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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(7)2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805522

RESUMO

Fatigued driving is one of the main causes of traffic accidents. The electroencephalogram (EEG)-based mental state analysis method is an effective and objective way of detecting fatigue. However, as EEG shows significant differences across subjects, effectively "transfering" the EEG analysis model of the existing subjects to the EEG signals of other subjects is still a challenge. Domain-Adversarial Neural Network (DANN) has excellent performance in transfer learning, especially in the fields of document analysis and image recognition, but has not been applied directly in EEG-based cross-subject fatigue detection. In this paper, we present a DANN-based model, Generative-DANN (GDANN), which combines Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) to enhance the ability by addressing the issue of different distribution of EEG across subjects. The comparative results show that in the analysis of cross-subject tasks, GDANN has a higher average accuracy of 91.63% in fatigue detection across subjects than those of traditional classification models, which is expected to have much broader application prospects in practical brain-computer interaction (BCI).

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4831, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649348

RESUMO

Real-world experience is typically multimodal. Evidence indicates that the facilitation in the detection of multisensory stimuli is modulated by the perceptual load, the amount of information involved in the processing of the stimuli. Here, we used a realistic virtual reality environment while concomitantly acquiring Electroencephalography (EEG) and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) to investigate how multisensory signals impact target detection in two conditions, high and low perceptual load. Different multimodal stimuli (auditory and vibrotactile) were presented, alone or in combination with the visual target. Results showed that only in the high load condition, multisensory stimuli significantly improve performance, compared to visual stimulation alone. Multisensory stimulation also decreases the EEG-based workload. Instead, the perceived workload, according to the "NASA Task Load Index" questionnaire, was reduced only by the trimodal condition (i.e., visual, auditory, tactile). This trimodal stimulation was more effective in enhancing the sense of presence, that is the feeling of being in the virtual environment, compared to the bimodal or unimodal stimulation. Also, we show that in the high load task, the GSR components are higher compared to the low load condition. Finally, the multimodal stimulation (Visual-Audio-Tactile-VAT and Visual-Audio-VA) induced a significant decrease in latency, and a significant increase in the amplitude of the P300 potentials with respect to the unimodal (visual) and visual and tactile bimodal stimulation, suggesting a faster and more effective processing and detection of stimuli if auditory stimulation is included. Overall, these findings provide insights into the relationship between multisensory integration and human behavior and cognition.

3.
Brain Sci ; 11(3)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668815

RESUMO

Neuroaesthetics, the science studying the biological underpinnings of aesthetic experience, recently extended its area of investigation to literary art; this was the humus where neurocognitive poetics blossomed. Divina Commedia represents one of the most important, famous and studied poems worldwide. Poetry stimuli are characterized by elements (meter and rhyme) promoting the processing fluency, a core aspect of neuroaesthetics theories. In addition, given the evidence of different neurophysiological reactions between experts and non-experts in response to artistic stimuli, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in poetry, a different neurophysiological cognitive and emotional reaction between Literature (L) and Non-Literature (NL) students. A further aim was to investigate whether neurophysiological underpinnings would support explanation of behavioral data. Investigation methods employed: self-report assessments (recognition, appreciation, content recall) and neurophysiological indexes (approach/withdrawal (AW), cerebral effort (CE) and galvanic skin response (GSR)). The main behavioral results, according to fluency theories in aesthetics, suggested in the NL but not in the L group that the appreciation/liking went hand by hand with the self-declared recognition and with the content recall. The main neurophysiological results were: (i) higher galvanic skin response in NL, whilst higher CE values in L; (ii) a positive correlation between AW and CE indexes in both groups. The present results extended previous evidence relative to figurative art also to auditory poetry stimuli, suggesting an emotional attenuation "expertise-specific" showed by experts, but increased cognitive processing in response to the stimuli.

4.
Brain Sci ; 11(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670698

RESUMO

Scents have the ability to affect peoples' mental states and task performance with to different extents. It has been widely demonstrated that the lemon scent, included in most all-purpose cleaners, elicits stimulation and activation, while the lavender scent elicits relaxation and sedative effects. The present study aimed at investigating and fostering a novel approach to evaluate users' experience with respect to scents' effects through the joint employment of Virtual Reality and users' neurophysiological monitoring, in particular Electroencephalography. In particular, this study, involving 42 participants, aimed to compare the effects of lemon and lavender scents on the deployment of cognitive resources during a daily life experience consisting in a train journey carried out in virtual reality. Our findings showed a significant higher request of cognitive resources during the processing of an informative message for subjects exposed to the lavender scent with respect to the lemon exposure. No differences were found between lemon and lavender conditions on the self-reported items of pleasantness and involvement; as this study demonstrated, the employment of the lavender scent preserves the quality of the customer experience to the same extent as the more widely used lemon scent.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348823

RESUMO

Electroencephalogram (EEG) is an effective indicator for the detection of driver fatigue. Due to the significant differences in EEG signals across subjects, and difficulty in collecting sufficient EEG samples for analysis during driving, detecting fatigue across subjects through using EEG signals remains a challenge. EasyTL is a kind of transfer-learning model, which has demonstrated better performance in the field of image recognition, but not yet been applied in cross-subject EEG-based applications. In this paper, we propose an improved EasyTL-based classifier, the InstanceEasyTL, to perform EEG-based analysis for cross-subject fatigue mental-state detection. Experimental results show that InstanceEasyTL not only requires less EEG data, but also obtains better performance in accuracy and robustness than EasyTL, as well as existing machine-learning models such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Transfer Component Analysis (TCA), Geodesic Flow Kernel (GFK), and Domain-adversarial Neural Networks (DANN), etc.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Eletroencefalografia , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 584-587, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018056

RESUMO

Sports activity is characterised by the influence of different factors, which relate to both psychological and emotional stress of athletes. As a consequence, mental and physical preparations are fundamental in pre-competition and competition activities. In fact, being able to manage the reactions to stressful events and high demanding conditions, and adapt the strategy depending on the ongoing situation and opponent's reactions allow the athletes to properly process the surrounding information, evaluate all the possible solutions, and finally take the right decision. In this regard, the Skin Conductance (SC), Heart Rate (HR), and Skin Temperature (ST) signals were recorded during a grappling tournament from ten athletes with the aim to investigate if physiological assessments could provide an objective measure of athletes' attitude. The results proved that individual training programs can be tailored accordingly to the neurophysiological state of the athletes, but also that their awareness about both mental and physical preparations and attitudes could be improved.


Assuntos
Esportes , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Animais , Atletas , Atitude , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 851-854, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018118

RESUMO

Air Traffic Control (ATC) has been classified as the fourth most stressful job. In this regard, sixteen controllers were asked to perform ecological ATC simulation during which behavioral (Radio Communications with pilots - RCs), subjective (stress perception) and neurophysiological signals (brain activity and skin conductance - SC) were collected. All the considered parameters reported significant changes under high stress conditions. In particular, the theta, alpha, and beta brain rhythms increased significantly (all p<0.05) all over the brain areas, and both the SC components exhibited higher values (p<0.01). Additionally, the number of speech under high stress decreased significantly (p<10-4) while both the mean and median value of the F0 component of the RC increased (p<0.01). The results can be employed to objectively measure and track the controller's stress level while dealing with ATC activities to better tailoring the workshift and maintaining high safety levels.


Assuntos
Aviação , Neurofisiologia , Ritmo beta , Encéfalo , Humanos , Fala
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860692

RESUMO

The neurophysiological analysis of cooperation has evolved over the past 20 years, moving towards the research of common patterns in neurophysiological signals of people interacting. Social Physiological Compliance (SPC) and Hyperscanning represent two frameworks for the joint analysis of autonomic and brain signals respectively. Each of the two approaches allows to know about a single layer of cooperation according to the nature of these signals: SPC provides information mainly related to emotions, and Hyperscanning that related to cognitive aspects. In this work, after the analysis of the state of the art of SPC and Hyperscanning, we explored the possibility to unify the two approaches creating a complete neurophysiological model for cooperation considering both affective and cognitive mechanisms. We synchronously recorded electrodermal activity, cardiac and brain signals of 14 cooperative dyads. Time series from these signals were extracted and Multivariate Granger Causality was computed. The results showed that only when subjects in a dyad cooperate there is a statistically significant causality between the multivariate variables representing each subject. Moreover, the entity of this statistical relationship correlates with the dyad's performance. Finally, given the novelty of this approach and its exploratory nature, we provided its strengths and limitations.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8600, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451424

RESUMO

Stress is a word used to describe human reactions to emotionally, cognitively and physically challenging experiences. A hallmark of the stress response is the activation of the autonomic nervous system, resulting in the "fight-freeze-flight" response to a threat from a dangerous situation. Consequently, the capability to objectively assess and track a controller's stress level while dealing with air traffic control (ATC) activities would make it possible to better tailor the work shift and maintain high safety levels, as well as to preserve the operator's health. In this regard, sixteen controllers were asked to perform a realistic air traffic management (ATM) simulation during which subjective data (i.e. stress perception) and neurophysiological data (i.e. brain activity, heart rate, and galvanic skin response) were collected with the aim of accurately characterising the controller's stress level experienced in the various experimental conditions. In addition, external supervisors regularly evaluated the controllers in terms of manifested stress, safety, and efficiency throughout the ATM scenario. The results demonstrated 1) how the stressful events caused both supervisors and controllers to underestimate the experienced stress level, 2) the advantage of taking into account both cognitive and hormonal processes in order to define a reliable stress index, and 3) the importance of the points in time at which stress is measured owing to the potential transient effect once the stressful events have ceased.

10.
Brain Sci ; 10(4)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276318

RESUMO

The need for automatic detection and classification of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) as biomarkers of the epileptogenic tissue is strongly felt in the clinical field. In this context, the employment of artificial intelligence methods could be the missing piece to achieve this goal. This work proposed a double-step procedure based on machine learning algorithms and tested it on an intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) dataset available online. The first step aimed to define the optimal length for signal segmentation, allowing for an optimal discrimination of segments with HFO relative to those without. In this case, binary classifiers have been tested on a set of energy features. The second step aimed to classify these segments into ripples, fast ripples and fast ripples occurring during ripples. Results suggest that LDA applied to 10 ms segmentation could provide the highest sensitivity (0.874) and 0.776 specificity for the discrimination of HFOs from no-HFO segments. Regarding the three-class classification, non-linear methods provided the highest values (around 90%) in terms of specificity and sensitivity, significantly different to the other three employed algorithms. Therefore, this machine-learning-based procedure could help clinicians to automatically reduce the quantity of irrelevant data.

11.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 168: 199-205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164853

RESUMO

The human capacity to simultaneously perform several tasks depends on the quantity and the mode of mentally processing the information imposed by the tasks. Since operational environments are highly dynamic, priorities across tasks will be expected to change as the mission evolves, thus the capability to reallocate the mental resources dynamically depending on such changes is very important. The resources required in very complex situations, such as air traffic management (ATM), can exceed the user's available resources leading to increased workload and performance impairments. In this regard, the availability of information concerning the workload experienced by the operators while dealing with tasks will be fundamental for both warning them when overload conditions are approaching and improving interactions with the system. The idea of our work was to use neurophysiologic data collected from professional air traffic controllers (ATCOs) to provide additional information to standard measures with which to assess the ATCOs' expertise and a machine learning electroencephalography-based index to evaluate their mental workload during the execution of ATC tasks. The results showed that the proposed method was able to track the workload alongside the execution of the realistic ATM scenario, and provide added values to objectively assess the expertise of the ATCOs.

12.
Brain Sci ; 10(3)2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182818

RESUMO

Recent publications in the Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface field suggest that this technology could be ready to go outside the research labs and enter the market as a new consumer product. This assumption is supported by the recent advantages obtained in terms of front-end graphical user interfaces, back-end classification algorithms, and technology improvement in terms of wearable devices and dry EEG sensors. This editorial paper aims at mentioning these aspects, starting from the review paper "Brain-Computer Interface Spellers: A Review" (Rezeika et al., 2018), published within the Brain Sciences journal, and citing other relevant review papers that discussed these points.

13.
Brain Sci ; 10(1)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952181

RESUMO

Vigilance degradation usually causes significant performance decrement. It is also considered the major factor causing the out-of-the-loop phenomenon (OOTL) occurrence. OOTL is strongly related to a high level of automation in operative contexts such as the Air Traffic Management (ATM), and it could lead to a negative impact on the Air Traffic Controllers' (ATCOs) engagement. As a consequence, being able to monitor the ATCOs' vigilance would be very important to prevent risky situations. In this context, the present study aimed to characterise and assess the vigilance level by using electroencephalographic (EEG) measures. The first study, involving 13 participants in laboratory settings allowed to find out the neurophysiological features mostly related to vigilance decrements. Those results were also confirmed under realistic ATM settings recruiting 10 professional ATCOs. The results demonstrated that (i) there was a significant performance decrement related to vigilance reduction; (ii) there were no substantial differences between the identified neurophysiological features in controlled and ecological settings, and the EEG-channel configuration defined in laboratory was able to discriminate and classify vigilance changes in ATCOs' vigilance with high accuracy (up to 84%); (iii) the derived two EEG-channel configuration was able to assess vigilance variations reporting only slight accuracy reduction.

14.
Brain Sci ; 9(12)2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835346

RESUMO

In this paper, we present a method to quantify the coupling between brain regions under vigilance and enhanced mental states by utilizing partial directed coherence (PDC) and graph theory analysis (GTA). The vigilance state is induced using a modified version of stroop color-word task (SCWT) while the enhancement state is based on audio stimulation with a pure tone of 250 Hz. The audio stimulation was presented to the right and left ears simultaneously for one-hour while participants perform the SCWT. The quantification of mental states was performed by means of statistical analysis of indexes based on GTA, behavioral responses of time-on-task (TOT), and Brunel Mood Scale (BRMUS). The results show that PDC is very sensitive to vigilance decrement and shows that the brain connectivity network is significantly reduced with increasing TOT, p < 0.05. Meanwhile, during the enhanced state, the connectivity network maintains high connectivity as time passes and shows significant improvements compared to vigilance state. The audio stimulation enhances the connectivity network over the frontal and parietal regions and the right hemisphere. The increase in the connectivity network correlates with individual differences in the magnitude of the vigilance enhancement assessed by response time to stimuli. Our results provide evidence for enhancement of cognitive processing efficiency with audio stimulation. The BRMUS was used to evaluate the emotional states of vigilance task before and after using the audio stimulation. BRMUS factors, such as fatigue, depression, and anger, significantly decrease in the enhancement group compared to vigilance group. On the other hand, happy and calmness factors increased with audio stimulation, p < 0.05.

15.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 3761203, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611912

RESUMO

Fatigue driving can easily lead to road traffic accidents and bring great harm to individuals and families. Recently, electroencephalography- (EEG-) based physiological and brain activities for fatigue detection have been increasingly investigated. However, how to find an effective method or model to timely and efficiently detect the mental states of drivers still remains a challenge. In this paper, we combine common spatial pattern (CSP) and propose a light-weighted classifier, LightFD, which is based on gradient boosting framework for EEG mental states identification. The comparable results with traditional classifiers, such as support vector machine (SVM), convolutional neural network (CNN), gated recurrent unit (GRU), and large margin nearest neighbor (LMNN), show that the proposed model could achieve better classification performance, as well as the decision efficiency. Furthermore, we also test and validate that LightFD has better transfer learning performance in EEG classification of driver mental states. In summary, our proposed LightFD classifier has better performance in real-time EEG mental state prediction, and it is expected to have broad application prospects in practical brain-computer interaction (BCI).


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Algoritmos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
16.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555113

RESUMO

Increasing the level of automation in air traffic management is seen as a measure to increase the performance of the service to satisfy the predicted future demand. This is expected to result in new roles for the human operator: he will mainly monitor highly automated systems and seldom intervene. Therefore, air traffic controllers (ATCos) would often work in a supervisory or control mode rather than in a direct operating mode. However, it has been demonstrated how human operators in such a role are affected by human performance issues, known as Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) phenomenon, consisting in lack of attention, loss of situational awareness and de-skilling. A countermeasure to this phenomenon has been identified in the adaptive automation (AA), i.e., a system able to allocate the operative tasks to the machine or to the operator depending on their needs. In this context, psychophysiological measures have been highlighted as powerful tool to provide a reliable, unobtrusive and real-time assessment of the ATCo's mental state to be used as control logic for AA-based systems. In this paper, it is presented the so-called "Vigilance and Attention Controller", a system based on electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking (ET) techniques, aimed to assess in real time the vigilance level of an ATCo dealing with a highly automated human-machine interface and to use this measure to adapt the level of automation of the interface itself. The system has been tested on 14 professional ATCos performing two highly realistic scenarios, one with the system disabled and one with the system enabled. The results confirmed that (i) long high automated tasks induce vigilance decreasing and OOTL-related phenomena; (ii) EEG measures are sensitive to these kinds of mental impairments; and (iii) AA was able to counteract this negative effect by keeping the ATCo more involved within the operative task. The results were confirmed by EEG and ET measures as well as by performance and subjective ones, providing a clear example of potential applications and related benefits of AA.

17.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 303, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551735

RESUMO

New solutions in operational environments are often, among objective measurements, evaluated by using subjective assessment and judgment from experts. Anyhow, it has been demonstrated that subjective measures suffer from poor resolution due to a high intra and inter-operator variability. Also, performance measures, if available, could provide just partial information, since an operator could achieve the same performance but experiencing a different workload. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate: (i) the higher resolution of neurophysiological measures in comparison to subjective ones; and (ii) how the simultaneous employment of neurophysiological measures and behavioral ones could allow a holistic assessment of operational tools. In this regard, we tested the effectiveness of an electroencephalography (EEG)-based neurophysiological index (WEEG index) in comparing two different solutions (i.e., Normal and Augmented) in terms of experienced workload. In this regard, 16 professional air traffic controllers (ATCOs) have been asked to perform two operational scenarios. Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) has also been recorded to evaluate the level of arousal (i.e., operator involvement) during the two scenarios execution. NASA-TLX questionnaire has been used to evaluate the perceived workload, and an expert was asked to assess performance achieved by the ATCOs. Finally, reaction times on specific operational events relevant for the assessment of the two solutions, have also been collected. Results highlighted that the Augmented solution induced a local increase in subjects performance (Reaction times). At the same time, this solution induced an increase in the workload experienced by the participants (WEEG). Anyhow, this increase is still acceptable, since it did not negatively impact the performance and has to be intended only as a consequence of the higher engagement of the ATCOs. This behavioral effect is totally in line with physiological results obtained in terms of arousal (GSR), that increased during the scenario with augmentation. Subjective measures (NASA-TLX) did not highlight any significant variation in perceived workload. These results suggest that neurophysiological measure provide additional information than behavioral and subjective ones, even at a level of few seconds, and its employment during the pre-operational activities (e.g., design process) could allow a more holistic and accurate evaluation of new solutions.

18.
Brain Sci ; 9(8)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357524

RESUMO

This paper presents the first comprehensive review on vigilance enhancement using both conventional and unconventional means, and further discusses the resulting contradictory findings. It highlights the key differences observed between the research findings and argues that variations of the experimental protocol could be a significant contributing factor towards such contradictory results. Furthermore, the paper reveals the effectiveness of unconventional means of enhancement in significant reduction of vigilance decrement compared to conventional means. Meanwhile, a discussion on the challenges of enhancement techniques is presented, with several suggested recommendations and alternative strategies to maintain an adequate level of vigilance for the task at hand. Additionally, this review provides evidence in support of the use of unconventional means of enhancement on vigilance studies, regardless of their practical challenges.

19.
Hear Res ; 379: 31-42, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042607

RESUMO

Unilateral hearing loss constitutes a field of growing interest in the scientific community. In fact, this kind of patients represent a unique and physiological way to investigate how neuroplasticity overcame unilateral deafferentation by implementing particular strategies that produce apparently next- to- normal hearing behavioural performances. This explains why such patients have been underinvestigated for a long time. Thanks to the availability of techniques able to study the cerebral activity underlying the mentioned behavioural outcomes, the aim of the present research was to elucidate whether different electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns occurred in unilateral hearing loss (UHL) children in comparison to normal hearing (NH) controls during speech-in-noise listening. Given the intrinsic lateralized nature of such patients, due to the unilateral side of hearing impairment, the experimental question was to assess whether this would reflect a different EEG pattern while performing a word in noise recognition task varying the direction of the noise source. Results showed a correlation between the period of deafness and the cortical activity asymmetry toward the hearing ear side in the frontal, parietal and occipital areas in all the experimental conditions. Concerning alpha and beta activity in the frontal and central areas highlighted that in the NH group, the lateralization was always left-sided during the Quiet condition, while it was right-sided in noise conditions; this evidence was not, however, detected also in the UHL group. In addition, focusing on the theta and alpha activity in the frontal areas (Broca area) during noise conditions, while the activity was always left-lateralized in the NH group, it was ipsilateral to the direction of the background noise in the UHL group, and of a weaker extent than in NH controls. Furthermore, in noise conditions, only the UHL group showed a higher theta activity in the temporal areas ipsilateral to the side where the background noise was directed to. Finally, in the case of bilateral noise (background noise and word signal both coming from the same two sources), the theta and alpha activity in the frontal areas (Broca area) was left-lateralized in the case of the NH group and lateralized towards the side of the better hearing ear in the case of the UHL group. Taken together, this evidence supports the establishment of a particular EEG pattern occurrence in UHL children taking place in the frontal (Broca area), temporal and parietal lobes, probably physiologically established in order to deal with different sound and noise source directions.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído
20.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 7348795, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143204

RESUMO

Human factors' aim is to understand and evaluate the interactions between people and tasks, technologies, and environment. Among human factors, it is possible then to include the subjective reaction to external stimuli, due to individual's characteristics and states of mind. These processes are also involved in the perception of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs), the main tool for governments to contrast the first cause of preventable deaths in the world: tobacco addiction. In the light of that, in the present article, it has been investigated through the comparison of different electroencephalographic (EEG) indices a typical item known to be able of influencing PSA perception, that is gender. In order to investigate the neurophysiological underpinnings of such different perception, we tested two PSAs: one with a female character and one with a male character. Furthermore, the experimental sample was divided into men and women, as well as smokers and nonsmokers. The employed EEG indices were the mental engagement (ME: the ratio between beta activity and the sum of alpha and theta activity); the approach/withdrawal (AW: the frontal alpha asymmetry in the alpha band); and the frontal theta activity and the spectral asymmetry index (SASI: the ratio between beta minus theta and beta plus theta). Results suggested that the ME and the AW presented an opposite trend, with smokers showing higher ME and lower AW than nonsmokers. The ME and the frontal theta also evidenced a statistically significant interaction between the kind of the PSA and the gender of the observers; specifically, women showed higher ME and frontal theta activity for the male character PSA. This study then supports the usefulness of the ME and frontal theta for purposes of PSAs targeting on the basis of gender issues and of the ME and the AW and for purposes of PSAs targeting on the basis of smoking habits.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
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