sources to include indicators such as cancer screening and treatment, and extensions to the statistical methods to incorporate changes in geographical patterns over time.


Assuntos
Atlas como Assunto , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/estatística & dados numéricos , Mapeamento Geográfico , Humanos , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
14.
ANZ J Surg ; 89(11): 1404-1409, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High hospital-volume and service capability are associated with improved mortality following complex cancer surgery. Using a population-based study in Queensland, we assessed differences in mortality following oesophagectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy, comparing high- and low-volume hospitals stratified by service capability. METHODS: Data on all patients undergoing oesophagectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer in Queensland between 2001 and 2015 were obtained from the Queensland Oncology Repository. Hospital service capability was defined using the 2015 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare hospital peer groupings. Hospitals were grouped into 'high-volume (≥6 oesophagectomies or pancreaticoduodenectomies annually) with high service capability'; 'low-volume (<6) with high service capability' and 'low-volume with low service capability'. Multivariate Poisson models were used to estimate differences in 30- and 90-day mortality between hospital groups adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, Charlson and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, stage and time-period. RESULTS: For oesophagectomy, adjusted 90-day mortality was higher in low-volume compared with high-volume hospitals, regardless of service capability (low-volume, high service: incident rate ratio (IRR) 3.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-8.57; low-volume, low service: IRR 3.40, 95% CI 1.16-10.00). For pancreaticoduodenectomy, mortality was higher in low-volume compared with high-volume centres regardless of service capability: 30-day mortality (low-volume, high service: IRR 2.32, 95% CI 1.07-5.03; low-volume, low service: IRR 3.92, 95% CI 1.45-10.61); 90-day mortality (low-volume, high service: IRR 2.36, 95% CI 1.29-4.30; low-volume, low service: IRR 3.32, 95% CI 1.64-6.71). CONCLUSION: High hospital resection volumes are associated with lower post-operative mortality following oesophagectomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy regardless of hospital service capability. This data supports centralization of these procedures to high-volume centres.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 62: 101568, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While net probabilities of death in the relative survival framework ignore competing causes of death, crude probabilities allow estimation of the real risk of cancer deaths. This study quantifies temporal trends in net and crude probabilities of death. METHODS: Australian population-based cohort of 2,015,903 people aged 15-89 years, diagnosed with a single primary invasive cancer from 1984 to 2013 with mortality follow-up to 31 December 2014. Survival was analyzed with the cohort method. Flexible parametric relative survival models were used to estimate both probability measures by diagnosis year for all cancers and selected leading sites. RESULTS: For each site, excess mortality rates reduced over time, especially for prostate cancer. While both the 10-year net and crude probability of cancer deaths decreased over time, specific patterns varied. For example, the crude probability of lung cancer deaths for males aged 50 years decreased from 0.90 (1984) to 0.79 (2013); whereas the corresponding probabilities for kidney cancer were 0.64 and 0.18 respectively. Patterns for crude probabilities of competing deaths were relatively constant. Although for younger patients, both net and crude measures were similar, crude probability of competing deaths increased with age, hence for older ages net and crude measures were different except for lung and pancreas cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The observed reductions in probabilities of death over three decades for Australian cancer patients are encouraging. However, this study also highlights the ongoing mortality burden following a cancer diagnosis, and the need for continuing efforts to improve cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Probabilidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(9): 1427-1434, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China contributes to almost half of the esophageal cancer cases diagnosed globally each year. However, the prognosis information of this disease in this large population is scarce. METHODS: Data on a population-based cohort consisting of residents of Shandong Province, China who were diagnosed with esophageal cancer during the period from 2005 to 2014 were analyzed. The cancer-specific survival rates were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Discrete-time multilevel mixed-effects survival models were used to investigate socioeconomic status (SES) disparities on esophageal cancer survival. RESULTS: The unadjusted 1-, 3-, and 5-year cause-specific survival rates were 59.6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 59.2%-59.9%], 31.9% (95% CI, 31.5%-32.3%), and 23.6% (95% CI, 23.1%-24.0%), respectively. Patients of blue-collar occupations had higher risk of esophageal cancer-related death than those of white-collar occupations in the first 2 years after diagnosis. Rural patients had higher risk of death than urban patients in the first 3 years after diagnosis. The risks of esophageal cancer-related death among patients living in low/middle/high SES index counties were not different in the first 2 years after diagnosis. However, patients living in high SES index counties had better long-term survival (3-5 years postdiagnosis) than those living in middle or low SES index counties. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequalities in esophageal cancer survival exist in this Chinese population. Higher individual- or area-level SES is associated with better short-term or long-term cancer survival. IMPACT: Elucidation of the relative roles of the SES factors on survival could guide interventions to reduce disparities in the prognosis of esophageal cancer.

17.
Front Oncol ; 9: 238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024842

RESUMO

Background: Previous reviews of geographical disparities in the prostate cancer continuum from diagnosis to mortality have identified a consistent pattern of poorer outcomes with increasing residential disadvantage and for rural residents. However, there are no contemporary, systematic reviews summarizing the latest available evidence. Our objective was to systematically review the published international evidence for geographical variations in prostate cancer indicators by residential rurality and disadvantage. Methods: Systematic searches of peer-reviewed articles in English published from 1/1/1998 to 30/06/2018 using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Informit databases. Inclusion criteria were: population was adult prostate cancer patients; outcome measure was PSA testing, prostate cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, access to and use of services, survival, and prostate cancer mortality with quantitative results by residential rurality and/or disadvantage. Studies were critically appraised using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: Overall 169 studies met the inclusion criteria. Around 50% were assessed as high quality and 50% moderate. Men from disadvantaged areas had consistently lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and prostate cancer incidence, poorer survival, more advanced disease and a trend toward higher mortality. Although less consistent, predominant patterns by rurality were lower PSA testing, prostate cancer incidence and survival, but higher stage disease and mortality among rural men. Both geographical measures were associated with variations in access and use of prostate cancer-related services for low to high risk disease. Conclusions: This review found substantial evidence that prostate cancer indicators varied by residential location across diverse populations and geographies. While wide variations in study design limited comparisons across studies, our review indicated that internationally, men living in disadvantaged areas, and to a lesser extent more rural areas, face a greater prostate cancer burden. This review highlights the need for a better understanding of the complex social, environmental, and behavioral reasons for these variations, recognizing that, while important, geographical access is not the only issue. Implementing research strategies to help identify these processes and to better understand the central role of disadvantage to variations in health outcome are crucial to inform the development of evidence-based targeted interventions.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 59: 208-214, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stage of cancer at diagnosis is one of the strongest predictors of survival and is essential for population cancer surveillance, comparison of cancer outcomes and to guide national cancer control strategies. Our aim was to describe, for the first time, the distribution of cases by stage at diagnosis and differences in stage-specific survival on a population basis for a range of childhood solid cancers in Australia. METHODS: The study cohort was drawn from the population-based Australian Childhood Cancer Registry and comprised children (<15 years) diagnosed with one of 12 solid malignancies between 2006 and 2014. Stage at diagnosis was assigned according to the Toronto Paediatric Cancer Stage Guidelines. Observed (all cause) survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with follow-up on mortality available to 31 December 2015. RESULTS: Almost three-quarters (1256 of 1760 cases, 71%) of children in the study had localised or regional disease at diagnosis, varying from 43% for neuroblastoma to 99% for retinoblastoma. Differences in 5-year observed survival by stage were greatest for osteosarcoma (localised 85% (95% CI = 72%-93%) versus metastatic 37% (15%-59%)), neuroblastoma (localised 98% (91%-99%) versus metastatic 60% (52%-67%)), rhabdomyosarcoma (localised 85% (71%-93%) versus metastatic 53% (34%-69%)), and medulloblastoma (localised 69% (61%-75%) versus metastases to spine 42% (27%-57%)). CONCLUSION: The stage-specific information presented here provides a basis for comparison with other international population cancer registries. Understanding variations in survival by stage at diagnosis will help with the targeted formation of initiatives to improve outcomes for children with cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros
19.
Int J Cancer ; 145(11): 2944-2953, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30748013

RESUMO

The International Agency for Research on Cancer first concluded that alcohol causes cancer in humans in 1988. The World Cancer Research Fund has declared that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus (squamous cell carcinoma), female breast, colon, rectum, stomach and liver. It recommended that alcohol be avoided altogether to prevent cancer. We aimed to quantify the impact of reducing alcohol consumption on future cancer incidence in Australia. We used PREVENT 3.01 simulation modelling software to estimate the proportion of cancers that could potentially be prevented over a 25-year period under two hypothetical intervention scenarios and two latency periods (20 and 30 years). Under a scenario where alcohol consumption abruptly ceases, we estimated up to 4% of alcohol-related cancers could be avoided over a 25-year period (~49,500 cancers, depending on assumed latency). If the maximum consumption of all Australian adults was ≤20 g/day (~two Australian standard drinks), up to 2% of alcohol-related cancers could be avoided (~29,600 cancers). The maximum proportions were higher for men (6% for no alcohol consumption; 5% for ≤20 g/day) than women (3%; 1%). The proportion avoidable was highest for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (17% no alcohol consumption; 9% ≤20 g/day), followed by cancers of the oral cavity (12%; 5%) and pharynx (11%; 5%). The cancer sites with the highest numbers of potentially avoidable cases were colon in men (11,500; 9,900) and breast in women (14,400; 4,100). Successful interventions to reduce alcohol intake could lead to significant reductions in cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(6): e27683, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on stage at diagnosis for childhood blood cancers is essential for surveillance but is not available on a population basis in most countries. Our aim was to apply the internationally endorsed Toronto Paediatric Cancer Stage Guidelines to children (<15 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and to assess differences in survival by stage at diagnosis. PROCEDURE: Stage was defined by extent of involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) for ALL and AML and using the Ann Arbor and St Jude-Murphy systems for HL and NHL, respectively. The study cohort was drawn from the population-based Australian Childhood Cancer Registry, consisting of children diagnosed with one of these four blood cancers between 2006 and 2014 with follow-up to 2015. Five-year observed survival was estimated from the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Stage was assigned to 2201 of 2351 eligible patients (94%), ranging from 85% for AML to 95% for ALL, HL, and NHL. Survival following ALL varied from 94% (95% CI = 93%-95%) for CNS1 disease to 89% (95% CI = 79%-94%) for CNS2 (P = 0.07), whereas for AML there was essentially no difference in survival between CNS- (77%) and CNS+ disease (78%; P = 0.94). Nearly all children with HL survived for five years. There was a trend (P = 0.04) toward worsening survival with higher stage for NHL. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first population-wide picture of the distribution and outcomes for childhood blood cancers in Australia by extent of disease at diagnosis and provide a baseline for future comparisons.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doença de Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia
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