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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110445

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol, substance use, and mental health disorders constitute major public health issues worldwide, including in low income and lower middle-income countries, and early initiation of use is an important predictor for developing substance use disorders in later life. This study reports on the existence of childhood alcohol abuse and dependence in a sub-study of a trial cohort in Eastern Uganda. Methods: The project SeeTheChild-Mental Child Health in Uganda (STC) included a sub-study of the Ugandan site of the study PROMISE SB: Saving Brains in Uganda and Burkina Faso. PROMISE SB was a follow-up study of a trial birth cohort (PROMISE EBF) that estimated the effect that peer counselling for exclusive breast-feeding had on the children's cognitive functioning and mental health once they reached 5-8 years of age. The STC sub-study (N = 148) used the diagnostic tool MINI-KID to assess mental health conditions in children who scored medium and high (≥ 14) on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the PROMISE SB cohort N = (119/148; 80.4%). Another 29/148 (19.6%) were recruited from the PROMISE SB cohort as a comparator with low SDQ scores (< 14). Additionally, the open-ended questions in the diagnostic history were analysed. The MINI-KID comprised diagnostic questions on alcohol abuse and dependence, and descriptive data from the sub-study are presented in this paper. Results: A total of 11/148 (7.4%) children scored positive for alcohol abuse and dependence in this study, 10 of whom had high SDQ scores (≥ 14). The 10 children with SDQ-scores ≥ 14 had a variety of mental health comorbidities of which suicidality 3/10 (30.0%) and separation anxiety disorder 5/10 (50.0%) were the most common. The one child with an SDQ score below 14 did not have any comorbidities. Access to homemade brew, carer's knowledge of the drinking, and difficult household circumstances were issues expressed in the children's diagnostic histories. Conclusions: The discovery of alcohol abuse and dependence among 5-8 year olds in clinical interviews from a community based trial cohort was unexpected, and we recommend continued research and increased awareness of these conditions in this age group.Trial registration Trial registration for PROMISE SB: Saving Brains in Uganda and Burkina Faso: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01882335), 20 June 2013. Regrettably, there was a 1 month delay in the registration compared to the commenced re-inclusion in the follow-up study: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01882335?term=saving+brains&draw=2&rank=1.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 491, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295557

RESUMO

In the original article [1] the first paragraph of the Background section was omitted due to a discrepancy between the metadata of the article and the PDF version.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 171, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women with more than 85% of the burden in developing countries. In Uganda, cervical cancer has shown an increase of 1.8% per annum over the last 20 years. The availability of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine presents an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Understanding how the health system influences uptake of the vaccine is critical to improve it. This study aimed to assess how the health systems is influencing uptake of HPV vaccine so as to inform policy for vaccine implementation and uptake in Mbale district, Eastern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study of 407 respondents, selected from 56 villages. Six key informant interviews were conducted with District Health Officials involved in implementation of the HPV vaccine. Quantitative data was analyzed using Stata V.13. Prevalence ratios with their confidence intervals were reported. Qualitative data was audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using MAXQDA V.12, using the six steps of thematic analysis developed by Braun and Clarke. RESULTS: Fifty six (14%) of 407 adolescents self-reported vaccine uptake. 182 (52.3%) of 348 reported lack of awareness about the HPV vaccine as the major reason for not having received it. Receiving vaccines from outreach clinics (p = 0.02), having many options from which to receive the vaccine (p = 0.02), getting an explanation on possible side-effects (p = 0.024), and receiving the vaccine alongside other services (p = 0.024) were positively associated with uptake. Key informants reported inconsistency in vaccine supply, inadequate training on HPV vaccine, and the lack of a clear target for HPV vaccine coverage as the factors that contribute to low uptake. CONCLUSION: We recommend training of health workers to provide adequate information on HPV vaccine, raising awareness of the vaccine in markets, schools, and radio talk shows, and communicating the target to health workers. Uptake of the HPV vaccine was lower than the Ministry of Health target of 80%. We recommend training of health workers to clearly provide adequate information on HPV vaccine, increasing awareness about the vaccine to the adolescents and increasing access for girls in and out of school.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Uganda , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 258, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification and management of mental illness in childhood and adolescence helps to avert debilitating mental illness in adulthood but the attention given to Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH) has until recently been low. Traditional healers are often consulted by patients with mental illness and in Uganda, up to 60% of patients attending traditional healers have moderate to severe mental illness. Poor access to CAMH care in Uganda creates a treatment gap that could be met through enhanced collaboration between traditional healers and biomedical health systems. The aim of this study was to explore traditional healers' views on their collaboration with biomedical health systems so as to inform the implementation of strategies to improve access to CAMH services in Uganda. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 20 purposively selected traditional healers were conducted in November 2015. A semi-structured interview guide was used to explore: 1) The experiences of traditional healers with mental ill-health in children and adolescents; 2) their willingness to collaborate with the formal health system; and 3) their perception of clinicians' willingness to collaborate with them. Interviews were conducted in local languages and tape recorded. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Traditional healers described several experiences managing children and adolescents with mental illness, which they ascribed to spiritual and physical causes. The spiritual explanations were a consequence of unhappy ancestral spirits, modern religions and witchcraft, while physical causes mentioned included substance abuse and fevers. No traditional healer had received a patient referred to them from a medical clinic although all had referred patients to clinics for non-mental health reasons. Traditional healers expressed distrust in biomedical health systems and believed their treatments were superior to medical therapies in alleviating mental suffering. They expressed willingness to collaborate with biomedical providers. However, traditional healers believe clinicians disregard them and would not be willing to collaborate with them. CONCLUSION: Potential for collaboration between traditional healers and biomedical health systems for improving access to CAMH services in Uganda exists, but is undermined by mutual mistrust and competition between traditional healers and clinicians.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Uganda
5.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 11: 50, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification and management of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) disorders helps to avert mental illness in adulthood but a CAMH treatment gap exists in Uganda. CAMH integration into primary health care (PHC) through in-service training of non-specialist health workers (NSHW) using the World Health Organisation (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Intervention Guide (IG) is a strategy to address this gap. However, results of such training are not supported by information on training development or delivery; and are undifferentiated by NSHW cadre. We aim to describe an in-service CAMH training for NSHW in Uganda and assess cadre-differentiated learning outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-six clinical officers, nurses and midwives from 18 randomly selected PHC clinics in eastern Uganda were trained for 5 days on CAMH screening and referral using a curriculum based on the mhGAP-IG version 1.0 and PowerPoint slides from the International Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP). The residential training was evaluated through pre- and post- training tests of CAMH knowledge and attitudes using the participants' post-test scores; and the difference between pre-test and post-test scores. Two-tailed t-tests assessed differences in mean pre-test and post-test scores between the cadres; hierarchical linear regression tested the association between cadre and post test scores; and logistic regression evaluated the relationship between cadre and knowledge gain at three pre-determined cut off points. RESULTS: Thirty-three participants completed both pre-and post-tests. Improved mean scores from pre- to post-test were observed for both clinical officers (20% change) and nurse/midwives (18% change). Clinical officers had significantly higher mean test scores than nurses and midwives (p < 0.05) but cadre was not significantly associated with improvement in CAMH knowledge at the 10% (AOR 0.08; 95 CI [0.01, 1.19]; p = 0.066), 15% (AOR 0.16; 95% CI [0.01, 2.21]; p = 0.170), or 25% (AOR 0.13; 95% CI [0.01, 1.74]; p = 0.122) levels. CONCLUSION: We aimed to examine CAMH learning outcomes by NSHW cadre. NSHW cadre does not influence knowledge gain from in-service CAMH training. Thus, an option for integrating CAMH into PHC in Uganda using the mhGAP-IG and IACAPAP PowerPoint slides is to proceed without cadre differentiation.

6.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 111, 2017 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28241865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global vaccine action plan 2011-2020 was endorsed by 194 states to equitably extend the benefits of immunization to all people. However, gaps in vaccination coverage remain in developing countries such as Uganda. One of the strategies used to tackle existing inequities is implementation of outreach immunization services to deliver services to those with poor geographical access. However, reports of inconsistent use of these services prevail; therefore understanding the factors associated with use of these services is critical for improving service delivery. This study examined the factors associated with utilization of outreach immunization services among children aged 10-23 months in Hoima District, Uganda. RESULTS: Overall, 87.4% (416/476) of the children had ever utilized outreach immunization services. Of these, 3.6% (15/416) had completed their entire immunization schedules from outreach immunization sessions. Use of outreach services was associated with reports that the time of outreach sessions was convenient [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-6.51], community mobilization was done prior to outreach sessions (AOR 4.9, 95% CI 1.94-12.61), the caretaker knew the benefits of childhood immunizations (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.30-4.42), and the caretaker was able to name at least four vaccine preventable diseases (AOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.13-7.88). CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of outreach immunization services in Hoima District was high but reduced with subsequent vaccine doses. Therefore, strategies targeted at retaining service users for the entire immunization schedule need to be developed and implemented. Such strategies could include health education emphasizing the benefits of childhood immunization.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunização/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 14: 111, 2014 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24602169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on vaccination coverage in developing countries focus on individual- and community-level barriers to routine vaccination mostly in rural settings. This paper examines health system barriers to childhood immunisation in urban Kampala Uganda. METHODS: Mixed methods were employed with a survey among child caretakers, 9 focus group discussions (FGDs), and 9 key informant interviews (KIIs). Survey data underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Latent content analysis was used for qualitative data. RESULTS: Of the 821 respondents in the survey, 96% (785/821) were mothers with a mean age of 26 years (95% CI 24-27). Poor geographical access to immunisation facilities was reported in this urban setting by FGDs, KIIs and survey respondents (24%, 95% CI 21-27). This coupled with reports of few health workers providing immunisation services led to long queues and long waiting times at facilities. Consumers reported waiting for 3-6 hours before receipt of services although this was more common at public facilities. Only 33% (95% CI 30-37) of survey respondents were willing to wait for three or more hours before receipt of services. Although private-for-profit facilities were engaged in immunisation service provision their participation was low as only 30% (95% CI 27-34) of the survey respondents utilised these facilities. The low participation could be due to lack of financial support for immunisation activities at these facilities. This in turn could explain the rampant informal charges for services in this setting. Charges ranged from US$ 0.2 to US$4 and these were more commonly reported at private (70%, 95% CI 65-76) than at public (58%, 95% CI 54-63) facilities. There were intermittent availability of vaccines and transport for immunisation services at both private and public facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Complex health system barriers to childhood immunisation still exist in this urban setting; emphasizing that even in urban areas with great physical access, there are hard to reach people. As the rate of urbanization increases especially in sub-Saharan Africa, governments should strengthen health systems to cater for increasing urban populations.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Uganda/epidemiologia , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/normas
8.
Malar J ; 12: 170, 2013 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23705591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. The Ministry of Health (MoH) plans to scale up indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria vector control. However, there is limited information on community knowledge and perceptions towards IRS. This study assessed community knowledge and perceptions about IRS in Soroti district, eastern Uganda. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional and it covered 770 randomly selected households in urban and rural settings in Soroti district, Eastern Uganda. The respondents were heads of household and or their proxies. The data were collected on the sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of the insecticides that could be used for IRS, parts of the houses that would be sprayed, importance of IRS, role of household heads in IRS programme, frequency and the time of spraying. Responses to the questions on these areas were used to create a composite dependent variable categorized as knowledgeable if they had responded correctly to at least three questions or not knowledgeable about IRS if they responded correctly to less than three questions. In addition, respondents were asked if they thought the IRS programme would be beneficial or not. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out using SPSS version 17. RESULTS: Less than half, (48.6%, 374/770) of the respondents were knowledgeable about IRS. Urban residents (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.04-3.56) and those with secondary education or higher (AOR 4.81, 95% CI 2.72-8.52) were knowledgeable about IRS. Three-quarters, (74.4%, 354/473) of respondents who had ever heard of IRS, perceived it as beneficial. Two-thirds, (66.4%, 314/473) reported that IRS would have negative effects. Respondents who reported that, IRS programme is beneficial were: 23 years or older (AOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.07-4.38), had attained secondary education or higher (AOR 2.16, 95% CI 1.22-3.83) and were knowledgeable about IRS (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.17-4.17). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about IRS is inadequate and negative perceptions about its use are prominent especially among the rural and less educated individuals. To ensure householders' cooperation and participation in the IRS programme, adequate community mobilization and sensitization is needed prior to use of IRS for effective malaria control.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 7(4): e35432, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22539972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child survival is dependent on several factors including high vaccination coverage. Timely receipt of vaccines ensures optimal immune response to the vaccines. Yet timeliness is not usually emphasized in estimating population immunity. In addition to examining timeliness of the recommended Expanded Programme for Immunisation (EPI) vaccines, this paper identifies predictors of untimely vaccination among children aged 10 to 23 months in Kampala. METHODS: In addition to the household survey interview questions, additional data sources for variables included data collection of child's weight and length. Vaccination dates were obtained from child health cards. Timeliness of vaccinations were assessed with Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis for each vaccine based on the following time ranges (lowest-highest target age): BCG (birth-8 weeks), polio 0 (birth-4 weeks), three polio and three pentavalent vaccines (4 weeks-2 months; 8 weeks-4 months; 12 weeks-6 months) and measles vaccine (38 weeks-12 months). Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with vaccination timeliness. RESULTS: About half of 821 children received all vaccines within the recommended time ranges (45.6%; 95% CI 39.8-51.2). Timely receipt of vaccinations was lowest for measles (67.5%; 95% CI 60.5-73.8) and highest for BCG vaccine (92.7%: 95% CI 88.1-95.6). For measles, 10.7% (95% CI 6.8-16.4) of the vaccinations were administered earlier than the recommended time. Vaccinations that were not received within the recommended age ranges were associated with increasing number of children per woman (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR); 1.84, 95% CI 1.29-2.64), non-delivery at health facilities (AHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.02-2.46), being unmarried (AHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.15-1.94) or being in the lowest wealth quintile (AHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11-1.72). CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to improve vaccination practices among the poorest, single, multiparous women and among mothers who do not deliver at health facilities are necessary to improve timeliness of vaccinations.


Assuntos
Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Mães/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda
10.
BMC Public Health ; 11: 723, 2011 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21942999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proportion of Ugandan children who are fully vaccinated has varied over the years. Understanding vaccination behaviour is important for the success of the immunisation programme. This study examined influences on immunisation behaviour using the attitude-social influence-self efficacy model. METHODS: We conducted nine focus group discussions (FGDs) with mothers and fathers. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with those in charge of community mobilisation for immunisation, fathers and mothers. Data was analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: Influences on the mother's immunisation behaviour ranged from the non-supportive role of male partners sometimes resulting into intimate partner violence, lack of presentable clothing which made mothers vulnerable to bullying, inconvenient schedules and time constraints, to suspicion against immunisation such as vaccines cause physical disability and/or death. CONCLUSIONS: Immunisation programmes should position themselves to address social contexts. A community programme that empowers women economically and helps men recognise the role of women in decision making for child health is needed. Increasing male involvement and knowledge of immunisation concepts among caretakers could improve immunisation.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães , Autoeficácia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pai , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
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